21 Works

Data from: A changing climate is snuffing out post-fire recovery in montane forests

Kyle Rodman, Thomas Veblen, Mike Battaglia, Marin Chambers, Paula Fornwalt, Zachary Holden, Thomas Kolb, Jessica Ouzts & Monica Rother
Aim: Climate warming is increasing fire activity in many of Earth’s forested ecosystems. Because fire is an important catalyst for change, investigation of post-fire vegetation response is crucial for understanding the potential for future conversions from forest to non-forest vegetation types. To better understand effects of wildfire and climate warming on forest recovery, we assessed the extent to which climate and terrain influence spatiotemporal variation in past and future post-fire tree regeneration. Location: Montane forests,...

Data from: Response to persistent er stress in plants: a multiphasic process that transitions cells from prosurvival activities to cell death

Renu Srivastava, Zhaoxia Li, Giulia Russo, Jie Tang, Ran Bi, Usha Muppirala, Sivanandan Chudalayandi, Andrew Severin, Mingze He, Samuel I. Vaitkevicius, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill, Peng Liu, Ann E. Stapleton, Diane C. Bassham, Federica Brandizzi & Stephen H. Howell
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a highly conserved response that protects plants from adverse environmental conditions. The UPR is elicited by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, in which unfolded and misfolded proteins accumulate within the ER. Here, we induced the UPR in maize (Zea mays) seedlings to characterize the molecular events that occur over time during persistent ER stress. We found that a multiphasic program of gene expression was interwoven among other cellular events, including...

Data from: Association genetics of growth and adaptive traits in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) using whole-exome-discovered polymorphisms

Mengmeng Lu, Konstantin V. Krutovsky, C. Dana Nelson, Jason B. West, Nathalie A. Reilly & Carol A. Loopstra
In the United States, forest genetics research began over 100 years ago and loblolly pine breeding programs were established in the 1950s. However, the genetics underlying complex traits of loblolly pine remains to be discovered. To address this, adaptive and growth traits were measured and analyzed in a clonally tested loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) population. Over 2.8 million single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers detected from exome sequencing were used to test for single locus...

Data from: Loci controlling nitrate reductase activity in maize: ultraviolet-B signaling in aerial tissues increases nitrate reductase activity in leaf and root when responsive alleles are present

Kristin M. Morrison, Susan J. Simmons & Ann E. Stapleton
Environmental factors, such as ultraviolet-B (UV-B) irradiation, have the ability to affect pathways such as nitrogen metabolism. As fixed nitrogen is the keystone mineral nutrient that controls grain crop yield, any alteration in this cycle can be detrimental to plant productivity. Nitrate reductase enzyme activity is responsible for the reduction of nitrate to nitrite, and nitrate is the major form of nitrogen assimilated in plants. In maize (Zea mays L.) production, nitrate assimilation kinetics are...

Data from: Acoustic adaptation to city noise through vocal learning by a songbird

Dana Lynn Moseley, Graham Earnest Derryberry, Jennifer Nicole Phillips, Julie Elizabeth Danner, Raymond Michael Danner, David Andrew Luther & Elizabeth Perrault Derryberry
Anthropogenic noise imposes novel selection pressures, especially on species that communicate acoustically. Many animals – including insects, frogs, whales, and birds – produce sounds at higher frequencies in areas with low-frequency noise pollution. Although there is support for animals changing their vocalizations in real time in response to noise (i.e., immediate flexibility), other evolutionary mechanisms for animals that learn their vocalizations remain largely unexplored. We hypothesize that cultural selection for signal structures less masked by...

Data from: Chromosomal loci important for cotyledon opening under UV-B in Arabidopsis thaliana

Mariana Conte, Silvia De Simone, Susan J. Simmons, Carlos L. Ballaré & Ann E. Stapleton
BACKGROUND: Understanding of the genetic architecture of plant UV-B responses allows extensive targeted testing of candidate genes or regions, along with combinations of those genes, for placement in metabolic or signal transduction pathways. RESULTS: Composite interval mapping and single-marker analysis methods were used to identify significant loci for cotyledon opening under UV-B in four sets of recombinant inbred lines. In addition, loci important for canalization (stability) of cotyledon opening were detected in two mapping populations....

