252 Works

Consumption of Added Sugars by Rural Residents of Southwest Virginia

Maryam Yuhas, Valisa Hedrick & Jamie Zoellner
Introduction: Nationally, rural residents have high consumption of added sugars, yet the top sources have not been explored. Characterizing added-sugar intake in high sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumers in rural areas is an important step to help inform interventions and policies. Purpose: The objective of this study was to explore the top food and beverage sources of added sugar and to examine variations by sociodemographic characteristics. Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed data from a randomized-controlled trial...

Data from: The relationship between plumage coloration and aggression in female tree swallows

Michelle Beck & William Hopkins
Intrasexual competition is an important selective force that can favor the evolution of honest signals of fighting ability. Research has focused predominantly on male birds, but many female birds also possess plumage ornaments that could mediate the outcome of competitive interactions. We examined the relationship between blue and white structural coloration and aggression in female tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor). Tree swallows are secondary cavity nesters and females show delayed plumage maturation which may be related...

Precision mapping of snail habitat provides a powerful indicator of human schistosomiasis transmission

Chelsea Wood, Susanne Sokolow, Isabel Jones, Andrew Chamberlin, Kevin Lafferty, Armand Kuris, Merlijn Jocque, Skylar Hopkins, Grant Adams, Julia Buck, Andrea Lund, Ana Garcia-Vedrenne, Evan Fiorenza, Jason Rohr, Fiona Allan, Bonnie Webster, Muriel Rabone, Joanne Webster, Lydie Bandagny, Raphael Ndione, Simon Senghor, Anne-Marie Schacht, Nicolas Jouanard, Gilles Riveau & Giulio De Leo
Recently, the World Health Organization recognized that efforts to interrupt schistosomiasis transmission through mass drug administration have been ineffective in some regions; one of their new recommended strategies for global schistosomiasis control emphasizes targeting the freshwater snails that transmit schistosome parasites. We sought to identify robust indicators that would enable precision targeting of these snails. At the site of the world’s largest recorded schistosomiasis epidemic—the Lower Senegal River Basin in Senegal—intensive sampling revealed positive relationships...

Data from: Chronology of reproductive investment determines predation risk aversion in a felid-ungulate system

Daniel Crawford, Michael J Cherry, Brian D Kelly, Elina P Garrison, David Shindle, L Mike Conner, Richard B Chandler & Karl V Miller
Fear of predators can behaviorally mediate prey population dynamics, particularly when predation risk influences reproductive investment. However, the costs of reproductive investment may mitigate predation risk aversion relative to periods when the link between reproductive output and prey behavior is weaker. We posit that intensity of reproductive investment in ungulates may predict their response to predation risk such that the sexes increase risk exposure during biological seasons that are pivotal to reproductive success, such as...

Osteology of the late Triassic bipedal archosaur Poposaurus gracilis (Archosauria: Pseudosuchia) from Western North America

Emma R. Schachner, Randall B. Irmis, Adam K. Huttenlocker, Kent Sanders, Robert L. Cieri & Sterling J. Nesbitt
Poposaurus gracilis is a bipedal pseudosuchian archosaur that has been poorly understood since the discovery of the holotype fragmentary partial postcranial skeleton in 1915. Poposaurus. gracilis is a member of Poposauroidea, an unusually morphologically divergent clade of pseudosuchians containing taxa that are bipedal, quadrupedal, toothed, edentulous, and some individuals with elongated thoracic neural spines (i.e., sails). In 2003, a well preserved, fully articulated, and nearly complete postcranial skeleton of P. gracilis was discovered with some...

Water-borne and plasma corticosterone are not correlated in spotted salamanders

Alice Millikin, Sarah Woodley, Drew Davis, Ignacio Moore & James Anderson
Water-borne hormone measurement is a noninvasive method suitable for amphibians of all sizes that are otherwise difficult to sample. For this method, containment-water is assayed for hormones released by the animal. Originally developed in fish, the method has expanded to amphibians, but requires additional species-specific validations. We wanted to determine physiological relevance of water-borne corticosterone in spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) by comparing concentrations to those taken using established corticosterone sampling methods, such as plasma. Using...

