333 Works

Floral traits influence the opportunity for selection among male gametophytes: independent and combined effects of style length and petal area

Susan Mazer, Joseph Chellew & Kristen Peach
The data set included here was used for the analyses published in a paper titled, " American Journal of Botany, for which the abstract is as follows: PREMISE: Strong correlations between traits can obscure their independent effects on components of reproduction. Style length (SL) and petal area (PA) vary within species, for example, but their independent effects on the opportunity for selection among pollen genotypes are poorly understood. Previous work in Clarkia detected a positive...

Data from: Better safe than sorry: spider societies mitigate risk by prioritizing caution

Colin M. Wright, James L.L. Lichtenstein, Lauren P. Luscuskie, Graham A. Montgomery, Noa Pinter-Wollman & Jonathan N. Pruitt
Group members often vary in the information that they have about their environment. In this study, we evaluated the relative contribution of information held by the population majority vs. new immigrants to groups in determining group function. To do so we created experimental groups of the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola that were either iteratively exposed to a dangerous predator, the ant Anoplopepis custodiens, or kept in safety. We then seeded these groups (i.e., the population...

Data from: Synthesizing the effects of large, wild herbivore exclusion on ecosystem function

Elizabeth S. Forbes, J. Hall Cushman, Deron E. Burkepile, Truman P. Young, Maggie Klope & Hillary S. Young
1. Wild large herbivores are declining worldwide. Despite extensive use of exclosure experiments to investigate herbivore impacts, there is little consensus on the effects of wild large herbivores on ecosystem function. 2. Of the ecosystem functions likely impacted, we reviewed the five most-studied in exclosure experiments: ecosystem resilience/resistance to disturbance, nutrient cycling, carbon cycling, plant regeneration, and primary productivity. 3. Experimental data on large wild herbivores’ effects on ecosystem functions were predominately derived from temperate...

Data from: Biogeography of ocean acidification: differential field performance of transplanted mussels to upwelling-driven variation in carbonate chemistry

Bruce Menge, Francis Chan, Jeremy Rose, Eric Sanford, Peter Raimondi, Carol Blanchette & Tarik Gouhier
Ocean acidification (OA) represents a serious challenge to marine ecosystems. Laboratory studies addressing OA indicate broadly negative effects for marine organisms, particularly those relying on calcification processes. Growing evidence also suggests OA combined with other environmental stressors may be even more deleterious. Scaling these laboratory studies to ecological performance in the field, where environmental heterogeneity may mediate responses, is a critical next step toward understanding OA impacts on natural communities. We leveraged an upwelling-driven pH...

Causes of delayed outbreak responses and their impacts on epidemic spread

Yun Tao, Matthew Ferrari, Katriona Shea, William Probeert, Michael Runge, Kevin Lafferty & Michael Tildesley
Livestock diseases have devastating consequences economically, socially, and politically across the globe. In certain systems, pathogens remain viable after host death, which enables residual transmissions from infected carcasses. Rapid culling and carcass disposal are well-established strategies for stamping out an outbreak and limiting its impact, however, wait-times for these procedures, i.e., response delays, are typically farm-specific and time-varying due to logistical constraints. Failing to incorporate variable response delays in epidemiological models may understate outbreak projections...

Land use impacts on parasitic infection: A cross-sectional epidemiological study on the role of irrigated agriculture in schistosome infection in a dammed landscape

Andrea Lund, David Rehkopf, Susanne Sokolow, M. Moustapha Sam, Nicolas Jouanard, Anne-Marie Schacht, Simon Senghor, Assane Fall, Gilles Riveau, Giulio De Leo & David Lopez-Carr
Background: Water resources development promotes agricultural expansion and food security. But are these benefits offset by increased infectious disease risk? Dam construction on the Senegal River in 1986 was followed by agricultural expansion and increased transmission of human schistosomes. Yet the mechanisms linking these processes at the individual and household levels remain unclear. We investigated the association between household land use and schistosome infection in children. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional household survey data (n =...