Data from: Connectivity of Caribbean coral populations: complementary insights from empirical and modelled gene flow

Nicola L. Foster, Claire B. Paris, Johnathan T. Kool, Iliana B. Baums, Jamie R. Stevens, Juan A. Sánchez, Carolina Bastidas, Claudia Agudelo, Phillippe Bush, Owen Day, Renata Ferrari, Patricia Gonzalez, Shannon Gore, Reia Guppy, Michael A. McCartney, Croy McCoy, Judith Mendes, Ashwanth Srinivasan, Sascha Steiner, Mark J. A. Vermeij, Ernesto Weil & Peter J. Mumby
Understanding patterns of connectivity among populations of marine organisms is essential for the development of realistic, spatially explicit models of population dynamics. Two approaches, theoretical and empirical population genetic models, have been used to estimate levels of evolutionary connectivity among marine populations but rarely have their potentially-complementary insights been combined. Here, a spatially-realistic Lagrangian model of larval dispersal and a theoretical genetic model are integrated with the most extensive study of gene flow in a...

Data from: Sensitivity of marine protected area network connectivity to atmospheric variability

Alan D. Fox, Lea-Anne Henry, David W. Corne, J. Muray Roberts & J. Murray Roberts
International efforts are underway to establish well-connected systems of marine protected areas (MPAs) covering at least 10% of the ocean by 2020. But the nature and dynamics of ocean ecosystem connectivity are poorly understood, with unresolved effects of climate variability. We used 40-year runs of a particle tracking model to examine the sensitivity of an MPA network for habitat-forming cold-water corals in the northeast Atlantic to changes in larval dispersal driven by atmospheric cycles and...

An empirical evaluation of camera trap study design: how many, how long, and when?

Roland Kays, Brian Arbogast, Megan Baker-Whatton, Chris Beirne, Hailey Boone, Mark Bowler, Santiago Burneo, Michael Cove, Ping Ding, Santiago Espinosa, André Gonçalves, Christopher Hansen, Patrick Jansen, Joseph Kolowski, Travis Knowles, Marcela Lima, Joshua Millspaugh, William McShea, Krishna Pacifici, Arielle Parsons, Brent Pease, Francesco Rovero, Fernanda Santos, Stephanie Schuttler, Douglas Sheil … & Wilson Spironello
1. Camera traps deployed in grids or stratified random designs are a well-established survey tool for wildlife but there has been little evaluation of study design parameters. 2. We used an empirical subsampling approach involving 2225 camera deployments run at 41 study areas around the world to evaluate three aspects of camera trap study design (number of sites, duration and season of sampling) and their influence on the estimation of three ecological metrics (species richness,...

Prevalence of Ranavirus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, B. salamandrivorans, and Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola in Amphibians and Reptiles of North Carolina, USA

Thomas Lentz, Stephanie Thi, Andrew Duncan, Adam Miranda, Jeffrey Beane, Daniel Dombrowski, Brenna Forester, Christopher Akcali, Nathan Shepard, , Alvin Braswell, Lori Williams, Charles Lawson, Christopher Jenkins, Joseph Pechmann, Jacqueline Blake, Melissa Hooper, Keenan Freitas, Ann Somers & Bryan Stuart
The viral pathogen Ranavirus (Rv) and the fungal pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), B. salamandrivorans (Bsal), and Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola (Oo) infect amphibians and reptiles. In recent years, there has been increased interest in reporting the occurrences of these pathogens. North Carolina, USA has a rich diversity of amphibians and reptiles, and is notably the most species-rich U.S. state in salamanders. We assessed prevalence of Rv, Bd, Bsal, and Oo in a broad taxonomic and geographic representation...