The eco-evolutionary history of Madagascar presents unique challenges to tropical forest restoration

Katherine A. Culbertson, Timothy L.H. Treuer, Ariadna Mondragon Botero, Tanjona Ramiadantsoa & J. Leighton Reid
High biodiversity and endemism combined with persistently high deforestation rates mark Madagascar as one of the hottest of biodiversity hotspots. Contemporary rising interest in large-scale reforestation, both globally and throughout Madagascar itself, presents a promising impetus for forest restoration and biodiversity conservation across the island. However, Madagascar may face unique restoration challenges due to its equally unique eco-evolutionary trajectory, which must be understood to enable successful ecological restoration. We conducted a systematic review of potential...

Data from: Let's stick together: infection enhances preferences for social settings in a songbird species

Marissa Langager, James Adelman & Dana Hawley
Acute infections can alter foraging and movement behaviours relevant to sociality and pathogen spread. However, few studies have examined how infection with directly-transmitted pathogens influences host social preferences. Juvenile house finches are gregarious and particularly susceptible to infection by the bacterial pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG). Changes in sociality during infection are likely to have important consequences for MG transmission throughout majority-juvenile flocks, but it remains unknown how infection influences sociality in house finches. To test...

Evolutionary causes and consequences of ungulate migration

Joel Abraham, Nathan Upham, Alejandro Damian-Serrano & Brett Jesmer
Ungulate migrations are crucial for maintaining abundant populations and functional ecosystems. However, little is known about how or why migratory behavior evolved in ungulates. To investigate the evolutionary origins of ungulate migration, we employed phylogenetic path analysis using a comprehensive species-level phylogeny of mammals. We found that 95 of 207 extant ungulate species are at least partially migratory, with migratory behavior originating independently in 17 lineages. The evolution of migratory behavior is associated with reliance...

Data from: Relationships between forest cover and fish diversity in the Amazon River floodplain

Caroline C. Arantes, Kirk O. Winemiller, Miguel Petrere, Leandro Castello, Laura L. Hess, Carlos E.C. Freitas & Carlos E. C. Freitas
1.Habitat degradation leads to biodiversity loss and concomitant changes in ecosystem processes. Tropical river floodplains are highly threatened by land cover changes and support high biodiversity and important ecosystems services, but the extent to which changes in floodplain land cover affect fish biodiversity remains unknown. 2.We combined fish and environmental data collected in situ and satellite-mapped landscape features to evaluate how fish species with different ecological strategies and assemblage structures respond to deforestation in floodplains...

Data from: Quantifying human mobility perturbation and resilience in Hurricane Sandy

Qi Wang & John E. Taylor
Human mobility is influenced by environmental change and natural disasters. Researchers have used trip distance distribution, radius of gyration of movements, and individuals' visited locations to understand and capture human mobility patterns and trajectories. However, our knowledge of human movements during natural disasters is limited owing to both a lack of empirical data and the low precision of available data. Here, we studied human mobility using high-resolution movement data from individuals in New York City...

Data from: Migratory shorebird adheres to Bergmann’s Rule by responding to environmental conditions through the annual lifecycle

Daniel Gibson, Angela D. Hornsby, Mary B. Brown, Jonathan B. Cohen, Lauren R. Dinan, James D. Fraser, Meryl J. Friedrich, Cheri L. Gratto-Trevor, Kelsi L. Hunt, Matthew Jeffery, Joel G. Jorgensen, Peter W. C. Paton, Samantha G. Robinson, Jen Rock, Michelle L. Stantial, Chelsea E. Weithman & Daniel H. Catlin
The inverse relationship between body size and environmental temperature is a widespread ecogeographic pattern. However, the underlying forces that produce this pattern are unclear in many taxa. Expectations are particularly unclear for migratory species, as individuals may escape environmental extremes and reorient themselves along the environmental gradient. In addition, some aspects of body size are largely fixed while others are environmentally flexible and may vary seasonally. Here, we used a long‐term dataset that tracked multiple...

Data from: Integrating spatial structure and interspecific and intraspecific plant–soil feedback effects and responses into community structure

Sa Xiao, Dan Z. Atwater & Ragan M. Callaway
Plant-soil feedbacks have important effects on plant communities, but most theory has been derived from experiments on intraspecific plant-soil feedbacks. Much less is known about how interspecific plant-soil feedbacks affect coexistence and plant communities, due in part to experimental and analytical challenges. Here, we propose a framework for evaluating plant-soil feedbacks among multiple interacting species that incorporates 1) the average effect each species has on conspecific and heterospecific neighbors via how they modify soil biota,...

