37 Works

Data from: A phylogenetic, biogeographic, and taxonomic study of all extant species of Anolis (Squamata; Iguanidae)

Steven Poe, Adrian Nieto-Montes De Oca, Omar Torres-Carvajal, Kevin De Queiroz, Julian A. Velasco, Brad Truett, Levi N. Gray, Mason J. Ryan, Gunther Kohler, Fernando Ayala-Varela & Ian Latella
Anolis lizards (anoles) are textbook study organisms in evolution and ecology. Although several topics in evolutionary biology have been elucidated by the study of anoles, progress in some areas has been hampered by limited phylogenetic information on this group. Here we present a phylogenetic analysis of all 379 extant species of Anolis, with new phylogenetic data for 139 species including new DNA data for 101 species. We use the resulting estimates as a basis for...

Diversification history of clown tree frogs in Neotropical rainforests (Anura, Hylidae, Dendropsophus leucophyllatus group)

Renata Pirani, Pedro Peloso, Joyce Prado, Érico Polo, Lacey Knowles, Santiago Ron, Miguel Rodrigues, Marcelo Sturaro & Fernanda Werneck
General consensus emphasizes that no single biological process can explain the patterns of species’ distributions and diversification in the Neotropics. Instead, the interplay of several processes across space and time must be taken into account. Here we investigated the phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic history of tree frogs in the Dendropsophus leucophyllatus species group (Amphibia: Hylidae), which is distributed across Amazonia and the Atlantic rainforests. Using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and double digest restriction-site associated DNA...

Wind dispersal and 1-year survival of Vataireopsis iglesiasii (Fabaceae) seedlings in a Neotropical lowland rain forest

Simon Queenborough, Renato Valencia & Pablo Alvia
Populations of many tropical tree species are regulated by negative distance- and density-dependent processes (NDD), yet most studies on the effects of conspecific seedling and adult neighbours on seedling survival have focused on animal-dispersed species. Species with seeds dispersed by wind may not be moved as far on average as seeds dispersed by animals, but some seeds may be dispersed a lot further, suggesting that knowledge of dispersal mechanism may help in our understanding of...

Demographic rates and stature of tree species in 13 sub-tropical forests: annual growth, annual survival, annual recruitment >( 1 cm dbh), stature (max dbh)

Stephan Kambach, Richard Condit, Salomón Aguilar, Helge Bruelheide, Sarayudh Bunyavejchewin, Chia-Hao Chang-Yang, Yu-Yun Chen, George Chuyong, Stuart J. Davies, Sisira Ediriweera, Corneille E. N. Ewango, Edwino S. Fernando, Nimal Gunatilleke, Savitri Gunatilleke, Stephen P Hubbell, Akira Itoh, David Kenfack, Somboon Kiratiprayoon, Yi-Ching Lin, Jean-Remy Makana, Mohizah Bt. Mohamad, Nantachai Pongpattananurak, Rolando Pérez, Lillian Jennifer V. Rodriguez, I-Fang Sun … & Nadja Rüger
Organisms of all species must balance their allocation to growth, survival and recruitment. Among tree species, evolution has resulted in different life-history strategies for partitioning resources to these key demographic processes. Life-history strategies in tropical forests have often been shown to align along a trade-off between fast growth and high survival, i.e. the well-known fast-slow continuum. In addition, an orthogonal trade-off has been proposed between tall stature – resulting from fast growth and high survival...

Data from: Nurse-based restoration of degraded tropical forests with tussock grasses: experimental support from the Andean cloud forest

Fabien Anthelme, Lorena Gómez-Aparicio & Rommel Montúfar
1. The degradation of the Andean cloud forest raises strong biological conservation issues and threatens the sustainability of a crucial water resource. The idea that nurse-based restoration can accelerate the recovery of these forests is underexplored, despite its promise as a restoration technique. Recent conceptual models predict that facilitation among plants may be an important mechanism, but there is a lack of strong empirical support. We gathered experimental data to test this prediction and explore...

