294 Works

Urbanization drives geographically heterogeneous freshwater salinization in the northeastern United States

Ryan Utz, Samantha Bidlack, Burch Fisher & Sujay Kaushal
Rising trends in freshwater salinity, collectively termed the Freshwater Salinization Syndrome (FSS), constitute a global environmental concern. Given that the FSS has been observed in diverse settings, key questions regarding the causes, trend magnitudes, and consequences remain. Prior work hypothesized that FSS is driven by state factors, such as human-centered land use change, geology, and climate. Here, we identify the fundamental overriding factors driving FSS within the northeastern United States and quantify the diversity of...

Eocene Terrane Accretion in Northern Cascadia Recorded by Brittle Left-lateral Slip on the San Juan Fault

Nicolas Harrichhausen, Kristin Morell, Christine Regalla, Emerson Lynch & Lucinda Leonard
The San Juan fault, on southern Vancouver Island, Canada, juxtaposes the oceanic Wrangellia and Pacific Rim terranes in the northern Cascadia forearc, and has been suggested to play a role in multiple Mesozoic--Cenozoic terrane accretion events. However, direct observations of the San Juan fault's kinematics have not been documented and its exact role in accommodating strain arising from terrane accretion is unknown. To test if, how, and when the San Juan fault accommodated accretion-related strain,...

Data from: Better safe than sorry: spider societies mitigate risk by prioritizing caution

Colin M. Wright, James L.L. Lichtenstein, Lauren P. Luscuskie, Graham A. Montgomery, Noa Pinter-Wollman & Jonathan N. Pruitt
Group members often vary in the information that they have about their environment. In this study, we evaluated the relative contribution of information held by the population majority vs. new immigrants to groups in determining group function. To do so we created experimental groups of the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola that were either iteratively exposed to a dangerous predator, the ant Anoplopepis custodiens, or kept in safety. We then seeded these groups (i.e., the population...

Data from: Synthesizing the effects of large, wild herbivore exclusion on ecosystem function

Elizabeth S. Forbes, J. Hall Cushman, Deron E. Burkepile, Truman P. Young, Maggie Klope & Hillary S. Young
1. Wild large herbivores are declining worldwide. Despite extensive use of exclosure experiments to investigate herbivore impacts, there is little consensus on the effects of wild large herbivores on ecosystem function. 2. Of the ecosystem functions likely impacted, we reviewed the five most-studied in exclosure experiments: ecosystem resilience/resistance to disturbance, nutrient cycling, carbon cycling, plant regeneration, and primary productivity. 3. Experimental data on large wild herbivores’ effects on ecosystem functions were predominately derived from temperate...

Data from: Phylogenetic patterns of trait and trait plasticity evolution: Insights from amphibian embryos

Rick Relyea, Patrick R. Stephens, Lisa N. Barrow, Andrew Blaustein, Paul Bradley, Julia Buck, Ann Chang, Brian I Crother, James Collins, Julia Earl, Stephanie S. Gervasi, Jason T. Hoverman, Olliver Hyman, Emily Claire Moriarty Lemmon, Thomas Luhring, Moses Michelsohn, Christopher M. Murray, Steven Price, Raymond Semlitsch, Andy Sih, Aaron Stoler, Nick VandenBroek, Alexa Warwick, Greta Wengert, John Hammond … & Aaron B. Stoler
Environmental variation favors the evolution of phenotypic plasticity. For many species, we understand the costs and benefits of different phenotypes, but we lack a broad understanding of how plastic traits evolve across large clades. Using identical experiments conducted across North America, we examined prey responses to predator cues. We quantified five life history traits and the magnitude of their plasticity for 23 amphibian species/populations (spanning three families and five genera) when exposed to no cues,...

Data from: Spatio-temporal models reveal subtle changes to demersal communities following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

Andrew O. Shelton, Mary E. Hunsicker, Eric J. Ward, Blake E. Feist, Rachael Blake, Colette L. Ward, Benjamin C. Williams, Janet T. Duffy-Anderson, Anne B. Hollowed & Alan C. Haynie
Toxic pollutants such as crude oil have direct negative effects for a wide array of marine life. While mortality from acute exposure to oil is obvious, sub-lethal consequences of exposure to petroleum derivatives for growth and reproduction are less evident and sub-lethal effects in fish populations are obscured by natural environmental variation, fishing, and measurement error. We use fisheries independent surveys in the Gulf of Alaska to examine the consequences of the 1989 Exxon Valdez...

