581 Works

New sphenodontian (Reptilia: Lepidosauria) from a novel Late Triassic palaeobiota in western North America sheds light on the earliest radiation of herbivorous lepidosaurs

Ben Kligman, Warren McClure, Mark Korbitz & Bruce Schumacher
Herbivory is a common ecological function among extant lepidosaurs, but little is known about the origin of this feeding strategy within Lepidosauria. Here we describe a sphenodontian (Lepidosauria) from the Late Triassic of western North America, Trullidens purgatorii n. gen. n. sp. that reveals new aspects of the earliest radiation of herbivorous lepidosaurs. This taxon is represented by an isolated lower jaw with robust structure bearing transversely widened dentition and extensive wear facets, suggesting a...

protocols.io

Eric Olson, Daniel Steger, Mark Call, Nicole Pfeiffer, Amanda Staller & Alexis Rice
Protocols.io users can now bilaterally share up-to-date methods and protocols to OSF directly from their protocols.io workspace. The new integration allows researchers to include, view, and track key data without leaving the OSF project interface. Learn how to connect your protocols.io workspace with OSF in this demo.

Canopy cover data from: Applied nucleation facilitates tropical forest recovery

Karen D. Holl, J. Leighton Reid, Rebecca J. Cole, Federico Oviedo‐Brenes, Juan A. Rosales & Rakan A. Zahawi
Applied nucleation, mostly based upon planting tree islands, has been proposed as a cost‐effective strategy to meet ambitious global forest and landscape restoration targets. We review results from a 15‐year study, replicated at 15 sites in southern Costa Rica, that compares applied nucleation to natural regeneration and mixed‐species tree plantations as strategies to restore tropical forest. We have collected data on planted tree survival and growth, woody vegetation recruitment and structure, seed rain, litterfall, epiphytes,...

Hormonal pleiotropy structures genetic covariance

Tyler Wittman, Christopher Robinson, Joel McGlothlin & Robert Cox
Quantitative genetic theory proposes that phenotypic evolution is shaped by G, the matrix of genetic variances and covariances among traits. In species with separate sexes, the evolution of sexual dimorphism is also shaped by B, the matrix of between-sex genetic variances and covariances. Despite considerable focus on estimating these matrices, their underlying biological mechanisms are largely speculative. We experimentally tested the hypothesis that G and B are structured by hormonal pleiotropy, which occurs when one...

Central Administration of Agouti-Related Peptide Increases Food Intake in Japanese Quail

Tyler Lindskoog, Mark Bohler, Elizabeth R. Gilbert & Mark A. Cline
Agouti-related peptide is a 132-amino acid peptide associated with stimulating food intake in birds and mammals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of AgRP in seven-day old Japanese quail. In Experiment 1, we tested 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 nmol AgRP and found no effect on food or water intake over a three-hour period. In Experiment 2, we tested 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 nmol AgRP and found no effect on food...

An energy use, energy production, and building air leakage dataset for a zero energy commercial building

Philip Agee & Leila Nikdel
This is an open dataset of measured energy use, solar energy production, and building air leakage data from a 328 m2 (3,531 ft2) all-electric, zero energy commercial building in Virginia, USA. Over two years of energy use data were collected at 1-hour intervals using circuit-level energy monitors. Over six years of solar energy production data were measured at 1-hour intervals by 56 microinverters. The building air leakage data was measured post-construction per ASTM-E779 Standard Test...

Adaptive variation in the development of extraembryonic membranes of gekkotan lizards: a meta-analytical approach

Robin Andrews
Highly mineralized rigid-shelled eggs characterize one lineage of gekkotans. In contrast, poorly mineralized flexible-shelled eggs characterize basal lineages of gekkotans and all other squamates. Low oxygen permeability of rigid-shelled eggs is associated with small eggs and hatchlings, and long incubation lengths compared to flexible-shelled gekkotan eggs. These features represent a demographic cost for species with rigid-shelled eggs. This cost is offset, at least in part, because mortality due to desiccation and predation is reduced for...