Plant dispersal strategies of high tropical alpine communities across the Andes

Carolina Tovar, Inga Melcher, Buntarou Kusumoto, Francisco Cuesta, Antoine Cleef, Rosa Isela Meneses, Stephan Halloy, Luis Daniel Llambi, Stephan Beck, Priscilla Muriel, Ricardo Jaramillo, Jorge Jacome & Julieta Carilla
• Dispersal is a key ecological process that influences plant community assembly. Therefore, understanding whether dispersal strategies are associated with climate is of utmost importance, particularly in areas greatly exposed to climate change. We examined alpine plant communities located in the mountain summits of the tropical Andes across a 4000 km latitudinal gradient. We investigated species dispersal strategies and tested their association with climatic conditions and their evolutionary history. • We used dispersal-related traits (dispersal...

An empirical evaluation of camera trap study design: how many, how long, and when?

Roland Kays, Brian Arbogast, Megan Baker-Whatton, Chris Beirne, Hailey Boone, Mark Bowler, Santiago Burneo, Michael Cove, Ping Ding, Santiago Espinosa, André Gonçalves, Christopher Hansen, Patrick Jansen, Joseph Kolowski, Travis Knowles, Marcela Lima, Joshua Millspaugh, William McShea, Krishna Pacifici, Arielle Parsons, Brent Pease, Francesco Rovero, Fernanda Santos, Stephanie Schuttler, Douglas Sheil … & Wilson Spironello
1. Camera traps deployed in grids or stratified random designs are a well-established survey tool for wildlife but there has been little evaluation of study design parameters. 2. We used an empirical subsampling approach involving 2225 camera deployments run at 41 study areas around the world to evaluate three aspects of camera trap study design (number of sites, duration and season of sampling) and their influence on the estimation of three ecological metrics (species richness,...

Data from: Latitudinal and altitudinal patterns of plant community diversity on mountain summits across the tropical Andes

Francisco Cuesta, Priscilla Muriel, Luis D. Llambí, Stephan Halloy, Nikolay Aguirre, Stephan Beck, Julieta Carilla, Rosa I. Meneses, Soledad Cuello, Alfredo Grau, Luis E. Gámez, Javier Irazábal, Jorge Jacome, Ricardo Jaramillo, Lirey Ramírez, Natalia Samaniego, David Suárez-Duque, Natali Thompson, Alfredo Tupayachi, Paul Viñas, Karina Yager, María T. Becerra, Harald Pauli & William D. Gosling
The high tropical Andes host one of the richest alpine floras of the world, with exceptionally high levels of endemism and turnover rates. Yet, little is known about the patterns and processes that structure altitudinal and latitudinal variation in plant community diversity. Herein we present the first continental-scale comparative study of plant community diversity on summits of the tropical Andes. Data were obtained from 792 permanent vegetation plots (1m2) within 50 summits, distributed along a...

Post-epizootic microbiome associations across communities of neotropical amphibians

Phillip Jervis, Pol Pintanel, Kevin Hopkins, Claudia Wierzbicki, Jennifer Shelton, Emily Skelly, Goncalo Rosa, Diego Almeida-Reinoso, Maria Eugenia-Ordonez, Santiago Ron, Xavier Harrison, Andres Merino-Viteri & Matthew Fisher
Microbiome-pathogen interactions are increasingly recognised as an important element of host immunity. While these host-level interactions will have consequences for community disease dynamics, the factors which influence host microbiomes at larger scales are poorly understood. We here describe landscape scale pathogen-microbiome associations within the context of post-epizootic amphibian chytridiomycosis, a disease caused by the panzootic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. We undertook a survey of Neotropical amphibians across altitudinal gradients in Ecuador ~30 years following the...