Putative resistance and tolerance mechanisms have little impact on disease progression for an emerging salamander pathogen

Mark Wilber, Edward Carter, Matthew Gray & Cheryl Briggs
1. Resistance and tolerance are unique host defense strategies that can limit the impacts of a pathogen on a host. However, for most wildlife-pathogen systems there are still fundamental uncertainties regarding 1) how changes in resistance and tolerance can affect disease outcomes and 2) the mechanisms underlying resistance and tolerance in host populations. 2. Here, we first compared observed patterns of resistance and tolerance and their effects on disease outcomes among salamander species that are...

Fastq files related to publication: At Palmyra Atoll, the fish‐community environmental DNA signal changes across habitats but not with tides

Kevin D. Lafferty, Ana E. Garcia‐Vedrenne, John P. McLaughlin, Jasmine N. Childress, Marisa F. Morse & Christopher L. Jerde
At Palmyra Atoll, the environmental DNA (eDNA) signal on tidal sand flats was associated with fish biomass density and captured 98%–100% of the expected species diversity there. Although eDNA spilled over across habitats, species associated with reef habitat contributed more eDNA to reef sites than to sand-flat sites, and species associated with sand-flat habitat contributed more eDNA to sand-flat sites than to reef sites. Tides did not disrupt the sand-flat habitat signal. At least 25...

Analyzing environmental and social impacts of urban forestry practices in Tacoma, WA with PlanIT Geo

Joanne Pham, Veronica Weber & Rachel Conway
Urban forestry encompasses street trees, residential trees, park trees and greenbelt vegetation. Despite local groups’ efforts and trends in better forest management practices, there is an unequal distribution of urban forests and their associated ecosystem services across most of the United States. Evaluating canopy distribution is the first step to enable cities to better devote limited resources to marginalized communities, which often have additional equity concerns. Our project will help the urban forestry nonprofit, PlanIT...

Glassy dynamics and memory effects in an intrinsically disordered protein construct

Ian Morgan, Ram Avinery, Gil Rahamim, Roy Beck & Omar Saleh
Glassy, nonexponential relaxations in globular proteins are typically attributed to conformational behaviors that are missing from intrinsically disordered proteins. Yet, we show that single molecules of a disordered-protein construct display two signatures of glassy dynamics, logarithmic relaxations and a Kovacs memory effect, in response to changes in applied tension. We attribute this to the presence of multiple independent local structures in the chain, which we corroborate with a model that correctly predicts the force-dependence of...

Imaging orbital ferromagnetism in a moire Chern insulator

Charles Tschirhart, Marec Serlin, Hryhoriy Polshyn, Avi Shragai, Zhengchao Xia, Jiacheng Zhu, Yuxuan Zhang, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Martin Huber & Andrea Young
Electrons in moire flat band systems can spontaneously break time reversal symmetry, giving rise to a quantized anomalous Hall effect. Here we use a superconducting quantum interference device to image stray magnetic fields in twisted bilayer graphene aligned to hexagonal boron nitride. We find a magnetization of several Bohr magnetons per charge carrier, demonstrating that the magnetism is primarily orbital in nature. Our measurements reveal a large change in the magnetization as the chemical potential...

Silicate Compositions Database

Andrew Ericks, Frank Zok, David Poerschke & Carlos Levi
Degradation of thermal and environmental barrier coatings (T/EBC) by interactions with molten silicate deposits (ash, sand, dust) poses a fundamental threat to progress in gas turbine technology. This file is the first publicly available, comprehensive database of its kind on potential silicate deposits. It features in an accompanying article addressing an original ICME-inspired approach (Integrated Computational Materials Engineering) to analyzing the high dimensional data. The article responds to a longstanding need for identifying a reasonable...

