26 Works

Data from: Bayesian divergence-time estimation with genome-wide SNP data of sea catfishes (Ariidae) supports Miocene closure of the Panamanian isthmus

Madlen Stange, Marcelo R. Sánchez-Villagra, Walter Salzburger & Michael Matschiner
The closure of the Isthmus of Panama has long been considered to be one of the best defined biogeographic calibration points for molecular divergence-time estimation. However, geological and biological evidence has recently cast doubt on the presumed timing of the initial isthmus closure around 3 Ma but has instead suggested the existence of temporary land bridges as early as the Middle or Late Miocene. The biological evidence supporting these earlier land bridges was based either...

Data from: Daphnia females adjust sex allocation in response to current sex ratio and density

Isobel Booksmythe, Nina Gerber, Dieter Ebert & Hanna Kokko
Cyclical parthenogenesis presents an interesting challenge for the study of sex allocation, as individuals’ allocation decisions involve both the choice between sexual and asexual reproduction, and the choice between sons and daughters. Male production is therefore expected to depend on ecological and evolutionary drivers of overall investment in sex, and those influencing male reproductive value during sexual periods. We manipulated experimental populations, and made repeated observations of natural populations over their growing season, to disentangle...

Data from: Spatial population genetic structure of a bacterial parasite in close coevolution with its host

Jason P. Andras, Peter D. Fields & Dieter Ebert
Knowledge of a species’ population genetic structure can provide insight into fundamental ecological and evolutionary processes including gene flow, genetic drift, and adaptive evolution. Such inference is of particular importance for parasites, as an understanding of their population structure can illuminate epidemiological and coevolutionary dynamics. Here we describe the population genetic structure of the bacterium Pasteuria ramosa, a parasite that infects planktonic crustaceans of the genus Daphnia. This system has become a model for investigations...

Data from: Molecular evolution of key metabolic genes during transitions to C4 and CAM photosynthesis

Eric W. Goolsby, Abigail J. Moore, Lillian P. Hancock, Jurriaan M. De Vos & Erika J. Edwards
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Next-generation sequencing facilitates rapid production of well-sampled phylogenies built from very large genetic datasets, which can then be subsequently exploited to examine the molecular evolution of the genes themselves. We present an evolutionary analysis of 83 gene families (19 containing carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCM) genes, 64 containing non-CCM genes) in the portullugo clade (Caryophyllales), a diverse lineage of mostly arid-adapted plants that contains multiple evolutionary origins of all known photosynthesis types in...

Data from: Two-year impact of community-based health screening and parenting groups on child development in Zambia: follow-up to a cluster-randomized controlled trial

Peter C. Rockers, Arianna Zanolini, Bowen Banda, Mwaba Moono Chipili, Robert C. Hughes, Davidson H. Hamer & Günther Fink
Background: Early childhood interventions have potential to offset the negative impact of early adversity. We evaluated the impact of a community-based parenting group intervention on child development in Zambia. Methods and Findings: We conducted a non-masked cluster-randomized controlled trial in Southern Province, Zambia. Thirty clusters of villages were matched based on population density and distance from the nearest health center, and randomly assigned to intervention (15 clusters, 268 caregiver-child dyads) or control (15 clusters, 258...

Data from: Despite high levels of expression in thymic epithelial cells, miR-181a1 and miR-181b1 are not required for thymic development

Heather E. Stefanski, Yan Xing, Patricia A. Taylor, Stefano Maio, Jorge Henao-Meija, Adam Williams, Richard A. Flavell, Georg A. Hollander & Bruce R. Blazar
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be key modulators of post-transcriptional gene silencing in many cellular processes. In previous studies designed to understand the role of miRNAs in thymic development, we globally deleted miRNA exclusively in thymic epithelial cells (TECs), which are critical in thymic selection. This resulted in the loss of stromal cells that instruct T cell lineage commitment and affect thymocyte positive selection, required for mature T cell development. Since murine miR-181 is...

