194 Works

Data from: Exploitation and recovery of a sea urchin predator has implications for the resilience of southern California kelp forests

Scott L. Hamilton & Jennifer E. Caselle
Size-structured predator–prey interactions can be altered by the history of exploitation, if that exploitation is itself size-selective. For example, selective harvesting of larger sized predators can release prey populations in cases where only large individuals are capable of consuming a particular prey species. In this study, we examined how the history of exploitation and recovery (inside marine reserves and due to fisheries management) of California sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher) has affected size-structured interactions with sea urchin...

Data from: DNA extraction method affects the detection of a fungal pathogen in formalin-fixed specimens using qPCR

Andrea J. Adams, John P. LaBonte, Morgan L. Ball, Kathryn L. Richards-Hrdlicka, Mary H. Toothman & Cheryl J. Briggs
Museum collections provide indispensable repositories for obtaining information about the historical presence of disease in wildlife populations. The pathogenic amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has played a significant role in global amphibian declines, and examining preserved specimens for Bd can improve our understanding of its emergence and spread. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) enables Bd detection with minimal disturbance to amphibian skin and is significantly more sensitive to detecting Bd than histology; therefore, developing effective qPCR...

Data from: Seascape drivers of Macrocystis pyrifera population genetic structure in the northeast Pacific

Mattias L. Johansson, Filipe Alberto, Daniel C. Reed, Peter T. Raimondi, Nelson C. Coelho, Mary A. Young, Patrick T. Drake, Christopher A. Edwards, Kyle Cavanaugh, Jorge Assis, Lydia B. Ladah, Tom W. Bell, James A. Coyer, David A. Siegel & Ester A. Serrão
At small spatial and temporal scales, genetic differentiation is largely controlled by constraints on gene flow, while genetic diversity across a species' distribution is shaped on longer temporal and spatial scales. We assess the hypothesis that oceanographic transport and other seascape features explain different scales of genetic structure of giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera. We followed a hierarchical approach to perform a microsatellite-based analysis of genetic differentiation in Macrocystis across its distribution in the northeast Pacific....

Data from: Bolstered physical defences under nutrient-enriched conditions may facilitate a secondary foundational algal species in the South Pacific

Sarah Joy Bittick, Rachel Joy Clausing, Caitlin Ryan Fong & Peggy Fong
1. Humans have a long history of changing species’ ranges and habitat distributions, making studies of the ecological processes that may facilitate these changes of key importance, particularly in cases where a primary foundation species is replaced by another, less desirable species. 2. We investigated the impact of nutrients and herbivory on Turbinaria ornata, a secondary foundational macroalga that depends on and likely competes with coral, the primary foundational community. T. ornata is also rapidly...

Data from: Adaptation to temporally fluctuating environments by the evolution of maternal effects

Snigdhadip Dey, Stephen R. Proulx & Henrique Teotonio
All organisms live in temporally fluctuating environments. Theory predicts that the evolution of deterministic maternal effects (i.e., anticipatory maternal effects or transgenerational phenotypic plasticity) underlies adaptation to environments that fluctuate in a predictably alternating fashion over maternal-offspring generations. In contrast, randomizing maternal effects (i.e., diversifying and conservative bet-hedging), are expected to evolve in response to unpredictably fluctuating environments. Although maternal effects are common, evidence for their adaptive significance is equivocal since they can easily evolve...

Data from: Populations of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) with different evolutionary histories differ in their climate occupancy

Burke T. Greer, Christopher Still, Glenn T. Howe, Christina Tague & Dar A. Roberts
Quaking aspens (Populus tremuloides Michx.) are found in diverse habitats throughout North America. While the biogeography of aspens' distribution has been documented, the drivers of the phenotypic diversity of aspen are still being explored. In our study, we examined differences in climate between northern and southwestern populations of aspen, finding large-scale differences between the populations. Our results suggest that northern and southwestern populations live in distinct climates and support the inclusion of genetic and phenotypic...

Data from: Molecular clocks indicate turnover and diversification of modern coleoid cephalopods during the Mesozoic Marine Revolution

Alastair R. Tanner, Dirk Fuchs, Inger E. Winkelmann, Thomas P. Gilbert, M. Sabrina Pankey, Angela M. Ribeiro, Kevin M. Kocot, Kenneth M. Halanych, Todd H. Oakley, Rute R. Da Fonseca, Davide Pisani, Jakob Vinther & M. Thomas P. Gilbert
Coleoid cephalopod molluscs comprise squid, cuttlefish and octopuses, and represent nearly the entire diversity of modern cephalopods. Sophisticated adaptations such as the use of colour for camouflage and communication, jet propulsion and the ink sac highlight the unique nature of the group. Despite these striking adaptations, there are clear parallels in ecology between coleoids and bony fishes. The coleoid fossil record is limited, however, hindering confident analysis of the tempo and pattern of their evolution....

