433 Works

Additional file 1 of The use of routine health facility data for micro-stratification of malaria risk in mainland Tanzania

Sumaiyya G. Thawer, Monica Golumbeanu, Khalifa Munisi, Sijenunu Aaron, Frank Chacky, Samwel Lazaro, Ally Mohamed, Noela Kisoka, Christian Lengeler, Fabrizio Molteni, Amanda Ross, Robert W. Snow & Emilie Pothin
Additional file 1. Additional tables, text and figures.

sj-docx-7-msj-10.1177_13524585221139152 – Supplemental material for Anterior horn atrophy in the cervical spinal cord: A new biomarker in progressive multiple sclerosis

Charidimos Tsagkas, Antal Huck-Horvath, Alessandro Cagol, Tanja Haas, Muhamed Barakovic, Michael Amann, Esther Ruberte, Lester Melie-Garcia, Matthias Weigel, Simon Pezold, Regina Schlaeger, Jens Kuhle, Till Sprenger, Ludwig Kappos, Oliver Bieri, Philippe Cattin, Cristina Granziera & Katrin Parmar
Supplemental material, sj-docx-7-msj-10.1177_13524585221139152 for Anterior horn atrophy in the cervical spinal cord: A new biomarker in progressive multiple sclerosis by Charidimos Tsagkas, Antal Huck-Horvath, Alessandro Cagol, Tanja Haas, Muhamed Barakovic, Michael Amann, Esther Ruberte, Lester Melie-Garcia, Matthias Weigel, Simon Pezold, Regina Schlaeger, Jens Kuhle, Till Sprenger, Ludwig Kappos, Oliver Bieri, Philippe Cattin, Cristina Granziera and Katrin Parmar in Multiple Sclerosis Journal

sj-png-4-msj-10.1177_13524585221139152 – Supplemental material for Anterior horn atrophy in the cervical spinal cord: A new biomarker in progressive multiple sclerosis

Charidimos Tsagkas, Antal Huck-Horvath, Alessandro Cagol, Tanja Haas, Muhamed Barakovic, Michael Amann, Esther Ruberte, Lester Melie-Garcia, Matthias Weigel, Simon Pezold, Regina Schlaeger, Jens Kuhle, Till Sprenger, Ludwig Kappos, Oliver Bieri, Philippe Cattin, Cristina Granziera & Katrin Parmar
Supplemental material, sj-png-4-msj-10.1177_13524585221139152 for Anterior horn atrophy in the cervical spinal cord: A new biomarker in progressive multiple sclerosis by Charidimos Tsagkas, Antal Huck-Horvath, Alessandro Cagol, Tanja Haas, Muhamed Barakovic, Michael Amann, Esther Ruberte, Lester Melie-Garcia, Matthias Weigel, Simon Pezold, Regina Schlaeger, Jens Kuhle, Till Sprenger, Ludwig Kappos, Oliver Bieri, Philippe Cattin, Cristina Granziera and Katrin Parmar in Multiple Sclerosis Journal

Spontaneous point mutations in the capsule synthesis locus leading to structural and functional changes of the capsule in serogroup A meningococcal populations

Emma Ispasanie, Francesca Micoli, Araceli Lamelas, Dominique Keller, Francesco Berti, Riccardo De Ricco, Roberta Di Benedetto, Simona Rondini & Gerd Pluschke
Whole genome sequencing analysis of 100 Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A isolates has revealed that the csaABCD-ctrABCD-ctrEF capsule polysaccharide synthesis locus represents a spontaneous point mutation hotspot. Structural and functional properties of the capsule of 11 carriage and two disease isolates with non-synonymous point mutations or stop codons in capsule synthesis genes were analyzed for their capsular polysaccharide expression, recognition by antibodies and sensitivity to bactericidal killing. Eight of eleven carriage isolates presenting capsule locus mutations...

