581 Works

Data from: Infection reduces anti-predator behaviors in house finches

James S. Adelman, Corinne Mayer & Dana M. Hawley
Infectious diseases can cause host mortality through direct or indirect mechanisms, including altered behavior. Diminished anti-predator behavior is among the most-studied causes of indirect mortality during infection, particularly for systems in which a parasite's life-cycle requires transmission from prey to predator. Significantly less work has examined whether directly-transmitted parasites and pathogens also reduce anti-predator behaviors. Here we test whether the directly-transmitted bacterial pathogen, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), reduces responses to predation-related stimuli in house finches Haemorhous...

Data from: Hunting, exotic carnivores, and habitat loss: anthropogenic effects on a native carnivore community, Madagascar

Zach J. Farris, Christopher D. Golden, Sarah Karpanty, Asia Murphy, Dean Stauffer, Felix Ratelolahy, Vonjy Andrianjakarivelo, Christopher M. Holmes & Marcella J. Kelly
The wide-ranging, cumulative, negative effects of anthropogenic disturbance, including habitat degradation, exotic species, and hunting, on native wildlife has been well documented across a range of habitats worldwide with carnivores potentially being the most vulnerable due to their more extinction prone characteristics. Investigating the effects of anthropogenic pressures on sympatric carnivores is needed to improve our ability to develop targeted, effective management plans for carnivore conservation worldwide. Utilizing photographic, line-transect, and habitat sampling, as well...

Data from: The rules for symbiont community assembly change along a mutualism-parasitism continuum

James Skelton, Sam Doak, Meredith Leonard, Robert P. Creed & Bryan L. Brown
Symbiont community assembly is driven by host-symbiont and symbiont-symbiont interactions.The effects that symbionts exert on their hosts are often context-dependent and existing theoretical frameworks of symbiont community assembly do not consider the implications of variable outcomes to assembly processes. We hypothesized that symbiont-symbiont interactions become increasingly important along a parasitism/mutualism continuum because; a) negative outcomes favor host resistance which in turn reduces symbiont colonization and subsequently reduce symbiont-symbiont interactions, whereas b) positive host outcomes favor...

Data from: Diversity and stability of egg-bacterial assemblages: the role of paternal care in the glassfrog Hyalinobatrachium colymbiphyllum

Myra C. Hughey, Jesse Delia & Lisa K. Belden
Embryos of oviparous organisms must cope with harsh environments and are especially susceptible to disease, considering that many immune mechanisms do not develop until later in life. Parents may transmit symbiotic microflora to eggs, which can contribute to embryo immune defense. Despite the importance of symbiotic microbes for immune function and survival of adult amphibians, vertical transfer of symbionts in amphibians has received less attention than in other taxa. Here, we test the role of...

Data from: An evaluation of transferability of ecological niche models

Huijie Qiao, Xiao Feng, Luis E. Escobar, A. Townsend Peterson, Jorge Soberon, Gengping Zhu & Monica Papeș
Ecological niche modeling (ENM) is used widely to study species’ geographic distributions. ENM applications frequently involve transferring models calibrated with environmental data from one region to other regions or times that may include novel environmental conditions. When novel conditions are present, transferability implies extrapolation, whereas, in absence of such conditions, transferability is an interpolation step only. We evaluated transferability of models produced using 11 ENM algorithms from the perspective of interpolation and extrapolation in a...

Data from: Parameterizing the robust design in the BUGS language: lifetime carry‐over effects of environmental conditions during growth on a long‐lived bird

Thomas V. Riecke, Alan G. Leach, Dan Gibson & James S. Sedinger
1. Since the initial development of the robust design, this capture‐recapture model structure has been modified to estimate temporary emigration, and expanded to include auxiliary information such as band recovery and live resight data using maximum likelihood approaches. These developments have allowed investigators to separately assess individual and group effects on true survival, site fidelity, and temporary emigration. Additionally, recent advances in the BUGS language have allowed researchers to develop increasingly complex, user‐specified models in...

Data from: Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition

Daniel S. Karp, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Timothy D. Meehan, Emily A. Martin, Fabrice DeClerck, Heather Grab, Claudio Gratton, Lauren Hunt, Ashley E. Larsen, Alejandra Martínez-Salinas, Megan E. O’Rourke, Adrien Rusch, Katja Poveda, Mattias Jonsson, Jay A. Rosenheim, Nancy A. Schellhorn, Teja Tscharntke, Stephen D. Wratten, Wei Zhang, Aaron L. Iverson, Lynn S. Adler, Matthias Albrecht, Audrey Alignier, Gina M. Angelella, Muhammad Zubair Anjum … & Yi Zou
The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win–win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are...

