19 Works

The eco-evolutionary history of Madagascar presents unique challenges to tropical forest restoration

Katherine A. Culbertson, Timothy L.H. Treuer, Ariadna Mondragon Botero, Tanjona Ramiadantsoa & J. Leighton Reid
High biodiversity and endemism combined with persistently high deforestation rates mark Madagascar as one of the hottest of biodiversity hotspots. Contemporary rising interest in large-scale reforestation, both globally and throughout Madagascar itself, presents a promising impetus for forest restoration and biodiversity conservation across the island. However, Madagascar may face unique restoration challenges due to its equally unique eco-evolutionary trajectory, which must be understood to enable successful ecological restoration. We conducted a systematic review of potential...

Data from: Let's stick together: infection enhances preferences for social settings in a songbird species

Marissa Langager, James Adelman & Dana Hawley
Acute infections can alter foraging and movement behaviours relevant to sociality and pathogen spread. However, few studies have examined how infection with directly-transmitted pathogens influences host social preferences. Juvenile house finches are gregarious and particularly susceptible to infection by the bacterial pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG). Changes in sociality during infection are likely to have important consequences for MG transmission throughout majority-juvenile flocks, but it remains unknown how infection influences sociality in house finches. To test...

Life-history stage and the population genetics of the tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus at a fine spatial scale

Emily Reed, Michael Reiskind & Martha Burford Reiskind
As a widespread vector of disease, the mosquito species Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) is a high priority for both public health and invasive species research and management. Like all mosquitoes, A. albopictus has a complex life history with aquatic egg, larval, and pupal stages and a terrestrial adult stage. This requires targeted management strategies for each life stage, coordinated across time and space. Researchers use population genetics to inform control of A. albopictus. However,...

Evolutionary causes and consequences of ungulate migration

Joel Abraham, Nathan Upham, Alejandro Damian-Serrano & Brett Jesmer
Ungulate migrations are crucial for maintaining abundant populations and functional ecosystems. However, little is known about how or why migratory behavior evolved in ungulates. To investigate the evolutionary origins of ungulate migration, we employed phylogenetic path analysis using a comprehensive species-level phylogeny of mammals. We found that 95 of 207 extant ungulate species are at least partially migratory, with migratory behavior originating independently in 17 lineages. The evolution of migratory behavior is associated with reliance...

Green Light SONATA: Improvisation at the Intersection of Art and Science

Montasir Abbas, Charles Nichols, Anne Elise Thomas & Qichao Wang
The Green Light SONATA project originated with a hunch in the engineering domain, but could only materialize through true collaboration of researchers working across disciplines. The project tested the hypothesis that translating simulated traffic information into music could lead to musical resolution of persistent traffic congestion. Our team—consisting of civil engineers, a composer/performer/computer music researcher, and an ethnomusicologist—proceeded to construct a model of an intersection in which each direction of traffic flow was assigned a...

Managing, Collecting, and Sharing Data with OSF - VU Amsterdam

Tycho Hofstra, S. Sandt, Meron Vermaas, B.J.J. Hattink, Lena Karvovskaya, T.J.A.G. Münker, Brett Olivier, C Dijk, Jessica Hrudey, APC Van der Jagt, Lannie Ligthart, W Hugens, A Taimounti, Sam Heijnen, Koen Leuveld, Kacana Khadjavi, Mark Bruyneel, Elisa Rodenburg, H.J. Jorritsma, Haiyan Wang, Petra van Aken, Jolien Scholten, DA Unger, N.A. Dieleman, R.A. Onyango … & M. Hashemi Shabestari
Test Description

Gene conversion facilitates the adaptive evolution of self-resistance in highly toxic newts

Kerry Gendreau, Joel McGlothlin, Angela Hornsby & Michael Hague
Reconstructing the histories of complex adaptations and identifying the evolutionary mechanisms underlying their origins are two of the primary goals of evolutionary biology. Taricha newts, which contain high concentrations of the deadly toxin tetrodotoxin (TTX) as an antipredator defense, have evolved resistance to self-intoxication, which is a complex adaptation requiring changes in six paralogs of the voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav) gene family, the physiological target of TTX. Here, we reconstruct the origins of TTX self-resistance...

Longitudinal assessment of thermal and perceived air quality acceptability in relation to temperature, humidity, and CO2 exposure in Singapore

Toby Cheung, Stefano Schiavon, Elliott Gall, Ming Jin & William Nazaroff
Thermal acceptability (TA) and perceived air quality acceptability (PAQA) are typically analyzed in climate chambers or cross-sectional field studies. Individual factors, such as expectations and perceived environment history, may influence the acceptability response. Longitudinal studies with multi-day design are absent in the literature. Fifteen Singaporean subjects participated in a 7-day longitudinal experiment in which they carried a portable sensor that continuously recorded personal air temperature, relative humidity and carbon dioxide concentration at 1-min intervals. Instantaneous...

Behavioral and postural analyses establish sleep-like states for mosquitoes that can impact host landing and blood feeding

Joshua Benoit, Oluwaseun M. Ajayi, Justin M. Marlman, Lucas A. Gleitz, Evan S. Smith, Benjamin D. Piller, Justyna A. Krupa & Clément Vinauger
Sleep is an evolutionarily conserved process that has been described in different animal systems. For insects, sleep characterization has been primarily achieved using behavioral and electrophysiological correlates in a few systems. Sleep in mosquitoes, which are important vectors of disease-causing pathogens, has not been directly examined. This is surprising as circadian rhythms, which have been well studied in mosquitoes, influence sleep in other systems. In this study, we characterized sleep in mosquitoes using body posture...

