353 Works

Data from: Evolution of critical day length for diapause induction enables range expansion of Diorhabda carinulata, a biological control agent against tamarisk (Tamarix spp.)

Dan W. Bean, Peter Dalin & Tom L. Dudley
In classical weed biological control, small collections of arthropods are made from one or a few sites in the native range of the target plant and are introduced to suppress the plant where it has become invasive, often across a wide geographic range. Ecological mismatches in the new range are likely, and success using the biocontrol agent may depend on post release evolution of beneficial life history traits. In this study we measure evolution of...

Data from: Inclusive fitness and differential productivity across the life course determine intergenerational transfers in a small-scale human society

Paul L. Hooper, Michael Gurven, Jeffrey Winking & Hillard S. Kaplan
Transfers of resources between generations are an essential element in current models of human life-history evolution accounting for prolonged development, extended lifespan and menopause. Integrating these models with Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness, we predict that the interaction of biological kinship with the age-schedule of resource production should be a key driver of intergenerational transfers. In the empirical case of Tsimane’ forager–horticulturalists in Bolivian Amazonia, we provide a detailed characterization of net transfers of food...

Data from: Comparing entire colour patterns as birds see them

John A. Endler & Paul W. Mielke
Colour patterns and their visual backgrounds consist of a mosaic of patches that vary in colour, brightness, size, shape and position. Most studies of crypsis, aposematism, sexual selection, or other forms of signalling concentrate on one or two patch classes (colours), either ignoring the rest of the colour pattern, or analysing the patches separately. We summarize methods of comparing colour patterns making use of known properties of bird eyes. The methods are easily modifiable for...

Data from: Evolutionary relatedness does not predict competition and co-occurrence in natural or experimental communities of green algae

Markos A. Alexandrou, John D. Hall, Charles F. Delwiche, Bradley J. Cardinale, Keith Fritschie, Bastian Bentlage, Anita Narwani, Patrick A. Venail, M. Sabrina Pankey & Todd H. Oakley
The competition-relatedness hypothesis (CRH) predicts that the strength of competition is the strongest among closely related species and decreases as species become less related. This hypothesis is based on the assumption that common ancestry causes close relatives to share biological traits that lead to greater ecological similarity. Although intuitively appealing, the extent to which phylogeny can predict competition and co-occurrence among species has only recently been rigorously tested, with mixed results. When studies have failed...

Data from: Personality composition alters the transmission of cuticular bacteria in social groups

Carl N. Keiser, Kimberly A. Howell, Noa Pinter-Wollman & Jonathan N. Pruitt
The initial stages of a disease outbreak can determine the magnitude of an epidemic. Though rarely tested in unison, two factors with important consequences for the infectious transmission dynamics are the traits of the susceptible population and the traits of the index case (i.e., “patient zero”). Here, we test whether the behavioural composition of a social group can explain horizontal transmission dynamics of cuticular bacteria using a social spider. We exposed focal spiders of known...

Data from: The microscopic network structure of mussel (Mytilus) adhesive plaques

Emmanouela Filippidi, Daniel G. DeMartini, Paula Malo De Molina, Eric W. Danner, Juntae Kim, Matthew E. Helgeson, J. Herbert Waite & Megan T. Valentine
Marine mussels of the genus Mytilus live in the hostile intertidal zone, attached to rocks, bio-fouled surfaces and each other via collagen-rich threads ending in adhesive pads, the plaques. Plaques adhere in salty, alkaline seawater, withstanding waves and tidal currents. Each plaque requires a force of several newtons to detach. Although the molecular composition of the plaques has been well studied, a complete understanding of supra-molecular plaque architecture and its role in maintaining adhesive strength...

Data from: Rapid evolution accelerates plant population spread in fragmented experimental landscapes

Jennifer L. Williams, Bruce E. Kendall & Jonathan M. Levine
Predicting the speed of biological invasions and native species migrations requires an understanding of the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of spreading populations. Theory predicts that evolution can accelerate species’ spread velocity, but how landscape patchiness—an important control over traits under selection—influences this process is unknown. We manipulated the response to selection in populations of a model plant species spreading through replicated experimental landscapes of varying patchiness. After six generations of change, evolving populations spread 11%...