Comparison between incus short process and long process coupling of the vibrant soundbridge in human temporal bones

Lukas Graf, Jonas Lochner, Hamidreza Mojallal, Andreas Arnold, Flurin Honegger & Christof Stieger
The Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) is one of the most widely used implantable hearing devices. It consists of a vibrating floating mass transducer (FMT) that is connected to a middle ear structure. The standard coupling devices for sensorineural hearing loss are short process (SP) or long process (LP) couplers. This study directly compared the electro-mechanical performance of the SP- and LP-coupled FMT of the VSB in the same temporal bone specimen (n = 10). We measured...

Natalizumab in cerebrospinal fluid and breastmilk of patients with multiple sclerosis

Ilaria Callegari, Mika Schneider, Vera Aebischer, Margarete M. Voortman, Undine Proschmann, Tjalf Ziemssen, Raija Lindberg, Bettina Fischer-Barnicol, Michael Khalil, Ludwig Kappos, Jens Kuhle, Nicholas S.R. Sanderson & Tobias Derfuss
Background:Natalizumab is a highly effective monoclonal antibody for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS), which can diffuse in different anatomical compartments, including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and milk.Objectives:Starting from incidental detection of natalizumab in the CSF of MS patients, the objective of this study was to develope a flow-cytometry-based assay and apply it to quantify natalizumab in body fluids, including milk collected from nursing patients over 180 days and in patients with neutralizing antibodies against natalizumab.Methods:CSF,...

Natalizumab in cerebrospinal fluid and breastmilk of patients with multiple sclerosis

Ilaria Callegari, Mika Schneider, Vera Aebischer, Margarete M. Voortman, Undine Proschmann, Tjalf Ziemssen, Raija Lindberg, Bettina Fischer-Barnicol, Michael Khalil, Ludwig Kappos, Jens Kuhle, Nicholas S.R. Sanderson & Tobias Derfuss
Background:Natalizumab is a highly effective monoclonal antibody for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS), which can diffuse in different anatomical compartments, including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and milk.Objectives:Starting from incidental detection of natalizumab in the CSF of MS patients, the objective of this study was to develope a flow-cytometry-based assay and apply it to quantify natalizumab in body fluids, including milk collected from nursing patients over 180 days and in patients with neutralizing antibodies against natalizumab.Methods:CSF,...

Ligand pathways in estrogen-related receptors

André Fischer, Ferhat Bardakci, Manuel Sellner, Markus A. Lill & Martin Smieško
The three subtypes of estrogen-related receptors ERRα, ERRβ, and ERRγ are nuclear receptors mediating metabolic processes in various tissues such as the skeletal muscle, fat tissue, bone, and liver. Although the knowledge on their physiological ligands is limited, they have been implicated as drug targets for important indications including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and osteoporosis. As in other nuclear receptors, their ligand binding pocket is buried within the core of the receptor and connected to its...

Systematic evidence on migrating and extractable food contact chemicals: Most chemicals detected in food contact materials are not listed for use

Birgit Geueke, Ksenia J. Groh, Maricel V. Maffini, Olwenn V. Martin, Justin M. Boucher, Yu-Ting Chiang, Frank Gwosdz, Phoenix Jieh, Christopher D. Kassotis, Paulina Łańska, John Peterson Myers, Alex Odermatt, Lindsey V. Parkinson, Verena N. Schreier, Vanessa Srebny, Lisa Zimmermann, Martin Scheringer & Jane Muncke
Food packaging is important for today’s globalized food system, but food contact materials (FCMs) can also be a source of hazardous chemicals migrating into foodstuffs. Assessing the impacts of FCMs on human health requires a comprehensive identification of the chemicals they contain, the food contact chemicals (FCCs). We systematically compiled the “database on migrating and extractable food contact chemicals” (FCCmigex) using information from 1210 studies. We found that to date 2881 FCCs have been detected,...