Mountain lions reduce movement, increase efficiency during the COVID-19 shutdown

John Benson, Heather Abernathy, Jeff Sikich & Seth Riley
Wildlife strongly alter behavior in response to human disturbance; however, fundamental questions remain regarding the influence of human infrastructure and activity on animal movement. The Covid-19 pandemic created a natural experiment providing an opportunity to evaluate wildlife movement during a period of greatly reduced human activity. Speculation in scientific reviews and the media suggested that wildlife might be increasing movement and colonizing urban landscapes during pandemic slowdowns. However, theory predicts that animals should move and...

Both consumptive and non-consumptive effects of predators impact mosquito populations and have implications for disease transmission

Marie C Russell, Catherine M Herzog, Zachary Gajewski, Chloe Ramsay, Fadoua El Moustaid, Michelle V Evans, Trishna Desai, Nicole L Gottdenker, Sara L Hermann, Alison G Power & Andrew C McCall
Predator-prey interactions influence prey traits through both consumptive and non-consumptive effects, and variation in these traits can shape vector-borne disease dynamics. Meta-analysis methods were employed to generate predation effect sizes by different categories of predators and mosquito prey. This analysis showed that multiple families of aquatic predators are effective in consumptively reducing mosquito survival, and that the survival of Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex mosquitoes is negatively impacted by consumptive effects of predators. Mosquito larval size...

Comparing the individual and combined effects of ant attendance and wing formation on aphid body size and reproduction

Ph.D. Nelson & Kailen A. Mooney
Species employ multiple strategies to deal with stressful environments, but these strategies often incur costs. Aphids frequently utilize multiple predator avoidance strategies, including attracting mutualist ants for protection and dispersing by producing winged forms. While both strategies can be physiologically costly, the magnitudes of these costs have not been previously compared. In this study, we experimentally manipulated ant attendance in the field and measured the individual and interactive effects of ant attendance and wing formation...

Data from: Resource allocation trade-offs and the loss of chemical defences during apple domestication

Susan R. Whitehead & Katja Poveda
Background and Aims: Most crops have been dramatically altered from their wild ancestors with the primary goal of increasing harvestable yield. A long-held hypothesis is that increased allocation to yield has reduced plant investment in defence and resulted in crops that are highly susceptible to pests. However, clear demonstrations of these trade-offs have been elusive due to the many selective pressures that occur concurrently during crop domestication. Methods: To provide a robust test of whether...

Data from: Production of omega-3 enriched tilapia through the dietary use of algae meal or fish oil: Improved nutrient value of fillet and offal

Tyler R. Stoneham, David D. Kuhn, Daniel P. Taylor, Andrew P. Neilson, Stephen A. Smith, Delbert M. Gatlin, Hyun Sik S. Chu, Sean F. O'Keefe & Sean F. O’Keefe
The goal of this project was to increase the nutrient value of fillets, by-product muscle, and offal of aquacultured tilapia. A diet that includes seafood with a high omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid content, more specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are known to have numerous health benefits for consumers. Improved nutrient value of the offal may also attract new market opportunities for the aquaculture industry. Tilapia were cultured on different experimental feeds that...

Data from: Long-term population dynamics of dreissenid mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. rostriformis): a cross-system analysis

David L. Strayer, Boris V. Adamovich, Rita Adrian, David C. Aldridge, Csilla Balogh, Lyubov E. Burlakova, Hannah B. Fried-Petersen, László G.‐Tóth, Amy L. Hetherington, Thomas S. Jones, Alexander Y. Karatayev, Jacqueline B. Madill, Oleg A. Makarevich, J. Ellen Marsden, Andre L. Martel, Dan Minchin, Thomas F. Nalepa, Ruurd Noordhuis, Timothy J. Robinson, Lars G. Rudstam, Astrid N. Schwalb, David R. Smith, Alan D. Steinman & Jonathan M. Jeschke
Dreissenid mussels (including the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha and the quagga mussel D. rostriformis) are among the world's most notorious invasive species, with large and widespread ecological and economic effects. However, their long‐term population dynamics are poorly known, even though these dynamics are critical to determining impacts and effective management. We gathered and analyzed 67 long‐term (>10 yr) data sets on dreissenid populations from lakes and rivers across Europe and North America. We addressed five...