Data from: Disentangling structural genomic and behavioral barriers in a sea of connectivity

Julia M. I. Barth, David Villegas-Ríos, Carla Freitas, Even Moland, Bastiaan Star, Carl André, Halvor Knutsen, Ian Bradbury, Jan Dierking, Christoph Petereit, David Righton, Julian Metcalfe, Kjetill S. Jakobsen, Esben M. Olsen, Sissel Jentoft & Julia M.I. Barth
Genetic divergence among populations arises through natural selection or drift and is counteracted by connectivity and gene flow. In sympatric populations, isolating mechanisms are thus needed to limit the homogenizing effects of gene flow to allow for adaptation and speciation. Chromosomal inversions act as an important mechanism maintaining isolating barriers, yet their role in sympatric populations and divergence with gene flow is not entirely understood. Here, we revisit the question whether inversions play a role...

Data from: Mouth dimorphism in scale-eating cichlid fish from Lake Tanganyika advances individual fitness

Adrian Indermaur, Anya Theis, Bernd Egger & Walter Salzburger
Random asymmetry, that is the co-existence of left- and right-sided (or -handed) individuals within a population, is a particular case of natural variation; what triggers and maintains such dimorphisms remains unknown in most cases. Here, we report a field-based cage experiment in the scale-eating Tanganyikan cichlid Perissodus microlepis (Boulenger, 1898), which occurs in two morphs in nature: left-skewed and right-skewed individuals with respect to mouth orientation. Using underwater cages stocked with scale-eaters and natural prey...

Data from: Immigrant and extrinsic hybrid inviability contribute to reproductive isolation between lake and river cichlid ecotypes

Jelena Rajkov, Alexandra Anh-Thu Weber, Walter Salzburger & Bernd Egger
Understanding how reproductive barriers evolve and which barriers contribute to speciation requires the examination of organismal lineages that are still in the process of diversification and the study of the full range of reproductive barriers acting at different life stages. Lake and river ecotypes of the East African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni show habitat specific adaptations, despite different levels of genetic differentiation, and thus represent an ideal model to study the evolution of reproductive barriers....

Data from: No role for xylem embolism or carbohydrate shortage in temperate trees during the severe 2015 drought

Lars Dietrich, Sylvain Delzon, Guenter Hoch & Ansgar Kahmen
1. Temperate forests are predicted to experience an increased frequency and intensity of climate change-induced summer droughts and heat waves in the near future. Yet, while previous studies clearly showed a high drought sensitivity of different temperate tree species, the vulnerability of the physiological integrity of these trees remains unclear. 2. Here, we assessed the sensitivity of six temperate tree species to severe water limitation during three consecutive growing seasons including the exceptional 2015 central...

Data from: Divergent strategies in pre- and postzygotic reproductive isolation between two closely related Dianthus species

Fabian Cahenzli, Christophe Bonetti & Andreas Erhardt
Quantifying the relative contribution of multiple isolation barriers to gene flow between recently diverged species is essential for understanding speciation processes. In parapatric populations, local adaptation is thought to be a major contributor to the evolution of reproductive isolation. However, extrinsic postzygotic barriers assessed in reciprocal transplant experiments are often neglected in empirical assessments of multiple isolation barriers. We analyzed multiple isolation barriers between two closely related species of the plant genus Dianthus, a genus...

Data from: Small-scale spatial variation in infection risk shapes the evolution of a Borrelia resistance gene in wild rodents

Luca Cornetti, Daniela Hilfiker, Mélissa Lemoine & Barbara Tschirren
Spatial variation in pathogen-mediated selection is predicted to influence the evolutionary trajectory of host populations and lead to spatial variation in their immunogenetic composition. However, to date few studies have been able to directly link small-scale spatial variation in infection risk to host immune gene evolution in natural, non-human populations. Here we use a natural rodent-Borrelia system to test for associations between landscape-level spatial variation in Borrelia infection risk along replicated elevational gradients in the...

Data from: Genetic effects of anthropogenic habitat fragmentation on remnant animal and plant populations: a meta-analysis

Daniel R. Schlaepfer, Brigitte Braschler, Hans-Peter Rusterholz & Bruno Baur
Habitat loss and fragmentation are among the biggest threats to biodiversity. Anthropogenic habitat fragmentation leads to small and isolated remnant plant and animal populations. The combination of increased random genetic drift, inbreeding, and reduced gene flow may substantially reduce genetic variation of remnant populations. However, the magnitude of these responses may depend on several poorly understood factors including organism group, habitat type of both the fragment and the surrounding matrix, life‐history traits, and time since...