The phylogeny and global biogeography of Primulaceae based on high-throughput DNA sequence data

Drew Larson, Andre Chanderbali, Olivier Maurin, Deise Goncalves, Christopher Dick, Douglas Soltis, Pamela Soltis, Peter Fritsch, James Clarkson, Aurélie Grall, Nina Davies, Isabel Larridon, Izai Kikuchi, Félix Forest, William Baker, Stephen Smith & Timothy Utteridge
The angiosperm family Primulaceae is morphologically diverse and distributed nearly worldwide. However, phylogenetic uncertainty has limited the ability to identify major morphological and biogeographic transitions. We used target capture sequencing with the Angiosperms353 kit for over 300 species across Ericales, tree-based sequence curation, and multiple phylogenetic approaches to investigate the phylogenetics of the major clades of Primulaceae and their relationship to other Ericales. The study included 150 samples of Primulaceae comprising nearly all recognized genera...

sj-docx-1-eso-10.1177_23969873231151488 – Supplemental material for Apical pulmonary lesions suspected of malignancy visible on neck CT angiography performed for acute stroke: Prevalence, treatment, and clinical implications – the PLEURA study

Tolga D Dittrich, Mara Aujesky, Salome Rudin, Annaelle Zietz, Benjamin Wagner, Alexandros Polymeris, Valerian L Altersberger, Tim Sinnecker, Henrik Gensicke, Stefan T Engelter, Philippe Lyrer, Viviane Hess, Raoul Sutter, Christian H Nickel, Leo H Bonati, Urs Fischer, Marios Psychogios, Mira Katan & Gian Marco De Marchis
Supplemental material, sj-docx-1-eso-10.1177_23969873231151488 for Apical pulmonary lesions suspected of malignancy visible on neck CT angiography performed for acute stroke: Prevalence, treatment, and clinical implications – the PLEURA study by Tolga D Dittrich, Mara Aujesky, Salome Rudin, Annaelle Zietz, Benjamin Wagner, Alexandros Polymeris, Valerian L Altersberger, Tim Sinnecker, Henrik Gensicke, Stefan T Engelter, Philippe Lyrer, Viviane Hess, Raoul Sutter, Christian H Nickel, Leo H Bonati, Urs Fischer, Marios Psychogios, Mira Katan and Gian Marco De Marchis...

Apical pulmonary lesions suspected of malignancy visible on neck CT angiography performed for acute stroke: Prevalence, treatment, and clinical implications – the PLEURA study

Tolga D Dittrich, Mara Aujesky, Salome Rudin, Annaelle Zietz, Benjamin Wagner, Alexandros Polymeris, Valerian L Altersberger, Tim Sinnecker, Henrik Gensicke, Stefan T Engelter, Philippe Lyrer, Viviane Hess, Raoul Sutter, Christian H Nickel, Leo H Bonati, Urs Fischer, Marios Psychogios, Mira Katan & Gian Marco De Marchis
Background:Computed tomography angiography (CTA) of the supraaortic arteries is commonly used for acute stroke workup and may reveal apical pulmonary lesions (APL).Aim:To determine the prevalence, follow-up algorithms, and in-hospital outcomes of stroke patients with APL on CTA.Methods:We retrospectively included consecutive adult patients with ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, or intracerebral hemorrhage and available CTA at a tertiary hospital between January 2014 and May 2021. We reviewed all CTA reports for the presence of APL. APL...

Data from: The ecological and genetic basis of convergent thick-lipped phenotypes in cichlid fishes

Marco Colombo, Eveline T. Diepeveen, Moritz Muschick, M. Emilia Santos, Adrian Indermaur, Nicolas Boileau, Marta Barluenga & Walter Salzburger
The evolution of convergent phenotypes is one of the most interesting outcomes of replicate adaptive radiations. Remarkable cases of convergence involve the thick-lipped phenotype found across cichlid species flocks in the East African Great Lakes. Unlike most other convergent forms in cichlids, which are restricted to East Africa, the thick-lipped phenotype also occurs elsewhere, e.g. in the Central American Midas Cichlid assemblage. Here we use an ecological genomic approach to study the function, the evolution...