Isospin magnetism and spin-polarized superconductivity in Bernal bilayer graphene

Haoxin Zhou, Ludwig Holleis, Yu Saito, Liam Cohen, William Huynh, Caitlin Patterson, Fangyuan Yang, Takashi Taniguchi, Kenji Watanabe & Andrea Young
We report the observation of spin-polarized superconductivity in Bernal bilayer graphene when doped to a saddle-point van Hove singularity generated by large applied perpendicular electric field. We observe a cascade of electrostatic gate-tuned transitions between electronic phases distinguished by their polarization within the isospin space defined by the combination of the spin and momentum-space valley degrees of freedom. While all of these phases are metallic at zero magnetic field, we observe a transition to a...

Sea otter sequence capture project data files

Annabel Beichman, Pooneh Kalhori, Christopher Kyriazis, Amber De Vries, Sergio Nigenda-Morales, Klaus-Peter Koepfli, Gisela Heckel, Yolanda Schramm, Andres Moreno-Estrada, Douglas Kennett, Mark Hylkema, James Bodkin, Kirk Lohmueller & Robert Wayne
Extinction or severe population contractions are rarely uniform across an entire species. However, because of the rapid onset of the fur trade in the 18th and 19th centuries, sea otters (Enhydra lutris) were systematically hunted to near extinction across their entire Northern Pacific range. Many sea otter populations were driven fully extinct, and the populations that survived suffered a rapid decline from 10-20,000 individuals per population to fewer than one hundred survivors. Each surviving remnant...

Projected climate risk of aquatic food system benefits

Michelle Tigchelaar, William Cheung, Essam Mohammed, Michael Phillips, Hanna Payne, Elizabeth Selig, Colette Wabnitz, Muhammed Oyinlola, Thomas Frölicher, Jessica Gephart, Christopher Golden, Edward Allison, Abigail Bennett, Ling Cao, Jessica Fanzo, Benjamin Halpern, Fiorenza Micheli, Rosamond Naylor, Rashid Sumaila, Alessandro Tagliabue & Max Troell
Aquatic foods from marine and freshwater systems are critical to the nutrition, health, livelihoods, economies and culture of billions of people worldwide – but climate-related hazards may compromise their ability to provide these benefits. This analysis estimates national-level aquatic food system climate risk using a fuzzy logic modeling approach that connects climate hazards impacting marine and freshwater capture fisheries and aquaculture to their contributions to sustainable food system outcomes, and vulnerability to losing those contributions....

Teaching undergraduates with quantitative data in the social sciences at University of California Santa Barbara

Renata Gonçalves Curty, Rebecca Greer & Torin White
The interview data was gathered for a project that investigated the practices of instructors who use quantitative data to teach undergraduate courses within the Social Sciences. The study was undertaken by employees of the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) Library, who participated in this research project with 19 other colleges and universities across the U.S. under the direction of Ithaka S+R. Ithaka S+R is a New York-based research organization, which, among other goals, seeks...

Microbarom low-frequency data products of the International Monitoring System’s infrasound stations

Patrick Hupe, Lars Ceranna, Alexis Le Pichon, Robin Matoza & Pierrick Mialle
This data series consists of data products derived from broadband signal detection lists that have been processed for the certified infrasound stations of the International Monitoring System. More specifically, this data series covers the dominant frequency range of microbaroms (0.15-0.35 Hz) and is therefore called the ‘mb_lf’ product. The temporal resolution (time step and window length) is 15 min. For processing the infrasound data, the Progressive Multi-Channel Correlation (PMCC) array processing algorithm with a one-third...

Forest Folks Data

Hanna Weyland
Data in this dataset was utilized as a part of the Bren School for Environmental Science & Management master's group project analyzing ecosystem services in the Tahoe Central Sierra Initiative.

Habitat Suitability Analysis of Larval Pacific Lamprey Habitat in the Columbia River Estuary

Ethan Hoffman, Craig Stuart, Lory Salazar-Velasquez & Krista Finlay
Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentata) are native fish to the Columbia River Basin. Over the past 60 years, anthropogenic disturbances have contributed to a 95% decline of historical population numbers. Member-tribes of the Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission have acknowledged the importance of Pacific lamprey to the Columbia River ecosystem and expressed concern about the loss of an essential tribal cultural resource. As a result, the Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission created the Tribal Pacific Lamprey...

