425 Works

Data from: A dynamical model for invasive round goby populations reveals efficient and effective management options

Anouk N'Guyen, Philipp E. Hirsch, Claudio Bozzuto, Irene Adrian-Kalchhauser, Kristína Hôrková & Patricia Burkhardt-Holm
1. When prevention of invasive species’ introductions fails, society faces the challenge to manage these invasive species in an effective and efficient way. The success of this depends on biological aspects and on cooperation between decision makers and scientists. Using the case of the round goby Neogobius melanostomus, one of Europe’s worst invasive species, we propose an approach guiding scientists to co-produce effective and efficient population control measures in collaboration with decision makers. 2. We...

Data from: Parasitism drives host genome evolution: insights from the Pasteuria ramosa - Daphnia magna system

Yann Bourgeois, Anne C. Roulin, Kristina Muller & Dieter Ebert
Because parasitism is thought to play a major role in shaping host genomes, it has been predicted that genomic regions associated with resistance to parasites should stand out in genome scans, revealing signals of selection above the genomic background. To test whether parasitism is indeed such a major factor in host evolution and to better understand host-parasite interaction at the molecular level, we studied genome-wide polymorphisms in 97 genotypes of the planktonic crustacean Daphnia magna...

Comparative data for dance fly eye morphology and female ornamentation

R. Axel W. Wiberg, Rosalind L Murray, Elizabeth Herridge, Darryl T Gwynne & Luc F Bussière
These data were collected as part of a comparative study of the relationship between female ornamentation and sexual dimorphism in eye morphology. Data come from specimens collected in the field in Scotland near Loch Lomond in the summers of 2009, 2010, and 2011 as well as the summer of 2012 near Glen Williams in Ontario, Canada. The repository contains raw image files including information on magnifications at which these were taken, excel spreadsheets of morphological...

Data from: Where Am I? Niche constraints due to morphological specialisation in two Tanganyikan cichlid fish species

Lukas Widmer, Adrian Indermaur, Bernd Egger & Walter Salzburger
Food resource specialisation within novel environments is considered a common axis of diversification in adaptive radiations. Feeding specialisations are often coupled with striking morphological adaptations and exemplify the relation between morphology and diet (phenotype-environment correlations), as seen in, for example, Darwin finches, Hawaiian spiders and, in particular, the cichlid radiations in East Africa. The cichlids’ potential to rapidly exploit and occupy a variety of different habitats has previously been attributed to the variability and adaptability...

Data from: Bigger testes increase paternity in a simultaneous hermaphrodite, independently of the sperm competition level

Nikolas Vellnow, Lucas Marie-Orleach, Kira S. Zadesenets & Lukas Schärer
Hermaphroditic animals face the fundamental evolutionary optimization problem of allocating their resources to their male versus female reproductive function (e.g., testes and sperm versus ovaries and eggs) and this optimal sex allocation can be affected by both pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection. For example, local sperm competition (LSC)—the competition between related sperm for the fertilization of a partner’s ova—occurs in small mating groups and can favor a female-biased sex allocation, because, under LSC, investment into...

Data from: Expressed mutational load increases towards the edge of a species’ geographic range

Antoine Perrier, Dario Sanchez-Castro & Yvonne Willi
There is no general explanation for why species have restricted geographic distributions. One hypothesis posits that range expansion or increasing scarcity of suitable habitat result in accumulation of mutational load due to enhanced genetic drift, which constrains population performance towards range limits and further expansion. We tested this hypothesis in the North American plant, Arabidopsis lyrata. We experimentally assessed mutational load by crossing plants of 20 populations from across the entire species range and by...