Data from: Inbreeding within human Schistosoma mansoni: do host- specific factors shape the genetic composition of parasite populations?

Frederik Van Den Broeck, Lynn Meurs, Joost A. M. Raeymaekers, Nele Boon, Tandakha N. Dieye, Filip A. M. Volckaert, Katja Polman & Tine Huyse
The size, structure and distribution of host populations are key determinants of the genetic composition of parasite populations. Despite the evolutionary and epidemiological merits, there has been little consideration of how host heterogeneities affect the evolutionary trajectories of parasite populations. We assessed the genetic composition of natural populations of the parasite Schistosoma mansoni in northern Senegal. A total of 1346 parasites were collected from 14 snail and 57 human hosts within three villages and individually...

Data from: Cross-species infection trials reveal cryptic parasite varieties and a putative polymorphism shared among host species.

Pepijn Luijckx, David Duneau, Jason P. Andras & Dieter Ebert
A parasite's host range can have important consequences for ecological and evolutionary processes but can be difficult to infer. Successful infection depends on the outcome of multiple steps and only some steps of the infection process may be critical in determining a parasites host range. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the host range of the bacterium Pasteuria ramosa, a Daphnia parasite, and determined the parasites success in different stages of the infection process. Multiple...

Data from: A gene with major phenotypic effects as a target for selection versus homogenizing gene flow

Joost A. M. Raeymaekers, Nellie Konijnendijk, Maarten H. D. Larmuseau, Bart Hellemans, Luc De Meester & Filip A. M. Volckaert
Genes with major phenotypic effects facilitate quantifying the contribution of genetic vs. plastic effects to adaptive divergence. A classical example is Ectodysplasin (Eda), the major gene controlling lateral plate phenotype in three-spined stickleback. Completely plated marine stickleback populations evolved repeatedly towards low-plated freshwater populations, representing a prime example of parallel evolution by natural selection. However, many populations remain polymorphic for lateral plate number. Possible explanations for this polymorphism include relaxation of selection, disruptive selection, or...

Data from: Separated by sand, fused by dropping water: habitat barriers and fluctuating water levels steer the evolution of rock-dwelling cichlid populations in Lake Tanganyika

Stephan Koblmüller, Walter Salzburger, Beate Obermüller, Eva Eigner, Christian Sturmbauer & Kristina M Sefc
The conditions of phenotypic and genetic population differentiation allow inferences about the evolution, preservation and loss of biological diversity. In Lake Tanganyika, water level fluctuations are assumed to have had a major impact on the evolution of stenotopic littoral species, though this hypothesis has not been specifically examined so far. The present study investigates whether subtly differentiated color patterns of adjacent Tropheus moorii populations are maintained in isolation or in the face of continuous gene...

Data from: Occurrence, costs and heritability of delayed selfing in a free-living flatworm

Steven A. Ramm, Dita B. Vizoso & Lukas Schärer
Evolutionary theory predicts that in the absence of outcrossing opportunities, simultaneously hermaphroditic organisms should eventually switch to self-fertilization as a form of reproductive assurance. Here we report the existence of facultative self-fertilization in the free-living flatworm Macrostomum hystrix, a species in which outcrossing occurs via hypodermic insemination of sperm into the parenchyma of the mating partner. First, we show that isolated individuals significantly delay the onset of reproduction compared to individuals with outcrossing opportunities (“delayed...

Data from: Nitrogen deposition and multi-dimensional plant diversity at the landscape scale

Tobias Roth, Lukas Kohli, Beat Rihm, Valentin Amrhein & Beat Achermann
Estimating effects of nitrogen (N) deposition is essential for understanding human impacts on biodiversity. However, studies relating atmospheric N deposition to plant diversity are usually restricted to small plots of high conservation value. Here, we used data on 381 randomly selected 1 km2 plots covering most habitat types of Central Europe and an elevational range of 2900 m. We found that high atmospheric N deposition was associated with low values of six measures of plant...