Data from: Free‐moving artificial eggs containing temperature loggers reveal remarkable within‐clutch variance in incubation temperature

Sydney F. Hope, Sarah E. DuRant, John J. Hallagan, Michelle L. Beck, Robert A. Kennamer & William A. Hopkins
Incubation is a crucial aspect of avian parental care and measuring incubation temperature in the wild can improve our understanding of life history tradeoffs and inform conservation efforts. However, there are challenges associated with measuring the temperature of eggs in natural nests. Most studies to date have measured incubation temperature by using a single, stationary logger in each nest. However, real eggs are rotated and moved throughout the nest by the parent during the incubation...

Data from: Exposure to dairy manure leads to greater antibiotic resistance and increased mass-specific respiration in soil microbial communities

Carl Wepking, Bethany Avera, Brian Badgley, John E. Barrett, Josh Franklin, Katharine F. Knowlton, Partha P. Ray, Crystal Smitherman & Michael S. Strickland
Intensifying livestock production to meet the demands of a growing global population coincides with increases in both the administration of veterinary antibiotics and manure inputs to soils. These trends have the potential to increase antibiotic resistance in soil microbial communities. The effect of maintaining increased antibiotic resistance on soil microbial communities and the ecosystem processes they regulate is unknown. We compare soil microbial communities from paired reference and dairy manure-exposed sites across the USA. Given...

Data from: Transcriptomic imprints of adaptation to fresh water: parallel evolution of osmoregulatory gene expression in the Alewife

Jonathan P. Velotta, Jill L. Wegrzyn, Samuel Ginzburg, Lin Kang, Sergiusz Czesny, Rachel J. O'Neill, Stephen D. McCormick, Pawel Michalak & Eric T. Schultz
Comparative approaches in physiological genomics offer an opportunity to understand the functional importance of genes involved in niche exploitation. We used populations of Alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) to explore the transcriptional mechanisms that underlie adaptation to fresh water. Ancestrally anadromous Alewives have recently formed multiple, independently derived, landlocked populations, which exhibit reduced tolerance of saltwater and enhanced tolerance of fresh water. Using RNA-seq, we compared transcriptional responses of an anadromous Alewife population to two landlocked populations...

Data from: Incomplete host immunity favors the evolution of virulence in an emergent pathogen

Arietta E. Fleming-Davies, Paul D. Williams, André A. Dhondt, Andrew P. Dobson, Wesley A. Hochachka, Ariel E. Leon, David H. Ley, Erik E. Osnas & Dana M. Hawley
Immune memory evolved to protect hosts from reinfection, but incomplete responses that allow future reinfection might inadvertently select for more harmful pathogens. We present empirical and modeling evidence that incomplete immunity promotes the evolution of higher virulence in a natural host-pathogen system. We performed sequential infections of house finches with Mycoplasma gallisepticum strains of varying virulence. Virulent bacterial strains generated stronger host protection against reinfection than less virulent strains, and thus excluded less virulent strains...

Learning Communities in Fraternity/Sorority Housing

Sean S. Blackburn & Steven M. Janosik

Establishing Black Identity at a Predominantly White Institution: The Influence of a Hybrid Pledge/Intake Process Utilizing Nguzo Saba Principles

Katherine D. Llyod

Data from: Tradeoffs in moving citizen-based anuran call surveys online during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: lessons from rural Appalachia, USA

Walter Smith & Kevin Hamed
Citizen science approaches provide adaptable methodologies for enhancing the natural history knowledge of understudied taxa and engaging underserved populations with biodiversity. However, transitions to remote, virtual training and participant recruitment in response to public health crises like the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic have the potential to disrupt citizen science projects. We present a comparison of outputs from a citizen science initiative built around call surveys for the Mountain Chorus Frog (Pseudacris brachyphona), an understudied anuran, in Appalachian...

Collaborations Across Open Science (Community Series, Summer 2020)

Eric Olson, Marcy Reedy, Sandra Gesing, Noel Recla, Richard Johnson, Adrien Rigobello, Natalie Meyers, Gretchen Gueguen & Daniel Steger
Featuring the PresQT Project, the Open Scholarship Knowledge Base, and the Centre for Information Technology and Architecture

Data from: Brain-wide cellular resolution imaging of Cre transgenic zebrafish lines for functional circuit-mapping

Kathryn M. Tabor, Gregory D. Marquart, Christopher Hurt, Trevor S. Smith, Alexandra K Geoca, Ashwin A Bhandiwad, Abhignya Subedi, Jennifer L. Sinclair, Hannah M Rose, Nicholas F Polys & Harold A. Burgess
Decoding the functional connectivity of the nervous system is facilitated by transgenic methods that express a genetically encoded reporter or effector in specific neurons; however, most transgenic lines show broad spatiotemporal and cell-type expression. Increased specificity can be achieved using intersectional genetic methods which restrict reporter expression to cells that co-express multiple drivers, such as Gal4 and Cre. To facilitate intersectional targeting in zebrafish, we have generated more than 50 new Cre lines, and co-registered...