Data from: The complex relationship of exposure to new Plasmodium infections and incidence of clinical malaria in Papua New Guinea

Natalie E. Hofmann, Stephan Karl, Rahel Wampfler, Benson Kiniboro, Albina Teliki, Jonah Iga, Andreea Waltmann, Inoni Betuela, Ingrid Felger, Leanne J. Robinson & Ivo Mueller
The molecular force of blood-stage infection (molFOB) is a quantitative surrogate metric for malaria transmission at population level and for exposure at individual level. Relationships between molFOB, parasite prevalence and clinical incidence were assessed in a treatment-to-reinfection cohort, where P.vivax (Pv) hypnozoites were eliminated in half the children by primaquine (PQ). Discounting relapses, children acquired equal numbers of new P. falciparum (Pf) and Pv blood-stage infections/year (Pf-molFOB=0-18, Pv-molFOB=0-23) resulting in comparable spatial and temporal patterns...

Combining GWAS and FST-based approaches to identify targets of Borrelia-mediated selection in natural rodent hosts

Luca Cornetti & Barbara Tschirren
Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies provide opportunities to gain novel insights into the genetic basis of phenotypic trait variation. Yet to date, progress in our understanding of genotype-phenotype associations in non-model organisms in general and natural vertebrate populations in particular has been hampered by small sample sizes typically available for wildlife populations and a resulting lack of statistical power, as well as a limited ability to control for false positive signals. Here we propose...

Gene expression remodelling and immune response during adaptive divergence in an African cichlid fish

Jelena Rajkov, Athimed El Taher, Astrid Böhne, Walter Salzburger & Bernd Egger
Variation in gene expression contributes to ecological speciation by facilitating population persistence in novel environments. Likewise, immune response can be a relevant factor in speciation driven by adaptation to different environments. Previous studies examining gene expression differences between recently diverged ecotypes often relied on only one pair of populations, targeted the expression of only a subset of genes, or used wild caught-individuals. Here, we investigated the contribution of habitat-specific parasites and symbionts and the underlying...

Subpopulations of sensorless bacteria drive fitness in fluctuating environments

Thomas Julou
We use quantitative time-lapse microscopy combined with microfluidics to analyse the induction dynamics of the lac operon in single bacteria cells.

Data from: Daphnia invest in sexual reproduction when its relative costs are reduced

Nina Gerber, Hanna Kokko, Dieter Ebert & Isobel Booksmythe
The timing of sex in facultatively sexual organisms is critical to fitness, due to the differing demographic consequences of sexual vs. asexual reproduction. In addition to the costs of sex itself, an association of sex with the production of dormant life stages also influences the optimal use of sex, especially in environments where resting eggs are essential to survive unfavourable conditions. Here we document population dynamics and the occurrence of sexual reproduction in natural populations...

Data from: Adaptive phenotypic plasticity contributes to divergence between lake and river populations of an East African cichlid fish

Jelena Rajkov, Alexandra Anh-Thu Weber, Walter Salzburger & Bernd Egger
Adaptive phenotypic plasticity and fixed genotypic differences have long been considered opposing strategies in adaptation. More recently, these mechanisms have been proposed to act complementarily and under certain conditions jointly facilitate evolution, speciation and even adaptive radiations. Here we investigate the relative contributions of adaptive phenotypic plasticity vs. local adaptation to fitness, using an emerging model system for studying early phases of adaptive divergence, the generalist cichlid fish species Astatotilapia burtoni. We tested direct fitness...

Data from: Meta‐analysis of chromosome‐scale crossover rate variation in eukaryotes and its significance to evolutionary genomics

Quiterie Haenel, Telma G. Laurentino, Marius Roesti & Daniel Berner
Understanding the distribution of crossovers along chromosomes is crucial to evolutionary genomics because the crossover rate determines how strongly a genome region is influenced by natural selection. Nevertheless, generalities in the chromosome-scale distribution of crossovers have not been investigated formally. We fill this gap by synthesizing joint information on genetic and physical maps across 62 animal, plant, and fungal species. Our quantitative analysis reveals a strong and taxonomically wide-spread reduction of the crossover rate in...