Emergent properties as by-products of prebiotic evolution of aminoacylation ribozymes

Evan Janzen, Yuning Shen, Alberto Vazquez-Salazar, Ziwei Liu, Celia Blanco, Josh Kenchel & Irene Chen
The emergence of the genetic code was a major transition in the evolution from a prebiotic RNA world to the earliest modern cells. A prominent feature of the standard genetic code is error minimization, or the tendency of mutations to be unusually conservative in preserving biophysical features of the amino acid. While error minimization is often assumed to result from natural selection, it has also been speculated that error minimization may be a by-product of...

Play Sustainaball: An environmental footprint for an MLB team season

Hannah Brady, Gabrielle Barsotti, Jordan Davis, Carly Norris & Eric Shaphran
In recent years, there has been increased attention and focus from the public on the environmental impact of professional sports organizations. Significant opportunities exist for Major League Baseball (MLB) teams to both reduce their own environmental footprint, and that of their fans, through sustainability initiatives. Despite stadiums using upwards of ten million gallons of water per year and having the same energy needs as a small city, no MLB team has completed a public-facing quantification...

Large Herbivore Nemabiomes: Patterns of Diversity and Sharing

Georgia Titcomb, Johan Pansu, Matthew Hutchinson, Kaia Tombak, Christina Hansen, Chris Baker, Tyler Kartzinel, Hillary Young & Robert Pringle
Amidst global shifts in the distribution and abundance of wildlife and livestock, we have only a rudimentary understanding of ungulate parasite communities and parasite-sharing patterns. We used qPCR and DNA metabarcoding of fecal samples to characterize gastrointestinal nematode (Strongylida) community composition and sharing among 17 sympatric species of wild and domestic large mammalian herbivore in central Kenya. We tested a suite of hypothesis-driven predictions about the role of host traits and phylogenetic relatedness in describing...

Urbanization drives geographically heterogeneous freshwater salinization in the northeastern United States

Ryan Utz, Samantha Bidlack, Burch Fisher & Sujay Kaushal
Rising trends in freshwater salinity, collectively termed the Freshwater Salinization Syndrome (FSS), constitute a global environmental concern. Given that the FSS has been observed in diverse settings, key questions regarding the causes, trend magnitudes, and consequences remain. Prior work hypothesized that FSS is driven by state factors, such as human-centered land use change, geology, and climate. Here, we identify the fundamental overriding factors driving FSS within the northeastern United States and quantify the diversity of...

Supplementary material from \"Changes in invertebrate food Web structure between high- and low-productivity environments are driven by intermediate but not top-predator diet shifts\"

Ana Miller-ter Kuile, Austen Apigo, An Bui, Kirsten Butner, Jasmine N. Childress, Stephanie Copeland, Bartholomew P. DiFiore, Elizabeth S. Forbes, Maggie Klope, Carina I. Motta, Devyn Orr, Katherine A. Plummer, Daniel L. Preston & Hillary S. Young
Predator–prey interactions shape ecosystem stability and are influenced by changes in ecosystem productivity. However, because multiple biotic and abiotic drivers shape the trophic responses of predators to productivity, we often observe patterns, but not mechanisms, by which productivity drives food Web structure. One way to capture mechanisms shaping trophic response is to quantify trophic interactions among multiple trophic groups and by using complementary metrics of trophic ecology. In this study, we combine two diet-tracing methods:...

Icelandic Volcanic Rocks Isotopic Database (IVID)

Sunna Harðardóttir, Simon Matthews, Sæmundur Ari Halldórsson & Matthew Jackson
We compile a new geochemical database (Icelandic Volcanic rocks Isotopic Database, IVID) which includes previously reported 87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd, 176Hf/177Hf, 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, 208Pb/204Pb, 187Os/188Os and 3He/4He data and major and trace element concentrations measured in Icelandic volcanic rocks. Isotopic compositions were evaluated, and filtered to identify the highest quality data and data most likely to represent mantle-derived compositions. The carefully filtered, comprehensive geochemical database is an important contribution to the geochemical community and can be used...

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