Data from: Lifespan bias explains live-dead discordance in abundance of two common bivalves

Kelly E. Cronin, Gregory P. Dietl, Patricia H. Kelley & Stewart M. Edie
Lifespan bias potentially alters species abundance in death assemblages through the overrepresentation of short-lived organisms compared to their long-lived counterparts. Although previous work found that lifespan bias did not contribute significantly to live-dead discordance in bivalve assemblages, lifespan bias better explained discordance in two groups: longer-lived bivalve species and species with known lifespans. More studies using local, rather than global, species-wide, lifespans and mortality rates would help to determine the prevalence of lifespan bias, especially...

Data from: Larval traits carry over to affect post-settlement behaviour in a common coral reef fish

Andrea L. Dingeldein & J. Wilson White
Most reef fishes begin life as planktonic larvae before settling to the reef, metamorphosing, and entering the benthic adult population. Different selective forces determine survival in the planktonic and benthic life stages, but traits established in the larval stage may carry over to affect post-settlement performance. We tested the hypothesis that larval traits affect two key post-settlement fish behaviours: social group-joining and foraging. Certain larval traits of reef fishes are permanently recorded in the rings...

Data from: Best practices for justifying fossil calibrations

James F. Parham, Philip C. J. Donoghue, Christopher J. Bell, Tyler D. Calway, Jason J. Head, Patricia A. Holroyd, Jun G. Inoue, Randall B. Irmis, Walter G. Joyce, Daniel T. Ksepka, José S. L. Patané, Nathan D. Smith, James E. Tarver, Marcel Van Tuinen, Ziheng Yang, Kenneth D. Angielczyk, Jenny M. Greenwood, Christy A. Hipsley, Jacobs Louis, Peter J. Makovicky, Johannes Müller, Krister T. Smith, Jessica M. Theodor, Rachel C. M. Warnock, Michael J. Benton … & Louis Jacobs
Our ability to correlate biological evolution with climate change, geological evolution, and other historical patterns is essential to understanding the processes that shape biodiversity. Combining data from the fossil record with molecular phylogenetics represents an exciting synthetic approach to this challenge. The first molecular divergence dating analysis (Zuckerkandl and Pauling 1962) was based on a measure of the amino acid differences in the hemoglobin molecule; with replacement rates established (calibrated) using inaccurate paleontological age estimates...

Data from: Thermoregulatory windows in Darwin's finches

Glenn J. Tattersall, Jaime A. Chaves & Raymond M. Danner
1. Darwin’s finches have been the focus of intense study demonstrating how climatic fluctuations coupled with resource competition drive the evolution of a variety of bill sizes and shapes. The bill, as other peripheral surfaces, also plays an important role in thermoregulation in numerous bird species. The avian bill is vascularized, while limbs have specialized vasculature that facilitate heat loss or heat conservation (i.e., they are thermoregulatory windows). 2. The Galápagos Islands, home to Darwin’s...

Data from: Diversification and gene flow in nascent lineages of island and mainland North American tree squirrels (Tamiasciurus)

Andreas S. Chavez, George James Kenagy, Sean P. Maher & Brian S. Arbogast
Pleistocene climate cycles and glaciations had profound impacts on taxon diversification in the Boreal Forest Biome. Using population genetic analyses with multilocus data we examined diversification, isolation, and hybridization in two sibling species of tree squirrels (Tamiasciurus douglasii and T. hudsonicus) with special attention to the geographically and genetically enigmatic population of T. hudsonicus on Vancouver Island, Canada. The two species differentiated only about 500,000 years ago, in the late Pleistocene. The island population is...

Precision mapping of snail habitat provides a powerful indicator of human schistosomiasis transmission

Chelsea Wood, Susanne Sokolow, Isabel Jones, Andrew Chamberlin, Kevin Lafferty, Armand Kuris, Merlijn Jocque, Skylar Hopkins, Grant Adams, Julia Buck, Andrea Lund, Ana Garcia-Vedrenne, Evan Fiorenza, Jason Rohr, Fiona Allan, Bonnie Webster, Muriel Rabone, Joanne Webster, Lydie Bandagny, Raphael Ndione, Simon Senghor, Anne-Marie Schacht, Nicolas Jouanard, Gilles Riveau & Giulio De Leo
Recently, the World Health Organization recognized that efforts to interrupt schistosomiasis transmission through mass drug administration have been ineffective in some regions; one of their new recommended strategies for global schistosomiasis control emphasizes targeting the freshwater snails that transmit schistosome parasites. We sought to identify robust indicators that would enable precision targeting of these snails. At the site of the world’s largest recorded schistosomiasis epidemic—the Lower Senegal River Basin in Senegal—intensive sampling revealed positive relationships...