Data for: Africa’s oldest dinosaurs reveal early suppression of dinosaur distribution

Christopher Griffin, Brenen Wynd, Darlington Munyikwa, Timothy Broderick, Michel Zondo, Stephen Tolan, Max Langer, Sterling Nesbitt & Hazel Taruvinga
The vertebrate lineages that would shape Mesozoic and Cenozoic terrestrial ecosystems originated across Triassic Pangaea. By the Late Triassic (Carnian Stage, ~235 Ma), cosmopolitan ‘disaster faunas’ had given way to highly endemic assemblages on the supercontinent. Testing the tempo and mode of the establishment of this endemism is challenging—there were few geographic barriers to dispersal across Pangaea during the Late Triassic. Instead, palaeolatitudinal climate belts, and not continental boundaries, are hypothesized to have controlled distribution....

brand offense 6

Gayoung Park & Broderick Turner
This is a study to examine how would brand's activities and responses toward them affect observers' brand evaluation.

Analysis

Brian Goode, Naren Ramakrishnan, Madhav Marathe, Chris Kuhlman, Michael Macy, Jure Leskovec, Noshir Contractor, Joshua Epstein, Patrick Butler, Gizem Korkmaz, Yue Ning, Wei Wang, Parang Saraf & Nathan Self

Replication of The effect of cognitive load on economic decision making

Flora Li, Sheryl Ball, Alec Smith & Benjamin Katz
This is a replication project

Data

Elan Parsons, Olivia Miske, Brianna Luis, Zachary Loomas, Nicholas Fox, Andrew Tyner, Krystal Hahn, Sanghyun Hong, Jianhua Duan & Nathaniel Porter

Cover crop and irrigation impacts on weeds and maize yield

Prashasti Agarwal, Brian Schutte, John Idowu, Rob Steiner & Erik Lehnhoff
Winter cover crops (CC) may facilitate weed management by inhibiting weed seed germination and seedling emergence and suppressing weed growth within the cash crop. In southern New Mexico, with scarce winter precipitation and limited irrigation water, producing sufficient CC biomass for effective weed suppression while conserving water resources is challenging. This study assessed the water requirement to produce a CC with enough biomass for weed suppression benefits during cash crop growth at two locations in...

Assessing carnivore spatial co-occurrence and temporal overlap in the face of human interference in a semi-arid forest

Juan Ignacio Zanón Martínez, Javier Seoane, Marcella Kelly, José Sarasola & Alejandro Travaini
Apex predators drive top-down effects in ecosystems and the loss of such species can trigger mesopredator release. This ecological process has been well documented in human-modified small areas, but for management and conservation of ecological communities, it is important to know which human factors affect apex predator occurrence and which mediate mesopredators release at large scales. We hypothesized that mesopredators would avoid spatial and temporal overlap with the apex predator, the puma; but that human...

A non-native earthworm shifts the seed predation dynamics of a native weed

Stephen Hovick, Emilie Regnier, Jianyang Liu, S. Kent Harrison & Florian Diekmann
Seed predators both consume and disperse seeds, with important consequences for the population dynamics of many plant species. The net effect of multiple seed predators depends on the relative proportion of the seed pool each predator obtains, and this proportion should reflect species-specific habitat preferences. We studied the effect of the non-native earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris, on seed loss dynamics in the native weed, Ambrosia trifida (giant ragweed). Giant ragweed seeds are predated by mice, but...

Tomography-Based Convection and Melt Generation Beneath the Rungwe Volcanic Province, East Africa: Model Output

Emmanuel Njinju, D. Stamps, Tyrone Rooney, Estella Atekwana & Tahiry Rajaonarison
This contribution is provided to complement the manuscript submitted to Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems by these authors. The paper is entitled Tomography-Based Convection and Melt Generation Beneath the Rungwe Volcanic Province, East Africa Here we provide our 3D tomography-based convection (TBC) model that incorporates melt generation beneath the Rungwe Volcanic Province (RVP), the southernmost volcanic center in the Western Branch of the East African Rift. The 3D TBC was simulated using the open source code ASPECT...