A global analysis of viviparity in squamates highlights its prevalence in cold climates

Anna Zimin, Sean Zimin, Richard Shine, Luciano Avila, Aaron Bauer, Monika Böhm, Rafe Brown, Goni Barki, Gabriel Henrique De Oliveira Caetano, Fernando-Castro Herrera, David Chapple, Laurent Chirio, Guarino Colli, Tiffany Doan, Frank Glaw, L. Lee Grismer, Yuval Itescu, Fred Kraus, Matthew LeBreton, Marcio Martins, Mariana Morado, Gopal Murali, Zoltán Nagy, Maria Novosolov, Paul Oliver … & Shai Meiri
Aim: Viviparity has evolved more times in squamates than in any other vertebrate group. Therefore, squamates offer an excellent model system to study the patterns, drivers, and implications of reproductive mode evolution. Based on current species distributions we examined three selective forces hypothesized to drive squamate viviparity evolution: (1) cold climate, (2) variable climate, and (3) hypoxic conditions, and tested whether viviparity is associated with larger body size. Location: Global. Time period: present day. Taxon:...

Data from: Early bursts of body size and shape evolution are rare in comparative data

Luke J. Harmon, Jonathan B. Losos, T. Jonathan Davies, Rosemary G. Gillespie, John L. Gittleman, W. Bryan Jennings, Kenneth H. Kozak, Mark A. McPeek, Franck Moreno-Roark, Thomas J. Near, Andy Purvis, Robert E. Ricklefs, Dolph Schluter, , Ole Seehausen, Brian L. Sidlauskas, Omar Torres-Carvajal, Jason T. Weir & Arne Ø. Mooers
George Gaylord Simpson famously postulated that much of life's diversity originated as adaptive radiations—more or less simultaneous divergences of numerous lines from a single ancestral adaptive type. However, identifying adaptive radiations has proven difficult due to a lack of broad-scale comparative datasets. Here, we use phylogenetic comparative data on body size and shape in a diversity of animal clades to test a key model of adaptive radiation, in which initially rapid morphological evolution is followed...

Fire regimes and pollinator behavior explain the genetic structure of Puya hamata (Bromeliaceae) rosette plants

Rommel Montúfar
The demography of the Andean Puya hamata has been linked to fire regimes and hummingbird behaviour, which might modify the plant’s population genetic diversity. Naturally poor dispersal results in patches of genetically related plants, a pattern intensified further by burning which promotes seedling germination around parent plants. Later, when these plants flower, large patches are attractive to territorial hummingbirds which prevent visits by traplining hummingbird species, carrying pollen from likely unrelated plants. To explore this...

Scale-dependent drivers of the phylogenetic structure and similarity of tree communities in northwestern Amazonia

Sebastián González-Caro, Joost Duivenvoorden, Henrik Balslev, Jaime Cavelier, Carlos Grández, Manuel Macia, Hugo Romero-Saltos, Mauricio Sanchez, Renato Valencia & Alvaro Duque
1. The extent to which historical dispersal, environmental features and geographic barriers shape the phylogenetic structure and turnover of tree communities in northwestern Amazonia at multiple spatial scales remains poorly understood. 2. We used 85 floristically standardized 0.1-ha plots (DBH ³ 2.5 cm) distributed in three subregions of northwestern (NW) Amazonia across three main habitat types (floodplain, swamp, terra firme forests), to hypothesize that: i) historical dispersal overcome geographical barriers, which meant low local phylogenetic...

Additional file 1 of High prevalence of chronic malnutrition in indigenous children under 5 years of age in Chimborazo-Ecuador: multicausal analysis of its determinants

María F. Rivadeneira, Ana L. Moncayo, José D. Cóndor, Betzabé Tello, Janett Buitrón, Fabricio Astudillo, José D. Caicedo-Gallardo, Andrea Estrella-Proaño, Alfredo Naranjo-Estrella & Ana L. Torres
Supplementary Material 1

Dietary data of an anuran assemblage from Yasuní National Park

Pablo A. Menéndez-Guerrero, Santiago R. Ron & Sofía Carvajal-Endara
This dataset describes the diet of a highly diverse tropical anuran assemblage. We report the diet composition of 35 species collected at Yasuní National Park, based on the examination of the gastrointestinal contents of 396 frog specimens available in the Museo de Zoología (QCAZ) of Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador. Anuran species belong to six families: Aromobatidae, Bufonidae, Dendrobatidae, Hylidae, Leptodactylidae, and Strabomantidae. We were able to identify 4,085 prey items that were classified into...