Data from: The repeatable opportunity for selection differs between pre- and post-copulatory fitness components

Lucas Marie-Orleach, Nikolas Vellnow & Lukas Schärer
In species with multiple mating, intense sexual selection may occur both before and after copulation. However, comparing the strength of pre- and postcopulatory selection is challenging, because i) postcopulatory processes are generally difficult to observe and ii) the often-used opportunity for selection (I) metric contains both deterministic and stochastic components. Here, we quantified pre- and postcopulatory male fitness components of the simultaneously hermaphroditic flatworm, Macrostomum lignano. We did this by tracking fluorescent sperm—using transgenics—through the...

Gene expression dynamics during rapid organismal diversification of African cichlid fishes

Athimed El Taher, Astrid Böhne, Nicolas Boileau, Fabrizia Ronco, Adrian Indermaur, Lukas Widmer & Walter Salzburger
Changes in gene expression play a fundamental role in phenotypic evolution. Transcriptome evolutionary dynamics have so far mainly been compared among distantly related species and remain largely unexplored during rapid organismal diversification, in which gene regulatory changes have been suggested as particularly effective drivers of phenotypic divergence. Here, we studied gene expression evolution in a model system of adaptive radiation, the cichlid fishes of African Lake Tanganyika. By comparing gene expression profiles of six different...

Integrating stakeholders’ perspectives and spatial modelling to develop scenarios of future land use and land cover change in northern Tanzania

Rebecca Kariuki, Linus Munishi, Colin Courtney-Mustaphi, Claudia Capitani, Anna Shoemaker, Paul Lane & Rob Marchant
Rapid rates of land use and land cover change (LULCC) in eastern Africa and limited instances of genuinely equal partnerships involving scientists, communities and decision makers challenge the development of robust pathways toward future environmental and socioeconomic sustainability. We use a participatory modelling tool, Kesho, to assess the biophysical, socioeconomic, cultural and governance factors that influenced past (1959-1999) and present (2000-2018) LULCC in northern Tanzania and to simulate four scenarios of land cover change to...

Data from: Serum neurofilament light: a biomarker of neuroaxonal injury after ischemic stroke

Steffen Tiedt, Marco Duering, Christian Barro, Asli Gizem Kaya, Julia Boeck, Felix J. Bode, Matthias Klein, Franziska Dorn, Benno Gesierich, Lars Kellert, Birgit Ertl-Wagner, Michael W. Goertler, Gabor C. Petzold, Jens Kuhle, Frank Arne Wollenweber, Nils Peters & Martin Dichgans
Objective: To explore the utility of serum neurofilament light chain (sNfL) as a biomarker for primary and secondary neuroaxonal injury after ischemic stroke (IS) and study its value for the prediction of clinical outcome. Methods: We used an ultrasensitive single-molecule array (Simoa) assay to measure sNfL levels in healthy controls (HC, N=30) and two independent cohorts of patients with IS: (1) with serial serum sampling at hospital arrival (N=196), at days 2, 3, and 7...

Data from: Alteration of nitrous oxide emissions from floodplain soils by aggregate size, litter accumulation and plant–soil interactions

Martin Ley, Moritz F. Lehmann, Pascal A. Niklaus & Jörg Luster
Semi-terrestrial soils such as floodplain soils are considered potential hot spots of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Microhabitats in the soil – such as within and outside of aggregates, in the detritusphere, and/or in the rhizosphere – are considered to promote and preserve specific redox conditions. Yet our understanding of the relative effects of such microhabitats and their interactions on N2O production and consumption in soils is still incomplete. Therefore, we assessed the effect of aggregate...

Effectiveness of animal-assisted interventions for children and adults with post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Karin Hediger, Julia Wagner, Pascale Künzi, Anna Haefeli, Felicitas Theis, Carmina Grob, Elena Pauli & Heike Gerger
Background: Animal-assisted interventions (AAI) are increasingly applied for people with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms albeit its effectiveness is unclear.Objectives: To examine the effectiveness of AAI for treating PTSD symptoms.Method: We searched 11 major electronic databases for studies reporting quantitative data on effects of AAI for children and adults with PTSD symptoms. Of 22ʹ211 records identified, we included 41 studies with 1111 participants in the systematic review comprising eight controlled studies with 469 participants in...