Data from: Study of morphological variation of northern Neotropical Ariidae reveals conservatism despite macrohabitat transitions

Madlen Stange, Gabriel Aguirre-Fernández, Walter Salzburger & Marcelo R. Sánchez-Villagra
Background: Morphological convergence triggered by trophic adaptations is a common pattern in adaptive radiations. The study of shape variation in an evolutionary context is usually restricted to well-studied fish models. We take advantage of the recently revised systematics of New World Ariidae and investigate skull shape evolution in six genera of northern Neotropical Ariidae. They constitute a lineage that diversified in the marine habitat but repeatedly adapted to freshwater habitats. 3D geometric morphometrics was applied...

Data from: Can the use of digital algorithms improve quality care? An example from Afghanistan

Andrea Bernasconi, François Crabbé, Martin Raab & Rodolfo Rossi
Background Quality of care is a difficult parameter to measure. With the introduction of digital algorithms based on the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI), we are interested to understand if the adherence to the guidelines improved for a better quality of care for children under 5 years old. Methods More than one year after the introduction of digital algorithms, we carried out two cross sectional studies to assess the improvements in comparison with the...

Data from: A targeted in situ hybridization screen identifies putative seminal fluid proteins in a simultaneously hermaphroditic flatworm

Michael Weber, Julia Wunderer, Birgit Lengerer, Robert Pjeta, Marcelo Rodrigues, Lukas Schärer, Peter Ladurner & Steven A. Ramm
Background: Along with sperm, in many taxa ejaculates also contain large numbers of seminal fluid proteins (SFPs). SFPs and sperm are transferred to the mating partner, where they are thought to play key roles in mediating post-mating sexual selection. They modulate the partner's behavior and physiology in ways that influence the reproductive success of both partners, thus potentially leading to sexual conflict. Despite the presumed general functional and evolutionary significance of SFPs, their identification and...

Data from: The importance of competition for light depends on productivity and disturbance

Yann Hautier, Eva Vojtech & Andy Hector
Eutrophication is a major cause of biodiversity loss. In grasslands this appears to occur due to asymmetric competition for light following the increases in aboveground biomass production. Here, we report the results of an experiment with five grass species that tests how well competitive outcomes can be predicted under a factorial combination of fertilized and disturbed (frequent cutting) conditions. Under fertile conditions our results confirm earlier success in predicting short-term competitive outcomes based on light...

Data from: Barriers to access improved water and sanitation in poor peri-urban settlements of Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire

Eliachie L.E. Angoua, Kouassi Dongo, Michael R. Templeton, Jakob Zinsstag, Bassirou Bonfoh, Eliachie Larissa & Eliachie Larissa Eméline Angoua
Achieving access to safe water and sanitation still pose major challenges in urban areas of sub-Saharan Africa countries, despite all the progress achieved in the last decade. This study assessed the ability of populations living in poor peri-urban settlements to access improved water and sanitation and identified factors influencing this access, in order to guide sustainable mitigating solutions to address associated health and environmental risks. We conducted a cross-sectional study in six poor peri-urban settlements...

Data from: Population genetic analyses using 10 new polymorphic microsatellite loci confirms genetic subdivision within the olm, Proteus anguinus

Judit Vörös, Sylvain Ursenbacher & Dusan Jelic
We provide a comparative population genetic study of the elusive amphibian, Proteus anguinus, by comparing the genetic diversity and divergence among four cave populations (96 individuals) sampled in the Dinaric Karst of Croatia. We developed 10 variable microsatellite markers using pyrosequencing and applied them to the four selected populations belonging to four different cave systems. The results showed strong genetic differentiation between the four caves corroborating with previous findings suggesting that Proteus might comprises several...

Data from: Revisiting the relative growth rate hypothesis for gymnosperm and angiosperm species co‐occurrence

Frida I. Piper, Guenter Hoch & Alex Fajardo
Premise of the study: It is unclear to what extent the co-occurrence of angiosperm and gymnosperm species in some marginal ecosystems is explained by reduced growth in angiosperms due to carbon (C) limitation, and by high stress tolerance in gymnosperms associated with lack of vessels and resource conservation. Methods: We examined growth patterns and traits associated with C balance in four evergreen angiosperm species (including one vesselless species, Drimys winteri) and three gymnosperm tree species...