Data from: Integrating lipid storage into general representations of fish energetics

Benjamin T. Martin, Ron Heintz, Eric M. Danner & Roger M. Nisbet
Fish, even of the same species, can exhibit substantial variation in energy density (energy per unit wet weight). Most of this variation is due to differences in the amount of storage lipids. In addition to their importance as energy reserves for reproduction and for survival during unfavourable conditions, the accumulation of lipids represents a large energetic flux for many species, so figuring out how this energy flux is integrated with other major energy fluxes (growth,...

Data from: The microscopic network structure of mussel (Mytilus) adhesive plaques

Emmanouela Filippidi, Daniel G. DeMartini, Paula Malo De Molina, Eric W. Danner, Juntae Kim, Matthew E. Helgeson, J. Herbert Waite & Megan T. Valentine
Marine mussels of the genus Mytilus live in the hostile intertidal zone, attached to rocks, bio-fouled surfaces and each other via collagen-rich threads ending in adhesive pads, the plaques. Plaques adhere in salty, alkaline seawater, withstanding waves and tidal currents. Each plaque requires a force of several newtons to detach. Although the molecular composition of the plaques has been well studied, a complete understanding of supra-molecular plaque architecture and its role in maintaining adhesive strength...

Data from: Personality composition alters the transmission of cuticular bacteria in social groups

Carl N. Keiser, Kimberly A. Howell, Noa Pinter-Wollman & Jonathan N. Pruitt
The initial stages of a disease outbreak can determine the magnitude of an epidemic. Though rarely tested in unison, two factors with important consequences for the infectious transmission dynamics are the traits of the susceptible population and the traits of the index case (i.e., “patient zero”). Here, we test whether the behavioural composition of a social group can explain horizontal transmission dynamics of cuticular bacteria using a social spider. We exposed focal spiders of known...

Data from: Evolutionary relatedness does not predict competition and co-occurrence in natural or experimental communities of green algae

Markos A. Alexandrou, John D. Hall, Charles F. Delwiche, Bradley J. Cardinale, Keith Fritschie, Bastian Bentlage, Anita Narwani, Patrick A. Venail, M. Sabrina Pankey & Todd H. Oakley
The competition-relatedness hypothesis (CRH) predicts that the strength of competition is the strongest among closely related species and decreases as species become less related. This hypothesis is based on the assumption that common ancestry causes close relatives to share biological traits that lead to greater ecological similarity. Although intuitively appealing, the extent to which phylogeny can predict competition and co-occurrence among species has only recently been rigorously tested, with mixed results. When studies have failed...

Data from: Evolution of critical day length for diapause induction enables range expansion of Diorhabda carinulata, a biological control agent against tamarisk (Tamarix spp.)

Dan W. Bean, Peter Dalin & Tom L. Dudley
In classical weed biological control, small collections of arthropods are made from one or a few sites in the native range of the target plant and are introduced to suppress the plant where it has become invasive, often across a wide geographic range. Ecological mismatches in the new range are likely, and success using the biocontrol agent may depend on post release evolution of beneficial life history traits. In this study we measure evolution of...

Data from: Invasive rat eradication strongly impacts plant recruitment on a tropical atoll

Coral A. Wolf, Hillary S. Young, Kelly M. Zilliacus, Alex S. Wegmann, Matthew McKown, Nick D. Holmes, Bernie R. Tershy, Rodolfo Dirzo, Stefan Kropidlowski, Donald A. Croll & Alexander S. Wegmann
Rat eradication has become a common conservation intervention in island ecosystems and its effectiveness in protecting native vertebrates is increasingly well documented. Yet, the impacts of rat eradication on plant communities remain poorly understood. Here we compare native and non-native tree and palm seedling abundance before and after eradication of invasive rats (Rattus rattus) from Palmyra Atoll, Line Islands, Central Pacific Ocean. Overall, seedling recruitment increased for five of the six native trees species examined....