Effectiveness of animal-assisted interventions for children and adults with post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Karin Hediger, Julia Wagner, Pascale Künzi, Anna Haefeli, Felicitas Theis, Carmina Grob, Elena Pauli & Heike Gerger
Background: Animal-assisted interventions (AAI) are increasingly applied for people with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms albeit its effectiveness is unclear.Objectives: To examine the effectiveness of AAI for treating PTSD symptoms.Method: We searched 11 major electronic databases for studies reporting quantitative data on effects of AAI for children and adults with PTSD symptoms. Of 22ʹ211 records identified, we included 41 studies with 1111 participants in the systematic review comprising eight controlled studies with 469 participants in...

Data from: Point-Combination Transect (PCT): incorporation of small underwater cameras to study fish communities

Lukas Widmer, Elia Heule, Marco Colombo, Attila Rueegg, Adrian Indermaur, Fabrizia Ronco & Walter Salzburger
1. Available underwater visual census methods such as line transects or point count observations are widely used to obtain community data of underwater species assemblages, despite their known pit-falls. As interest in the community structure of aquatic life is growing, there is need for more standardized and replicable methods for acquiring underwater census data. 2. Here, we propose a novel approach, Point-Combination Transect (PCT), which makes use of automated image recording by small digital cameras...

sj-pdf-3-prf-10.1177_02676591211024817 – Supplemental material for Outcome of right ventricular assist device implantation following left ventricular assist device implantation: Systematic review and meta-analysis

Gregory Reid, Constantin Mork, Brigita Gahl, Christian Appenzeller-Herzog, Ludwig K von Segesser, Friedrich Eckstein & Denis A Berdajs
Supplemental material, sj-pdf-3-prf-10.1177_02676591211024817 for Outcome of right ventricular assist device implantation following left ventricular assist device implantation: Systematic review and meta-analysis by Gregory Reid, Constantin Mork, Brigita Gahl, Christian Appenzeller-Herzog, Ludwig K von Segesser, Friedrich Eckstein and Denis A Berdajs in Perfusion

Outcome of right ventricular assist device implantation following left ventricular assist device implantation: Systematic review and meta-analysis

Gregory Reid, Constantin Mork, Brigita Gahl, Christian Appenzeller-Herzog, Ludwig K von Segesser, Friedrich Eckstein & Denis A Berdajs
Objectives:The main aim was a systematic evaluation of the current evidence on outcomes for patients undergoing right ventricular assist device (RVAD) implantation following left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation.Methods:This systematic review was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42019130131). Reports evaluating in-hospital as well as follow-up outcome in LVAD and LVAD/RVAD implantation were identified through Ovid Medline, Web of Science and EMBASE. The primary endpoint was mortality at the hospital stay and at follow-up. Pooled incidence of defined...

Data from: Predictable genome-wide sorting of standing genetic variation during parallel adaptation to basic versus acidic environments in stickleback fish

Quiterie Haenel, Marius Roesti, Dario Moser, Andrew D. C. MacColl & Daniel Berner
Genomic studies of parallel (or convergent) evolution often compare multiple populations diverged into two ecologically different habitats to search for loci repeatedly involved in adaptation. Because the shared ancestor of these populations is generally unavailable, the source of the alleles at adaptation loci, and the direction in which their frequencies were shifted during evolution, remain elusive. To shed light on these issues, we here use multiple populations of stickleback fish adapted to two different types...

Data from: How clonal are clones? A quest for loss of heterozygosity during asexual reproduction in Daphnia magna

Marinela Dukic, Daniel Berner, Christoph R. Haag & Dieter Ebert
Due to the lack of recombination, asexual organisms are predicted to accumulate mutations and show high levels of within-individual allelic divergence (heterozygosity) however, empirical evidence for this prediction is largely missing. Instead, evidence of genome homogenization during asexual reproduction is accumulating. Ameiotic crossover recombination is a mechanism that could lead to long genomic stretches of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and unmasking of mutations that have little or no effect in heterozygous state. Therefore, LOH might...

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