Data from: Vanishing refuge? Testing the forest refuge hypothesis in coastal East Africa using genome-wide sequence data for seven amphibians

Christopher D. Barratt, Beryl A. Bwong, Robert Jehle, H. Christoph Liedtke, Peter Nagel, Renske E. Onstein, Daniel M. Portik, Jeffrey W. Streicher & Simon P. Loader
High-throughput sequencing data have greatly improved our ability to understand the processes that contribute to current biodiversity patterns. The “vanishing refuge” diversification model is speculated for the coastal forests of eastern Africa, whereby some taxa have persisted and diversified between forest refugia, while others have switched to becoming generalists also present in non-forest habitats. Complex arrangements of geographical barriers (hydrology and topography) and ecological gradients between forest and non-forest habitats may have further influenced the...

Data from: Serum neurofilament light: a biomarker of neuroaxonal injury after ischemic stroke

Steffen Tiedt, Marco Duering, Christian Barro, Asli Gizem Kaya, Julia Boeck, Felix J. Bode, Matthias Klein, Franziska Dorn, Benno Gesierich, Lars Kellert, Birgit Ertl-Wagner, Michael W. Goertler, Gabor C. Petzold, Jens Kuhle, Frank Arne Wollenweber, Nils Peters & Martin Dichgans
Objective: To explore the utility of serum neurofilament light chain (sNfL) as a biomarker for primary and secondary neuroaxonal injury after ischemic stroke (IS) and study its value for the prediction of clinical outcome. Methods: We used an ultrasensitive single-molecule array (Simoa) assay to measure sNfL levels in healthy controls (HC, N=30) and two independent cohorts of patients with IS: (1) with serial serum sampling at hospital arrival (N=196), at days 2, 3, and 7...

Data from: Alteration of nitrous oxide emissions from floodplain soils by aggregate size, litter accumulation and plant–soil interactions

Martin Ley, Moritz F. Lehmann, Pascal A. Niklaus & Jörg Luster
Semi-terrestrial soils such as floodplain soils are considered potential hot spots of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Microhabitats in the soil – such as within and outside of aggregates, in the detritusphere, and/or in the rhizosphere – are considered to promote and preserve specific redox conditions. Yet our understanding of the relative effects of such microhabitats and their interactions on N2O production and consumption in soils is still incomplete. Therefore, we assessed the effect of aggregate...

Data from: Adaptive phenotypic plasticity contributes to divergence between lake and river populations of an East African cichlid fish

Jelena Rajkov, Alexandra Anh-Thu Weber, Walter Salzburger & Bernd Egger
Adaptive phenotypic plasticity and fixed genotypic differences have long been considered opposing strategies in adaptation. More recently, these mechanisms have been proposed to act complementarily and under certain conditions jointly facilitate evolution, speciation and even adaptive radiations. Here we investigate the relative contributions of adaptive phenotypic plasticity vs. local adaptation to fitness, using an emerging model system for studying early phases of adaptive divergence, the generalist cichlid fish species Astatotilapia burtoni. We tested direct fitness...

Data from: Meta‐analysis of chromosome‐scale crossover rate variation in eukaryotes and its significance to evolutionary genomics

Quiterie Haenel, Telma G. Laurentino, Marius Roesti & Daniel Berner
Understanding the distribution of crossovers along chromosomes is crucial to evolutionary genomics because the crossover rate determines how strongly a genome region is influenced by natural selection. Nevertheless, generalities in the chromosome-scale distribution of crossovers have not been investigated formally. We fill this gap by synthesizing joint information on genetic and physical maps across 62 animal, plant, and fungal species. Our quantitative analysis reveals a strong and taxonomically wide-spread reduction of the crossover rate in...

Registration Year

  • 2018

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Basel
  • University of Zurich
  • Yale University
  • University of Oslo
  • Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute
  • University of Oxford
  • University of Pennsylvania
  • Boston Medical Center
  • University of Minnesota
  • The University of Texas at Arlington