Data from: Size, age, and habitat determine effectiveness of Palau's Marine Protected Areas

Alan M. Friedlander, Yimnang Golbuu, Enric Ballesteros, Jennifer E. Caselle, Marine Gouezo, Dawnette Olsudong & Enric Sala
Palau has a rich heritage of conservation that has evolved from the traditional moratoria on fishing, or "bul", to more western Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), while still retaining elements of customary management and tenure. In 2003, the Palau Protected Areas Network (PAN) was created to conserve Palau's unique biodiversity and culture, and is the country's mechanism for achieving the goals of the Micronesia Challenge (MC), an initiative to conserve ?30% of near-shore marine resources within...

Data from: Interacting effects of wildlife loss and climate on ticks and tick-borne disease

Georgia Titcomb, Brian F. Allan, Tyler Ainsworth, Henson Lauren, Tyler Hedlund, Robert M. Pringle, Todd M. Palmer, Laban Njoroge, Michael G. Campana, Robert C. Fleischer, John Naisikie Mantas, Hillary S. Young & Lauren Henson
Both large-wildlife loss and climatic changes can independently influence the prevalence and distribution of zoonotic disease. Given growing evidence that wildlife loss often has stronger community-level effects in low-productivity areas, we hypothesized that these perturbations would have interactive effects on disease risk. We experimentally tested this hypothesis by measuring tick abundance and the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens (Coxiella burnetii and Rickettsia spp.) within long-term, size-selective, large-herbivore exclosures replicated across a precipitation gradient in East Africa....

Data from: Group elicitations yield more consistent, yet more uncertain experts in understanding risks to ecosystem services in New Zealand bays

Gerald G. Singh, Jim Sinner, Joanne Ellis, Milind Kandlikar, Benjamin S. Halpern, Terre Satterfield & Kai Chan
The elicitation of expert judgment is an important tool for assessment of risks and impacts in environmental management contexts, and especially important as decision-makers face novel challenges where prior empirical research is lacking or insufficient. Evidence-driven elicitation approaches typically involve techniques to derive more accurate probability distributions under fairly specific contexts. Experts are, however, prone to overconfidence in their judgements. Group elicitations with diverse experts can reduce expert overconfidence by allowing cross-examination and reassessment of...

Data from: The role of livestock intensification and landscape structure in maintaining tropical biodiversity

Fredy Alvarado, Federico Escobar, David R. Williams, Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez & Fernando Escobar-Hernández
1. As tropical cattle ranching continues to expand, successful conservation will require an improved understanding of the relative impacts of different livestock systems and landscape structure on biodiversity. Here, we provide the first empirical and multi-scale assessment of the relative effects of livestock intensification and landscape structure on biodiversity in the threatened tropical dry forests of Mesoamerica. 2. We used a dataset of dung beetles (169 372 individuals from 33 species) collected from twenty 1-km2...

Data from: Bias associated with the detectability of the coral-eating pest crown-of-thorns seastar and implications for reef management

Mohsen Kayal, Pauline Bosserelle & Mehdi Adjeroud
Outbreaks of the predator crown-of-thorns seastar (COTS) Acanthaster planci cause widespread coral mortality across the Indo-Pacific. Like many marine invertebrates, COTS is a nocturnal species whose cryptic behaviour during the day can affect its detectability, particularly in structurally complex reef habitats that provide many refuges for benthic creatures. We performed extensive day and night surveys of COTS populations in coral reef habitats showing differing levels of structural complexity and COTS abundance. We tested whether estimations...

Data from: The index case is not enough: variation among individuals, groups, and social networks modify bacterial transmission dynamics

Carl N. Keiser, Noa Pinter-Wollman, Michael J. Ziemba, Krishna S. Kothamasu & Jonathan N. Pruitt
1.The traits of the index case of an infectious disease outbreak, and the circumstances for their etiology, potentially influence the trajectory of transmission dynamics. However, these dynamics likely also depend on the traits of the individuals with whom the index case interacts. 2.We used the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola to test how the traits of the index case, group phenotypic composition, and group size interact to facilitate the transmission of a GFP-labeled cuticular bacterium. We...

Data from: Whole genome duplication and transposable element proliferation drive genome expansion in Corydoradinae catfishes

Sarah Marburger, Markos A. Alexandrou, John B. Taggart, Simon Creer, Gary Carvalho, Claudio Oliveira & Martin I. Taylor
Genome size varies significantly across eukaryotic taxa and the largest changes are typically driven by macro-mutations such as whole genome duplications (WGDs) and proliferation of repetitive elements. These two processes may affect the evolutionary potential of lineages by increasing genetic variation and changing gene expression. Here we elucidate the evolutionary history and mechanisms underpinning genome size variation in a species rich group of Neotropical catfishes (Corydoradinae) with extreme variation in genome size - 0.6pg to...

Data from: Accounting for disturbance history in models: using remote sensing to constrain carbon and nitrogen pool spin‐up

Erin J. Hanan, Christina Tague, Janet Choate, Mingliang Liu, Crystal Kolden & Jennifer Adam
Disturbances such as wildfire, insect outbreaks, and forest clearing, play an important role in regulating carbon, nitrogen, and hydrologic fluxes in terrestrial watersheds. Evaluating how watersheds respond to disturbance requires understanding mechanisms that interact over multiple spatial and temporal scales. Simulation modeling is a powerful tool for bridging these scales; however, model projections are limited by uncertainties in the initial state of plant carbon and nitrogen stores. Watershed models typically use one of two methods...