Data from: Distinct roles of visual, parietal, and frontal motor cortices in memory-guided sensorimotor decisions

Michael J. Goard, Gerald N. Pho, Jonathan Woodson & Mriganka Sur
Mapping specific sensory features to future motor actions is a crucial capability of mammalian nervous systems. We investigated the role of visual (V1), posterior parietal (PPC), and frontal motor (fMC) cortices for sensorimotor mapping in mice during performance of a memory-guided visual discrimination task. Large-scale calcium imaging revealed that V1, PPC, and fMC neurons exhibited heterogeneous responses spanning all task epochs (stimulus, delay, response). Population analyses demonstrated unique encoding of stimulus identity and behavioral choice...

Data from: Conservation planning for offsetting the impacts of development: a case study of biodiversity and renewable energy in the Mojave Desert

Jason Kreitler, Carrie A. Schloss, Oliver Soong, Lee Hannah & Frank W. Davis
Balancing society's competing needs of development and conservation requires careful consideration of tradeoffs. Renewable energy development and biodiversity conservation are often considered beneficial environmental goals. However, the direct footprint and disturbance of renewable energy can displace species' habitat and negatively impact populations and communities if sited without ecological consideration. To mitigate residual impacts, offsets have emerged as a potentially useful tool after trying to avoid, minimize, or restore affected sites. Yet where many species or...

Data from: Phenological responsiveness to climate differs among four species of Quercus in North America

Katharine L. Gerst, Natalie L. Rossington & Susan J. Mazer
1.The timing of the seasonal activity of organisms is a tractable indicator of climate change. Many studies in North America have investigated the role of temperature on the onset date of phenological transitions in temperate deciduous trees and found that the onset of leafing and flowering in numerous species has occurred earlier in recent years, apparently in response to higher temperatures in winter and spring. 2.Few studies have examined the climatic and biogeographic drivers of...

Social context, but not individual personality, alters immigrant viability in a spider with mixed social structure

Jessica Purcell, Spencer Ingley, Jonathan Pruitt & Inon Scharf
Immigrant viability is a major determinant of the realized rate of gene flow across populations. For social organisms, the social context in which immigrants disperse across contrasting environments may have important implications for their viability post dispersal. Here, we use social spiders whose individual personalities as well as group personality compositions vary across sites to test whether the strength of selection against immigrants (i.e. mortality rates) differs depending on whether spiders are transplanted (1) as...

Data from: Spatio-temporal models reveal subtle changes to demersal communities following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

Andrew O. Shelton, Mary E. Hunsicker, Eric J. Ward, Blake E. Feist, Rachael Blake, Colette L. Ward, Benjamin C. Williams, Janet T. Duffy-Anderson, Anne B. Hollowed & Alan C. Haynie
Toxic pollutants such as crude oil have direct negative effects for a wide array of marine life. While mortality from acute exposure to oil is obvious, sub-lethal consequences of exposure to petroleum derivatives for growth and reproduction are less evident and sub-lethal effects in fish populations are obscured by natural environmental variation, fishing, and measurement error. We use fisheries independent surveys in the Gulf of Alaska to examine the consequences of the 1989 Exxon Valdez...

Data from: Integrating lipid storage into general representations of fish energetics

Benjamin T. Martin, Ron Heintz, Eric M. Danner & Roger M. Nisbet
Fish, even of the same species, can exhibit substantial variation in energy density (energy per unit wet weight). Most of this variation is due to differences in the amount of storage lipids. In addition to their importance as energy reserves for reproduction and for survival during unfavourable conditions, the accumulation of lipids represents a large energetic flux for many species, so figuring out how this energy flux is integrated with other major energy fluxes (growth,...