Data from: Collective aggressiveness of an ecosystem engineer is associated with coral recovery

Jonathan N. Pruitt, Carl N. Keiser, Brett T. Banka, John S. Liedle, Andrew J. Brooks, Russ J. Schmitt & Sally J. Holbrook
The ecological impacts of animal groups may be different and predictable depending on their collective behavior. Farmerfish (Stegastes nigricans) live in social groups and collectively defend gardens of palatable algae. These gardens also serve as settlement and nursery habitats for corals because farmerfish mob corallivores that attempt to forage on corals within their gardens. We detected large among-colony differences in farmerfish collective aggression towards intruder fish that persist across years. We further found that the...

Floral traits influence the opportunity for selection among male gametophytes: independent and combined effects of style length and petal area

Susan Mazer, Joseph Chellew & Kristen Peach
The data set included here was used for the analyses published in a paper titled, " American Journal of Botany, for which the abstract is as follows: PREMISE: Strong correlations between traits can obscure their independent effects on components of reproduction. Style length (SL) and petal area (PA) vary within species, for example, but their independent effects on the opportunity for selection among pollen genotypes are poorly understood. Previous work in Clarkia detected a positive...

Forest Folks Data

Hanna Weyland
Data in this dataset was utilized as a part of the Bren School for Environmental Science & Management master's group project analyzing ecosystem services in the Tahoe Central Sierra Initiative.

Habitat Suitability Analysis of Larval Pacific Lamprey Habitat in the Columbia River Estuary

Ethan Hoffman, Craig Stuart, Lory Salazar-Velasquez & Krista Finlay
Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentata) are native fish to the Columbia River Basin. Over the past 60 years, anthropogenic disturbances have contributed to a 95% decline of historical population numbers. Member-tribes of the Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission have acknowledged the importance of Pacific lamprey to the Columbia River ecosystem and expressed concern about the loss of an essential tribal cultural resource. As a result, the Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission created the Tribal Pacific Lamprey...

Large Herbivore Nemabiomes: Patterns of Diversity and Sharing

Georgia Titcomb, Johan Pansu, Matthew Hutchinson, Kaia Tombak, Christina Hansen, Chris Baker, Tyler Kartzinel, Hillary Young & Robert Pringle
Amidst global shifts in the distribution and abundance of wildlife and livestock, we have only a rudimentary understanding of ungulate parasite communities and parasite-sharing patterns. We used qPCR and DNA metabarcoding of fecal samples to characterize gastrointestinal nematode (Strongylida) community composition and sharing among 17 sympatric species of wild and domestic large mammalian herbivore in central Kenya. We tested a suite of hypothesis-driven predictions about the role of host traits and phylogenetic relatedness in describing...

Data from: Biogeography of ocean acidification: differential field performance of transplanted mussels to upwelling-driven variation in carbonate chemistry

Bruce Menge, Francis Chan, Jeremy Rose, Eric Sanford, Peter Raimondi, Carol Blanchette & Tarik Gouhier
Ocean acidification (OA) represents a serious challenge to marine ecosystems. Laboratory studies addressing OA indicate broadly negative effects for marine organisms, particularly those relying on calcification processes. Growing evidence also suggests OA combined with other environmental stressors may be even more deleterious. Scaling these laboratory studies to ecological performance in the field, where environmental heterogeneity may mediate responses, is a critical next step toward understanding OA impacts on natural communities. We leveraged an upwelling-driven pH...

Data from: Laboratory culture of the California Sea Firefly Vargula tsujii (Ostracoda: Cypridinidae): developing a model system for the evolution of marine bioluminescence

Jessica A. Goodheart, Geetanjali Minsky, Mira N. Brynjegard-Bialik, Michael S. Drummond, J. David Munoz, Timothy R. Fallon, Darrin T. Schultz, Jing-Ke Weng, Elizabeth Torres & Todd H. Oakley
Bioluminescence, or the production of light by living organisms via chemical reaction, is widespread across Metazoa. Laboratory culture of bioluminescent organisms from diverse taxonomic groups is important for determining the biosynthetic pathways of bioluminescent substrates, which may lead to new tools for biotechnology and biomedicine. Some bioluminescent groups may be cultured, including some cnidarians, ctenophores, and brittle stars, but those use luminescent substrates (luciferins) obtained from their diets, and therefore are not informative for determination...