Data from: Use of a rostral appendage during social interactions in the Ecuadorian Anolis proboscis

Diego R. Quirola, Andrés Mármol, Omar Torres-Carvajal, Andrea Narvaez, Fernando Ayala-Varela & Ignacio T. Moore
The use of sexually selected characters in inter- and intra-sexual interactions has long been of interest to evolutionary biologists. Recently, a distinction between sexually selected traits as ornaments versus weapons has been advanced. We investigated the behaviour of an enigmatic lizard with a prominent sexually dimorphic trait in an effort to describe whether the trait was the product of sexual selection and further whether it functioned as a weapon or an ornament. The subject of...

Data from: Diabolical survival in Death Valley: recent pupfish colonization, gene flow, and genetic assimilation in the smallest species range on earth

Christopher Martin, Jacob Crawford, Bruce Turner, Lee Simons, Jacob E. Crawford & Christopher H. Martin
One of the most endangered vertebrates, the Devils Hole pupfish Cyprinodon diabolis, survives in a nearly impossible environment: a narrow subterranean fissure in the hottest desert on earth, Death Valley. This species became a conservation icon after a landmark 1976 U.S. Supreme Court case affirming federal groundwater rights to its unique habitat. However, one outstanding question about this species remains unresolved: how long has diabolis persisted in this hellish environment? We used next-generation sequencing of...

Data from: Grazing enhances belowground carbon allocation, microbial biomass, and soil carbon in a subtropical grassland

Chris H. Wilson, Michael S. Strickland, Jack A. Hutchings, Thomas S. Bianchi & S. Luke Flory
Despite the large contribution of rangeland and pasture to global soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, there is considerable uncertainty about the impact of large herbivore grazing on SOC, especially for understudied subtropical grazing lands. It is well known that root system inputs are the source of most grassland SOC, but the impact of grazing on partitioning of carbon allocation to root tissue production compared to fine root exudation is unclear. Given that different forms of...

Data from: Unravelling the life history of Amazonian fishes through otolith microchemistry

Theodore W. Hermann, Donald J. Stewart, Karin E. Limburg & Leandro Castello
Amazonian fishes employ diverse migratory strategies, but the details of these behaviours remain poorly studied despite numerous environmental threats and heavy commercial exploitation of many species. Otolith microchemistry offers a practical, cost-effective means of studying fish life history in such a system. This study employed a multi-method, multi-elemental approach to elucidate the migrations of five Amazonian fishes: two ‘sedentary’ species (Arapaima sp. and Plagioscion squamosissimus), one ‘floodplain migrant’ (Prochilodus nigricans) and two long-distance migratory catfishes...

Data from: Winter food limits timing of pre-alternate molt in a short-distance migratory bird

Raymond M. Danner, Russell S. Greenberg, Julie E. Danner & Jeffrey R. Walters
1. Molt is critical for fitness for many organisms for several reasons: it allows growth and maintains the function of the integument for protection, thermoregulation and communication. 2. Feather molt in birds is costly and therefore typically does not overlap with migration or reproduction. In spring, the rapid succession of pre-alternate molt, migration (if a migrant), and breeding suggests that timing of molt could constrain the initiation of breeding. A tradeoff between time spent molting...

Data from: Relationships of the Indian phytosaur Parasuchus hislopi Lydekker, 1885

Christian F. Kammerer, Richard J. Butler, Saswati Bandyopadhyay & Michelle R. Stocker
The neotype skull of the Indian phytosaur Parasuchus hislopi Lydekker, 1885 (ISI R42) is re-evaluated and compared with the type material of other basal phytosaurs. Parasuchus hislopi is extremely similar to species previously placed in Paleorhinus (P. bransoni and P. angustifrons), sharing with them such characters as a series of nodes on the lateral surface of the jugal, paired ridges on the squamosal and a frontal depression. Parasuchus hislopi represents a valid species: it can...

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