Catalyzing Open Science Globally: Use Cases and Translated Resources

Daniel Steger, Nestor Arévalo, Anabel Belaus, Felipe Vilanova & Rafael Gonzalez
Wednesday, July 20, 2022 Communities of researchers from diverse groups and cultures around the globe use the Open Science Framework (OSF) to support their research workflows. This webinar highlights the impact of translated OSF help guides from different countries, and case studies on how the OSF is used in different countries. If you are interested in becoming a translator for open science resources, please fill out the Translator Interest Form.

Data from: Puercosuchus traverorum n. gen. and sp.: a new malerisaurine azendohsaurid (Archosauromorpha: Allokotosauria) from two monodominant bonebeds in the Chinle Formation (Upper Triassic, Norian) of Arizona

Adam Marsh, William Parker, Sterling Nesbitt, Ben Kligman & Michelle Stocker
Non-archosaur archosauromorphs are a paraphyletic group of diapsid reptiles that are important members of global Middle Triassic and Late Triassic continental ecosystems. Included in this group are the azendohsaurids, a clade of allokotosaurians (kuehneosaurids and Azendohsauridae + Trilophosauridae) that retain the plesiomorphic archosauromorph postcranial body plan but have evolved disparate cranial features that converge on later dinosaurian anatomy, including sauropodomorph-like marginal dentition and ceratopsian-like postorbital horns. Here we describe a new malerisaurine azendohsaurid from two...

Conference scheduling undermines diversity efforts

Nicholas Burnett, Emily King, Mary Salcedo, Richelle Tanner & Kathryn Wilsterman
Scientific conferences incorporate diversity-focused events into their programming to increase their diversity and inclusivity and to improve the conference experience for scientists from underrepresented groups (URGs). While simply adding diversity-focused events to conferences is positive, maximizing their impact requires that conferences organizeand schedule these events to minimize well-acknowledged, problematic patterns such as the minority tax. To our knowledge, the programming of diversity-focused events at conferences has not been systematically reviewed to identify the extent of...

Data from: A new approach for investigating spatial relationships of ichnofossils: a case study of Ediacaran–Cambrian animal traces

Emily Mitchell, Scott Evans, Zhe Chen & Shuhai Xiao
Abstract — Trace fossils record foraging behaviours, the search for resources in patchy environments, of animals in the rock record. Quantification of the strength, density and nature of foraging behaviours enables the investigation of how these may have changed through time. Here, we present a novel approach to explore such patterns using spatial point process analyses to quantify the scale and strength of ichnofossil spatial distributions on horizontal bedding planes. To demonstrate the utility of...

Cover crop and irrigation impacts on weeds and maize yield

Prashasti Agarwal, Brian Schutte, John Idowu, Rob Steiner & Erik Lehnhoff
Winter cover crops (CC) may facilitate weed management by inhibiting weed seed germination and seedling emergence and suppressing weed growth within the cash crop. In southern New Mexico, with scarce winter precipitation and limited irrigation water, producing sufficient CC biomass for effective weed suppression while conserving water resources is challenging. This study assessed the water requirement to produce a CC with enough biomass for weed suppression benefits during cash crop growth at two locations in...

Host preferences inhibit transmission from potential superspreader host species

Skylar Hopkins, Cari McGregor, Lisa Belden & Jeremy Wojdak
Host species that are particularly abundant, infectious, and/or infected tend to contribute disproportionately to symbiont (parasite or mutualist) maintenance in multi-host systems. Therefore, in a facultative multi-host system where two host species had high densities, high symbiont infestation intensities, and high infestation prevalence, we expected interspecific transmission rates to be high. Instead, we found that interspecific symbiont transmission rates to caged sentinel hosts were an order of magnitude lower than intraspecific transmission rates in the...

Balancing carnivore conservation and sustainable hunting of a key prey species: a case study on the Florida panther and white-tailed deer

Florent Bled, Michael Cherry, Elina Garrison, Karl Miller, Mike Conner, Heather Abernathy, W. Ellsworth, Lydia Margenau, Daniel Crawford, Kristin Engebretsen, Brian Kelly, David Shindle & Richard Chandler
1. Large carnivore restoration programs are often promoted as capable of providing ecosystem services. However, these programs rarely measure effects of successful restoration on other economically and ecologically important species. In South Florida, while the endangered Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi) population has increased in recent years due to conservation efforts, the population of its main prey, the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), has declined in some regions. The extent to which panther predation has affected...

Data from: A new composite abundance metric detects stream fish declines and community homogenization during six decades of invasions

Logan Sleezer, Paul Angermeier, Emmanuel Frimpong & Bryan Brown
Aim: We developed a new technique, utilizing species-specific counts of individuals from historical fish community samples, to examine landscape-level, spatiotemporal trends in relative abundance distributions. Abundance-based historical distribution analyses are often plagued by data comparability issues, but provide critical information about community composition trends inaccessible to those using analyses based only on species presence-absence. We established trends in native and non-native fish abundance and community homogenization, uniqueness, and diversity to help local conservation managers prioritize...

Data from: Conservation and convergence of genetic architecture in the adaptive radiation of anolis lizards

Joel W. McGlothlin, Megan E. Kobiela, Helen V. Wright, Jason J. Kolbe, Jonathan B. Losos & Edmund D. Brodie
The G matrix, which quantifies the genetic architecture of traits, is often viewed as an evolutionary constraint. However, G can evolve in response to selection and may also be viewed as a product of adaptive evolution. Convergent evolution of G in similar environments would suggest that G evolves adaptively, but it is difficult to disentangle such effects from phylogeny. Here, we use the adaptive radiation of Anolis lizards to ask whether convergence of G accompanies...

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  • 2022
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  • Virginia Tech
    19
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    3
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