Data from: Dermal denticle assemblages in coral reef sediments correlate with conventional shark surveys

Erin Dillon, Kevin Lafferty, Douglas McCauley, Darcy Bradley, Richard Norris, Jennifer Caselle, Graziella DiRenzo, Jonathan Gardner & Aaron O'Dea
It is challenging to assess long-term trends in mobile, long-lived, and relatively rare species such as sharks. Despite ongoing declines in many coastal shark populations, conventional surveys might be too fleeting and too recent to describe population trends over decades to millennia. Placing recent shark declines into historical context should improve management efforts as well as our understanding of past ecosystem dynamics. A new paleoecological approach for surveying shark abundance on coral reefs is to...

Species diversity of fungal endophytes across a stress gradient for plants

Ryoko Oono, Danielle Black, Eric Slessarev, Burton Sickler, Amanda Strom & Austen Apigo
Foliar fungal endophytes are one of the most diverse guilds of symbiotic fungi found in the photosynthetic tissues of every plant lineage, but it is unclear how plant environments and leaf resource availability shape their diversity. We explored correlations between leaf nutrient availability and endophyte diversity among Pinus muricata and Vaccinium ovatum plants growing across a soil nutrient gradient spanning a series of coastal terraces in Mendocino, California. Endophyte richness decreased in plants with higher...

Data from: Spatial separation without territoriality in shark communities

Yannis P. Papastamatiou, Thomas W. Bodey, Alan M. Friedlander, Christopher G. Lowe, Darcy Bradley, Kevin Weng, Victoria Priestley & Jennifer E. Caselle
Spatial separation within predator communities can arise via territoriality but also from competitive interactions between and within species. However, linking competitive interactions to predator distribution patterns is difficult and theoretical models predict different habitat selection patterns dependent on habitat quality and how competition manifests itself. While models generally consider competitors to be either equal in ability, or for one phenotype to have a fixed advantage over the other, few studies consider that an animal may...

Data from: Biogeography of ocean acidification: differential field performance of transplanted mussels to upwelling-driven variation in carbonate chemistry

Bruce Menge, Francis Chan, Jeremy Rose, Eric Sanford, Peter Raimondi, Carol Blanchette & Tarik Gouhier
Ocean acidification (OA) represents a serious challenge to marine ecosystems. Laboratory studies addressing OA indicate broadly negative effects for marine organisms, particularly those relying on calcification processes. Growing evidence also suggests OA combined with other environmental stressors may be even more deleterious. Scaling these laboratory studies to ecological performance in the field, where environmental heterogeneity may mediate responses, is a critical next step toward understanding OA impacts on natural communities. We leveraged an upwelling-driven pH...

Data from: Additive effects of pCO2 and temperature on respiration rates of the Antarctic pteropod Limacina helicina antarctica

Umihiko Hoshijima, Juliet M. Wong & Gretchen E. Hofmann
The Antarctic pteropod, Limacina helicina antarctica, is a dominant member of the zooplankton in the Ross Sea and supports the vast diversity of marine megafauna that designates this region as an internationally protected area. Here, we observed the response of respiration rate to abiotic stressors associated with global change – environmentally relevant temperature (-0.8˚C, 4˚C) and pH treatments reflecting current-day and future modeled extremes. Sampling repeatedly over a 14-day period in laboratory experiments and using...

Data from: Laboratory culture of the California Sea Firefly Vargula tsujii (Ostracoda: Cypridinidae): developing a model system for the evolution of marine bioluminescence

Jessica A. Goodheart, Geetanjali Minsky, Mira N. Brynjegard-Bialik, Michael S. Drummond, J. David Munoz, Timothy R. Fallon, Darrin T. Schultz, Jing-Ke Weng, Elizabeth Torres & Todd H. Oakley
Bioluminescence, or the production of light by living organisms via chemical reaction, is widespread across Metazoa. Laboratory culture of bioluminescent organisms from diverse taxonomic groups is important for determining the biosynthetic pathways of bioluminescent substrates, which may lead to new tools for biotechnology and biomedicine. Some bioluminescent groups may be cultured, including some cnidarians, ctenophores, and brittle stars, but those use luminescent substrates (luciferins) obtained from their diets, and therefore are not informative for determination...