Long-term fire and vegetation change in northwestern Amazonia

Britte Heijink, Q.A. Mattijs, A.L. Philip, R. Valencia, D. Piperno & C.N.H. McMichael
Amazonian forest plots are used to quantify biodiversity and carbon sequestration, and provide the foundation for much of what is known about tropical ecology. Many plots are assumed to be undisturbed, but recent work suggests that past fire, forest openings, and cultivation created vegetation changes that have persisted for decades to centuries (ecological legacies). The Yasuní Forest Dynamics plot is one of the most biodiverse places on earth, yet its human history remains unknown. Here,...

Data from: The complexity of background clutter affects nectar bat use of flower odor and shape cues

Nathan Muchhala & Diana Serrano
Given their small size and high metabolism, nectar bats need to be able to quickly locate flowers during foraging bouts. Chiropterophilous plants depend on these bats for their reproduction, thus they also benefit if their flowers can be easily located, and we would expect that floral traits such as odor and shape have evolved to maximize detection by bats. However, relatively little is known about the importance of different floral cues during foraging bouts. In...

Data from: 2b-RAD genotyping for population genomic studies of Chagas disease vectors: Rhodnius ecuadoriensis in Ecuador

Luis Enrique Hernandez Castro, Marta Paterno, Anita G. Villacís, Björn Andersson, Jaime A. Costales, Michele De Noia, Sofía Ocaña-Mayorga, Cesar A. Yumiseva, Mario J. Grijalva, Martin S. Llewellyn & Luis E. Hernandez-Castro
Background: Rhodnius ecuadoriensis is the main triatomine vector of Chagas disease, American trypanosomiasis, in Southern Ecuador and Northern Peru. Genomic approaches and next generation sequencing technologies have become powerful tools for investigating population diversity and structure which is a key consideration for vector control. Here we assess the effectiveness of three different 2b restriction site-associated DNA (2b-RAD) genotyping strategies in R. ecuadoriensis to provide sufficient genomic resolution to tease apart microevolutionary processes and undertake some...

Data from: Use of a rostral appendage during social interactions in the Ecuadorian Anolis proboscis

Diego R. Quirola, Andrés Mármol, Omar Torres-Carvajal, Andrea Narvaez, Fernando Ayala-Varela & Ignacio T. Moore
The use of sexually selected characters in inter- and intra-sexual interactions has long been of interest to evolutionary biologists. Recently, a distinction between sexually selected traits as ornaments versus weapons has been advanced. We investigated the behaviour of an enigmatic lizard with a prominent sexually dimorphic trait in an effort to describe whether the trait was the product of sexual selection and further whether it functioned as a weapon or an ornament. The subject of...

Data from: The global diversity and distribution of lizard clutch sizes

Shai Meiri, Luciano Avila, Aaron Bauer, David Chapple, Indraneil Das, Tiffany Doan, Paul Doughty, Ryan Ellis, Lee Grismer, Fred Kraus, Mariana Morando, Paul Oliver, Daniel Pincheira-Donoso, Marco-Antonio Ribeiro-Junior, Glenn Shea, Omar Torres-Carvajal, Alex Slavenko & Uri Roll
Aim. Clutch size is a key life-history trait. In lizards, it ranges over two orders of magnitude. The global drivers of spatial and phylogenetic variation in clutch have been extensively studied in birds, but such tests in other organisms are lacking. To test the generality of latitudinal gradients in clutch size, and their putative drivers, we present the first global-scale analysis of clutch sizes across of lizard taxa. Location, Global Time period. Recent Major taxa...