Glassy dynamics and memory effects in an intrinsically disordered protein construct

Ian Morgan, Ram Avinery, Gil Rahamim, Roy Beck & Omar Saleh
Glassy, nonexponential relaxations in globular proteins are typically attributed to conformational behaviors that are missing from intrinsically disordered proteins. Yet, we show that single molecules of a disordered-protein construct display two signatures of glassy dynamics, logarithmic relaxations and a Kovacs memory effect, in response to changes in applied tension. We attribute this to the presence of multiple independent local structures in the chain, which we corroborate with a model that correctly predicts the force-dependence of...

Data from: Mechanisms of severe dieback and mortality in a classically drought-tolerant shrubland species (Arctostaphylos glauca)

Laura Drake-Schultheis
PREMISE Mortality events involving drought and pathogens in natural plant systems are on the rise due to global climate change. In the Santa Ynez mountain range in Santa Barbara County, California, USA, big berry manzanita (Arctostaphylos glauca) has experienced canopy dieback related to both a multi-year drought, and infection from fungal pathogens in the Botryosphaeriaceae family. METHODS A full factorial greenhouse experiment with four treatment groups (drought + inoculation; drought – inoculation; watering + inoculation;...

Sea otter sequence capture project data files

Annabel Beichman, Pooneh Kalhori, Christopher Kyriazis, Amber De Vries, Sergio Nigenda-Morales, Klaus-Peter Koepfli, Gisela Heckel, Yolanda Schramm, Andres Moreno-Estrada, Douglas Kennett, Mark Hylkema, James Bodkin, Kirk Lohmueller & Robert Wayne
Extinction or severe population contractions are rarely uniform across an entire species. However, because of the rapid onset of the fur trade in the 18th and 19th centuries, sea otters (Enhydra lutris) were systematically hunted to near extinction across their entire Northern Pacific range. Many sea otter populations were driven fully extinct, and the populations that survived suffered a rapid decline from 10-20,000 individuals per population to fewer than one hundred survivors. Each surviving remnant...

Quantifying climate change impacts to City of Santa Barbara water supplies

Jessica Jagdeo, Juan Espinoza, Lydia Bleifuss & Camila Bobroff
Climate change affects water supply through changes in precipitation, temperature, and evapotranspiration. The City of Santa Barbara’s water supply relies largely on water held in Lake Cachuma and Gibraltar Reservoir, located in the upper Santa Ynez River watershed. Quantifying climate change impacts to this watershed is critical to planning for future water supply. This project modeled the potential impacts of climate change on the Santa Ynez River watershed out to 2058 using the Soil and...

Fastq files related to publication: At Palmyra Atoll, the fish‐community environmental DNA signal changes across habitats but not with tides

Kevin D. Lafferty, Ana E. Garcia‐Vedrenne, John P. McLaughlin, Jasmine N. Childress, Marisa F. Morse & Christopher L. Jerde
At Palmyra Atoll, the environmental DNA (eDNA) signal on tidal sand flats was associated with fish biomass density and captured 98%–100% of the expected species diversity there. Although eDNA spilled over across habitats, species associated with reef habitat contributed more eDNA to reef sites than to sand-flat sites, and species associated with sand-flat habitat contributed more eDNA to sand-flat sites than to reef sites. Tides did not disrupt the sand-flat habitat signal. At least 25...

Imaging orbital ferromagnetism in a moire Chern insulator

Charles Tschirhart, Marec Serlin, Hryhoriy Polshyn, Avi Shragai, Zhengchao Xia, Jiacheng Zhu, Yuxuan Zhang, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Martin Huber & Andrea Young
Electrons in moire flat band systems can spontaneously break time reversal symmetry, giving rise to a quantized anomalous Hall effect. Here we use a superconducting quantum interference device to image stray magnetic fields in twisted bilayer graphene aligned to hexagonal boron nitride. We find a magnetization of several Bohr magnetons per charge carrier, demonstrating that the magnetism is primarily orbital in nature. Our measurements reveal a large change in the magnetization as the chemical potential...

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