Data from: Hosts are ahead in a marine host-parasite coevolutionary arms race: innate immune system adaptation in pipefish Syngnathus typhle against Vibrio phylotypes

Olivia Roth, Isabel Keller, Susanne H. Landis, Walter Salzburger & Thorsten B. H. Reusch
Microparasites have a higher evolutionary potential than their hosts due to an increased mutation rate and a shorter generation time which usually results in parasites being locally adapted to their sympatric hosts. This pattern may not apply to generalist pathogens as adaptation to sympatric host genotypes is disadvantageous due to a narrowing of the host range, in particular under strong gene flow among host populations. Under this scenario, we predict that the immune defence of...

Data from: Effects of food restriction across stages of juvenile and early adult development on body weight, survival, and adult life history

Janine W. Y. Wong & Mathias Kölliker
Organisms have to allocate limited resources among multiple life-history traits, which can result in physiological trade-offs, and variation in environmental conditions experienced during ontogeny can influence reproduction later in life. Food restriction may lead to an adaptive reallocation of the limited resources among traits as a phenotypically plastic adjustment, or it can act as an overall constraint with detrimental effects throughout reproductive life. In this study, we investigated experimentally the effects of food restriction during...

Data from: Hypodermic self-insemination as a reproductive assurance strategy

Steven A. Ramm, Aline Schlatter, Maude Poirier & Lukas Schärer
Self-fertilization occurs in a broad range of hermaphroditic plants and animals, and is often thought to evolve as a reproductive assurance strategy under ecological conditions that disfavour or prevent outcrossing. Nevertheless, selfing ability is far from ubiquitous among hermaphrodites, and may be constrained in taxa where the male and female gametes of the same individual cannot easily meet. Here, we report an extraordinary selfing mechanism in one such species, the free-living flatworm Macrostomum hystrix. To...

Data from: How mechanisms of habitat preference evolve and promote divergence with gene flow

Daniel Berner & Xavier Thibert-Plante
Habitat preference may promote adaptive divergence and speciation, yet the conditions under which this is likely are insufficiently explored. We use individual-based simulations to study the evolution and consequence of habitat preference during divergence with gene flow, considering four different underlying genetically-based behavioral mechanisms: natal habitat imprinting, phenotype-dependent, competition-dependent, and direct genetic habitat preference. We find that the evolution of habitat preference generally requires initially high dispersal, is facilitated by asymmetry in population sizes between...

Data from: Reduced flight-to-light behaviour of moth populations exposed to long-term urban light pollution

Florian Altermatt & Dieter Ebert
The globally increasing light pollution is a well-recognized threat to ecosystems, with negative effects on human, animal and plant wellbeing. The most well-known and widely documented consequence of light pollution is the generally fatal attraction of nocturnal insects to artificial light sources. However, the evolutionary consequences are unknown. Here we report that moth populations from urban areas with high, globally relevant levels of light pollution over several decades show a significantly reduced flight-to-light behaviour compared...

Data from: The snow and the willows: earlier spring snowmelt reduces performance in the low-lying alpine shrub Salix herbacea

Julia A. Wheeler, Andres J. Cortés, Janosch Sedlacek, Sophie Karrenberg, Mark Van Kleunen, Sonja Wipf, Guenter Hoch, Oliver Bossdorf & Christian Rixen
Current changes in shrub abundance in alpine and arctic tundra ecosystems are primarily driven by climate change. However, while taller shrub communities are expanding, dwarf shrub communities show reductions under climate warming, and the mechanisms driving the latter (such as warming temperatures or accelerated spring snowmelt) may be complex. To determine and disentangle the response of a widespread arctic-alpine prostrate dwarf shrub to both climate warming and changes in snowmelt time, we investigated phenology, clonal...

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