Data from: Elevational and microclimatic drivers of thermal tolerance in Andean Pristimantis frogs

Pol Pintanel, Miguel Tejedo, Santiago R. Ron, Gustavo A. Llorente & Andrés Merino-Viteri
Aim: We analysed elevational and microclimatic drivers of thermal tolerance diversity in a tropical mountain frog clade to test three macrophysiological predictions: less spatial variation in upper than lower thermal limits (Bretts’ heat invariant hypothesis); narrower thermal tolerance ranges in habitats with less variation in temperature (Janzen´s climatic variability hypothesis); and higher level of heat impacts at lower altitudes. Location: Forest and open habitats through a 4230 m elevational gradient across the tropical Andes of...

Predators like it hot: Thermal mismatch in a predator-prey system across an elevational tropical gradient

Pol Pintanel, Pol Pintanel, Miguel Tejedo, Sofia Salinas-Ivanenko, Phillip Jervis & Andrés Merino-Viteri
Climate change may have dramatic consequences for communities through both direct effects of peak temperatures upon individual species and through interspecific mismatches in thermal sensitivities of interacting organisms which mediate changes in interspecific interactions (i.e. predation). Despite this, there is a paucity of information upon the patterns of spatial physiological sensitivity of interacting species (at both landscape and local scales) which could ultimately influence geographical variation in the effects of climate change upon community processes....

Data from: Patterns of nitrogen-fixing tree abundance in forests across Asia and America

Duncan N. L. Menge, Ryan A. Chisholm, Stuart J. Davies, Kamariah Abu Salim, David Allen, Mauricio Alvarez, Norm Bourg, Warren Y. Brockelman, Sarayudh Bunyavejchewin, Nathalie Butt, Min Cao, Wirong Chanthorn, Wei-Chun Chao, Keith Clay, Richard Condit, Susan Cordell, João Batista Da Silva, H. S. Dattaraja, Ana Cristina Segalin De Andrade, Alexandre A. Oliveira, Jan Den Ouden, Michael Drescher, Christine Fletcher, Christian P. Giardina, C. V. Savitri Gunatilleke … & Tak Fung
Symbiotic nitrogen (N)‐fixing trees can provide large quantities of new N to ecosystems, but only if they are sufficiently abundant. The overall abundance and latitudinal abundance distributions of N‐fixing trees are well characterised in the Americas, but less well outside the Americas. Here, we characterised the abundance of N‐fixing trees in a network of forest plots spanning five continents, ~5,000 tree species and ~4 million trees. The majority of the plots (86%) were in America...

High prevalence of chronic malnutrition in indigenous children under 5 years of age in Chimborazo-Ecuador: multicausal analysis of its determinants

María F. Rivadeneira, Ana L. Moncayo, José D. Cóndor, Betzabé Tello, Janett Buitrón, Fabricio Astudillo, José D. Caicedo-Gallardo, Andrea Estrella-Proaño, Alfredo Naranjo-Estrella & Ana L. Torres
Abstract Background Despite the multiple initiatives implemented to reduce stunting in Ecuador, it continues to be a public health problem with a significant prevalence. One of the most affected groups is the rural indigenous population. This study aimed to analyze the prevalence of chronic malnutrition in indigenous children under 5 years of age and its association with health determinants, focusing on one of the territories with the highest prevalence of stunting. Methods A cross-sectional study...

Genetic structuring in a Neotropical palm analyzed through an Andean orogenesis‐scenario

Sebastián Escobar, Jean‐Christophe Pintaud, Henrik Balslev, Rodrigo Bernal, Mónica Moraes Ramírez, Betty Millán & Rommel Montúfar
Andean orogenesis has driven the development of very high plant diversity in the Neotropics through its impact on landscape evolution and climate. The analysis of the intraspecific patterns of genetic structure in plants would permit inferring the effects of Andean uplift on the evolution and diversification of Neotropical flora. In this study, using microsatellite markers and Bayesian clustering analyses, we report the presence of four genetic clusters for the palm Oenocarpus bataua var. bataua which...

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