Lanier et al. (2019), Virtual Reality Check

Madison Lanier, T. Waddell, Malte Elson, Dan Tamul, James Ivory & Andrew Przybylski
Online supplementary materials for Lanier et al. (2019). Virtual Reality Check: Statistical Power, Reported Results, and the Validity of Research on the Psychology of Virtual Reality and Immersive Environments. Computers in Human Behavior.

Data from: Dietary resource overlap among three species of frugivorous bat in Costa Rica

Lauren D. Maynard, Ariana Ananda, Maria F. Sides, Hannah Burk & Susan R. Whitehead
The maintenance of biodiversity in tropical forests is thought to be dependent on fine-scale mechanisms of niche partitioning that allow species to coexist. This study examined whether three species of short-tailed fruit bat that co-occur at a lowland tropical forest site in Costa Rica (Carollia castanea, C. perspicillata, C. sowelli) avoid inter- and intraspecific competition through dietary specialization on species in the genus Piper. First, dietary composition was examined using faecal samples (n = 210),...

Data from: The evolution of the dicynodont sacrum: constraint and innovation in the synapsid axial column

Christopher T. Griffin & Kenneth D. Angielczyk
Constraint is a universal feature of morphological evolution. The vertebral column of synapsids (mammals and their close relatives) is a classic example of this phenotypic restriction, with greatly reduced variation in the number of vertebrae compared to the sauropsid lineage. Synapsids generally possess only three sacral vertebrae, which articulate with the ilium and play a key role in locomotion. Dicynodont anomodonts are the exception to this rule, possessing seven or more sacral vertebrae while reaching...

Access to Autism Spectrum Disorder Services for Rural Appalachian Citizens

Angela Scarpa, Laura S. Jensen, Denis Gracanin, Sharon L. Ramey, Angela V. Dahiya, L. Maria Ingram, Jordan Albright, Alyssa J. Gatto, Jen P. Scott & Lisa Ruble
Background: Low-resource rural communities face significant challenges regarding availability and adequacy of evidence-based services. Purposes: With respect to accessing evidence-based services for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), this brief report summarizes needs of rural citizens in the South-Central Appalachian region, an area notable for persistent health disparities. Methods: A mixed-methods approach was used to collect quantitative and qualitative data during focus groups with 33 service providers and 15 caregivers of children with ASD in rural southwest...

Data from: Ant seed removal in a non-myrmecochorous Neotropical shrub: implications for seed dispersal

Seanne Clemente & Susan Whitehead
This study investigated ant seed removal of Piper sancti-felicis, an early successional Neotropical shrub. Neotropical Piper are a classic example of bat-dispersed plants, but we suggest that ants are underappreciated dispersal agents. We identified eleven ant species from the genera Aphaenogaster, Ectatomma, Paratrechina, Pheidole, Trachymyrmex, and Wasmannia recruiting to and harvesting P. sancti-felicis seeds in forest edge and secondary forest sites at La Selva, Costa Rica. We also tested for differences in ant recruitment to...

Phenotypic variability can promote the evolution of adaptive plasticity by reducing the stringency of natural selection

Jeremy Draghi
Adaptive phenotypic plasticity is a potent but not ubiquitous solution to environmental heterogeneity, driving interest in what factors promote and limit its evolution. Here a novel computational model representing stochastic information flow in development is used to explore evolution from a constitutive phenotype to an adaptively plastic response. Results show that populations tend to evolve robustness to developmental stochasticity, but this evolved robustness limits evolvability; specifically, robust genotypes have less ability to evolve adaptive plasticity...

Peavy Hall - Structural health monitoring data under construction

Mariapaola Riggio, Esther Baas, Andre Barbosa & Ryan Longman
These datasets encompass all data collected from the Peavy Forest Science Complex from May 8th, 2019 to March 10th, 2020. These data were collected from the mass timber building during the final ten months of construction. They include wood moisture content of cross-laminated timber, mass plywood panel, and glulam timber elements, indoor and outdoor environmental conditions from a weather station, thermistors, and relative humidity gauges, and tension in steel rods of post-tensioned timber shear walls....

Data from: Threats to aquatic taxa in an arid landscape: knowledge gaps and areas of understanding for amphibians of the American Southwest

Meryl Mims
This dataset contains supporting information for WIREs Water Advanced Review: "Threats to aquatic taxa in an arid landscape: knowledge gaps and areas of understanding for amphibians of the American Southwest", by Mims et al., published in 2020 (doi.org/10.1002/wat2.1449). Please see the original article for additional information, and contact Dr. Meryl Mims (mims@vt.edu) with questions or specific requests.

Asymmetric evolvability leads to specialization without trade-offs

Jeremy Draghi
Many organisms are specialized, and these narrow niches are often explained with trade-offs—inability for one organism to express maximal performance in two or more environments. However, evidence is lacking that trade-offs are sufficient to explain specialists. Several lines of theoretical inquiry suggest that populations can specialize without explicit trade-offs, as a result of relaxed selection in generalists for their performance in rare environments. Here I synthesize and extend these approaches, showing that emergent asymmetries in...

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