Data from: Mechanisms of severe dieback and mortality in a classically drought-tolerant shrubland species (Arctostaphylos glauca)

Laura Drake-Schultheis
PREMISE Mortality events involving drought and pathogens in natural plant systems are on the rise due to global climate change. In the Santa Ynez mountain range in Santa Barbara County, California, USA, big berry manzanita (Arctostaphylos glauca) has experienced canopy dieback related to both a multi-year drought, and infection from fungal pathogens in the Botryosphaeriaceae family. METHODS A full factorial greenhouse experiment with four treatment groups (drought + inoculation; drought – inoculation; watering + inoculation;...

Quantifying climate change impacts to City of Santa Barbara water supplies

Jessica Jagdeo, Juan Espinoza, Lydia Bleifuss & Camila Bobroff
Climate change affects water supply through changes in precipitation, temperature, and evapotranspiration. The City of Santa Barbara’s water supply relies largely on water held in Lake Cachuma and Gibraltar Reservoir, located in the upper Santa Ynez River watershed. Quantifying climate change impacts to this watershed is critical to planning for future water supply. This project modeled the potential impacts of climate change on the Santa Ynez River watershed out to 2058 using the Soil and...

Data from: Estimating encounter rates as the first step of sexual selection in the lizard Anolis sagrei

Ambika Kamath & Jonathan B. Losos
How individuals move through their environment dictates which other individuals they encounter, determining their social and reproductive interactions and the extent to which they experience sexual selection. Specifically, females rarely have the option of mating with all males in a population—they can only choose among the males they encounter. Further, quantifying phenotypic differences between the males that females encounter and those that sire females’ offspring lends insight into how social and reproductive interactions shape male...

Data from: Collective aggressiveness of an ecosystem engineer is associated with coral recovery

Jonathan N. Pruitt, Carl N. Keiser, Brett T. Banka, John S. Liedle, Andrew J. Brooks, Russ J. Schmitt & Sally J. Holbrook
The ecological impacts of animal groups may be different and predictable depending on their collective behavior. Farmerfish (Stegastes nigricans) live in social groups and collectively defend gardens of palatable algae. These gardens also serve as settlement and nursery habitats for corals because farmerfish mob corallivores that attempt to forage on corals within their gardens. We detected large among-colony differences in farmerfish collective aggression towards intruder fish that persist across years. We further found that the...

Data from: Phylogenetic patterns of trait and trait plasticity evolution: Insights from amphibian embryos

Rick Relyea, Patrick R. Stephens, Lisa N. Barrow, Andrew Blaustein, Paul Bradley, Julia Buck, Ann Chang, Brian I Crother, James Collins, Julia Earl, Stephanie S. Gervasi, Jason T. Hoverman, Olliver Hyman, Emily Claire Moriarty Lemmon, Thomas Luhring, Moses Michelsohn, Christopher M. Murray, Steven Price, Raymond Semlitsch, Andy Sih, Aaron Stoler, Nick VandenBroek, Alexa Warwick, Greta Wengert, John Hammond … & Aaron B. Stoler
Environmental variation favors the evolution of phenotypic plasticity. For many species, we understand the costs and benefits of different phenotypes, but we lack a broad understanding of how plastic traits evolve across large clades. Using identical experiments conducted across North America, we examined prey responses to predator cues. We quantified five life history traits and the magnitude of their plasticity for 23 amphibian species/populations (spanning three families and five genera) when exposed to no cues,...

Data from: Invasive rat eradication strongly impacts plant recruitment on a tropical atoll

Coral A. Wolf, Hillary S. Young, Kelly M. Zilliacus, Alex S. Wegmann, Matthew McKown, Nick D. Holmes, Bernie R. Tershy, Rodolfo Dirzo, Stefan Kropidlowski, Donald A. Croll & Alexander S. Wegmann
Rat eradication has become a common conservation intervention in island ecosystems and its effectiveness in protecting native vertebrates is increasingly well documented. Yet, the impacts of rat eradication on plant communities remain poorly understood. Here we compare native and non-native tree and palm seedling abundance before and after eradication of invasive rats (Rattus rattus) from Palmyra Atoll, Line Islands, Central Pacific Ocean. Overall, seedling recruitment increased for five of the six native trees species examined....

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