MFQ II

Dan Tamul, James Ivory, Malte Elson, Madison Lanier, Jessica Hotter, Jordan Wolf & Shyam Ranganathan

Host preferences inhibit transmission from potential superspreader host species

Skylar Hopkins, Cari McGregor, Lisa Belden & Jeremy Wojdak
Host species that are particularly abundant, infectious, and/or infected tend to contribute disproportionately to symbiont (parasite or mutualist) maintenance in multi-host systems. Therefore, in a facultative multi-host system where two host species had high densities, high symbiont infestation intensities, and high infestation prevalence, we expected interspecific transmission rates to be high. Instead, we found that interspecific symbiont transmission rates to caged sentinel hosts were an order of magnitude lower than intraspecific transmission rates in the...

A Systematic Literature Review of Assessment Practices in Engineering Education: Past, Present, and Future

Johnny Woods, Homero Murzi, David Kniola, Isil Anakok & Andrew Katz
Assessment practices in the STEM fields remain grounded in historical approaches such as tests, research papers, and projects. One overlooked barrier to student success is assessment, where inequity disproportionately negatively affects diverse students. It is well documented that inequities in the classroom impact academic engagement, retention and degree completion rates, and learning outcomes. So while pedagogical approaches have evolved to promote equity in the learning process, the strategies and methods used to evaluate students have...

Data used for analyzing a turning-ascending flight of a H. pratti bat

Aevelina Rahman, Peter Windes & Danesh Tafti
Bats exhibit a high degree of agility and provide an excellent model system for bioinspired flight. The current study investigates an ascending right turn of a H. pratti bat and elucidates on the kinematic features and aerodynamic mechanisms used to effectuate the maneuver. To initiate and sustain the turn, the bat utilizes roll and yaw rotations of the body to different extents synergistically to generate the centripetal force for a stable turn. The turning moments...

Emotions in Engineering Education: A Systematic Review of the Literature

Johanna Lönngren, James Huff, Alberto Bellocchi, Inês Direito, Roland Tormey, Pia Bøgelund, Khairiyah Mohd-Yusof, Maria Berge, Homero Murzi & Nor Rahman
We perform a systematic review of the literature on emotions in engineering education. The review is of the type meta-synthesis as described by Siddayway et al (2019) and aims to (1) provide an overview and critical appraisal of the existing literature on emotions in engineering education, and (2) outline directions for future research in this emerging field.

Balancing carnivore conservation and sustainable hunting of a key prey species: a case study on the Florida panther and white-tailed deer

Florent Bled, Michael Cherry, Elina Garrison, Karl Miller, Mike Conner, Heather Abernathy, W. Ellsworth, Lydia Margenau, Daniel Crawford, Kristin Engebretsen, Brian Kelly, David Shindle & Richard Chandler
1. Large carnivore restoration programs are often promoted as capable of providing ecosystem services. However, these programs rarely measure effects of successful restoration on other economically and ecologically important species. In South Florida, while the endangered Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi) population has increased in recent years due to conservation efforts, the population of its main prey, the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), has declined in some regions. The extent to which panther predation has affected...

Data from: A new composite abundance metric detects stream fish declines and community homogenization during six decades of invasions

Logan Sleezer, Paul Angermeier, Emmanuel Frimpong & Bryan Brown
Aim: We developed a new technique, utilizing species-specific counts of individuals from historical fish community samples, to examine landscape-level, spatiotemporal trends in relative abundance distributions. Abundance-based historical distribution analyses are often plagued by data comparability issues, but provide critical information about community composition trends inaccessible to those using analyses based only on species presence-absence. We established trends in native and non-native fish abundance and community homogenization, uniqueness, and diversity to help local conservation managers prioritize...

Media Bias Towards AI

Angela Yi

Data from: Conservation and convergence of genetic architecture in the adaptive radiation of anolis lizards

Joel W. McGlothlin, Megan E. Kobiela, Helen V. Wright, Jason J. Kolbe, Jonathan B. Losos & Edmund D. Brodie
The G matrix, which quantifies the genetic architecture of traits, is often viewed as an evolutionary constraint. However, G can evolve in response to selection and may also be viewed as a product of adaptive evolution. Convergent evolution of G in similar environments would suggest that G evolves adaptively, but it is difficult to disentangle such effects from phylogeny. Here, we use the adaptive radiation of Anolis lizards to ask whether convergence of G accompanies...

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