Cyclic guanosine monophosphate modulates locomotor acceleration induced by nitric oxide but not serotonin in Clione limacina central pattern generator swim interneurons

Thomas Pirtle & Richard Satterlie
Typically, the marine mollusk, Clione limacina, exhibits a slow, hovering locomotor gait to maintain its position in the water column. However, the animal exhibits behaviorally relevant locomotor swim acceleration during escape response and feeding behavior. Both nitric oxide and serotonin mediate this behavioral swim acceleration. In this study, we examine the role that the second messenger, cGMP, plays in mediating nitric oxide and serotonin induced swim acceleration. We observed that application of an analogue of...

Data from: Sizing ocean giants: patterns of intraspecific size variation in marine megafauna

Craig R. McClain, Meghan A. Balk, Mark C. Benfield, Trevor A. Branch, Catherine Chen, James Cosgrove, Alistair D. M. Dove, Leo C. Gaskins, Rebecca Helm, Frederick G. Hochberg, Frank B. Lee, Andrea Marshall, Steven E. McMurray, Caroline Schanche, Shane N. Stone, Andrew D. Thaler & Rebecca R. Helm
What are the greatest sizes that the largest marine megafauna obtain? This is a simple question with a difficult and complex answer. Many of the largest-sized species occur in the world’s oceans. For many of these, rarity, remoteness, and quite simply the logistics of measuring these giants has made obtaining accurate size measurements difficult. Inaccurate reports of maximum sizes run rampant through the scientific literature and popular media. Moreover, how intraspecific variation in the body...

Data from: Intraspecific predator inhibition, not a prey size refuge, enables oyster population persistence during predator outbreaks

Harriet S. Booth, Timothy J. Pusack, J.Wilson White, Chris D. Stallings, David L. Kimbro, HS Booth, DL Kimbro, TJ Pusack, CD Stallings & JW White
Predators commonly structure natural communities, but predation effects can vary greatly. For example, increasing predator densities may not reduce prey populations as expected if intraspecific predator interactions suppress foraging efficiency or if prey size refuges exist. In northeastern Florida (USA), outbreaks of the predatory crown conch Melongena corona have contributed to declines in oyster populations and the commercial oyster fishery. However, despite expectations of oyster population collapse, reefs have persisted, albeit with reduced adult oyster...

Maternal investment, ecological lifestyle, and brain evolution in sharks and rays

Christopher Mull, Kara Yopak & Nicholas Dulvy
Across vertebrates increased maternal investment (via increased pre- and postnatal provisioning) is associated with larger relative brain size, yet it remains unclear how brain organization is shaped by life history and ecology. Here, we tested whether maternal investment and ecological lifestyle are related to variation in brain size and organization across 100 chondrichthyans. We hypothesized that brain size and organization would vary with level of maternal investment and habitat depth and complexity. We found that...

Functional gene categories differentiate maize leaf drought-related microbial epiphytic communities

Ann Stapleton, Barbara Methe, Wenwei Xu, David Hiltbrand, Brad Goodner, Jeffrey Roach & Stuart Gordon
The phyllosphere epiphytic microbiome is composed of microorganisms that colonize the external aerial portions of plants. Relationships of plant responses to specific microorganisms–both pathogenic and beneficial–have been examined, but the phyllosphere microbiome functional and metabolic profile responses are not well described. Changing crop growth conditions, such as increased drought, can have profound impacts on crop productivity. Also, epiphytic microbial communities provide a new target for crop yield optimization. We compared Zea mays leaf microbiomes collected...

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Affiliations

  • University of North Carolina Wilmington
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