Data from: Transcriptomics reveal transgenerational effects in purple sea urchin embryos: adult acclimation to upwelling conditions alters the response of their progeny to differential pCO2 levels

Juliet M. Wong, Kevin M. Johnson, Morgan W. Kelly & Gretchen E. Hofmann
Understanding the mechanisms with which organisms can respond to a rapidly changing ocean is an important research priority in marine sciences, especially in light of recent predictions regarding the pace of ocean change in the coming decades. Transgenerational effects, in which the experience of the parental generation can shape the phenotype of their offspring, may serve as such a mechanism. In this study, adult purple sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, were conditioned to regionally and ecologically...

Data from: Male mate choice via cuticular hydrocarbon pheromones drives reproductive isolation between Drosophila species

Michael P. Shahandeh, Alison Pischedda & Thomas L. Turner
Mate discrimination is a key mechanism restricting gene flow between species. While studied extensively with respect to female mate choice, mechanisms of male mate choice between species are far less studied. Thus, we have little knowledge of the relative frequency, importance, or overall contribution of male mate discrimination to reproductive isolation. In the present study, we estimated the relative contributions of male and female choice to reproductive isolation between Drosophila simulans and D. sechellia, and...

Data from: Abiotic and habitat drivers of tick vector abundance, diversity, phenology and human encounter risk in southern California

Andrew J. MacDonald
The distribution, abundance and seasonal activity of vector species, such as ticks and mosquitoes, are key determinants of vector-borne disease risk, and are strongly influenced by abiotic and habitat conditions. Despite the numerous species of tick vectors in the heavily populated North American West Coast, all but Ixodes pacificus, the primary vector of the Lyme disease spirochete, is poorly characterized with regard to seasonal activity patterns and fine scale drivers of distribution and abundance, particularly...

Data from: Nitrogen cycling and export in California chaparral: the role of climate in shaping ecosystem responses to fire

Erin J. Hanan, Christina Naomi Tague & Joshua P. Schimel
Climate change models predict that interannual rainfall variability will increase in California over the next several decades; these changes will likely influence how frequently California ecosystems burn and how they respond to fire. Fires uncouple N mobilization from uptake by destroying plant biomass and increasing nitrification. Following fire, autumn and winter rains can leach N into streams from slopes that have been denuded. The amount of N exported depends on how rapidly soil microbes metabolize...

Data from: Chancelloriid sclerites from the Dyeran–Delamaran (lower–middle Cambrian) boundary interval of the Pioche–Caliente region, Nevada, USA

J. Moore, Susannah Porter & Mark Webster
Chancelloriids are a poorly understood group of phylogenetically problematic Cambrian metazoans; complete specimens show they were sessile, radially symmetric, club-shaped organisms covered with sclerites in the form of rosettes of spines. While isolated sclerites are common components of Cambrian shelly assemblages, they have been relatively little studied. We describe chancelloriid sclerites from a series of nine sections spanning the upper Dyeran (uppermost traditional ‘lower’ Cambrian of Laurentia) to lower Delamaran (lowermost traditional ‘middle’ Cambrian) stages...

Historical dynamics of the demersal fish community in the East and South China Seas

Jin Gao, James Thorson, Cody Szuwalski & Hui-Yu Wang
Taiwan has a long history of fishery operations and contributes significantly to global fishery harvest. The East and South China seas are important fishing grounds with very limited public data. More efforts are needed to digitize and analyze historical catch rate data to illuminate species and community changes in this region. In this study, we digitize historical records of catch and effort from government fishery reports for nine commercial species caught by otter trawl, reported...

Data from: Predicting functional responses in agro-ecosystems from animal movement data to improve management of invasive pests

Mark Wilber, Sarah Chinn, James Beasley, Raoul Boughton, Ryan Brook, Stephen Ditchkoff, Justin Fischer, Steve Hartley, Lindsey Holstrom, John Kilgo, Jesse Lewis, Ryan Miller, Nathan Snow, Kurt VerCauteren, Samantha Wisely, Colleen Webb & Kim Pepin
Functional responses describe how changing resource availability affects consumer resource use, thus providing a mechanistic approach to prediction of the invasibility and potential damage of invasive alien species (IAS). However, functional responses can be context-dependent, varying with resource characteristics and availability, consumer attributes, and environmental variables. Identifying context-dependencies can allow invasion and damage risk to be predicted across different ecoregions. Understanding how ecological factors shape the functional response in agro-ecosystems can improve predictions of hotspots...

Data from: Collective behavior and colony persistence of social spiders depends on their physical environment

Ambika Kamath, Skylar D. Primavera, Colin M. Wright, Grant N. Doering, Kirsten A. Sheehy, Noa Pinter-Wollman & Jonathan N. Pruitt
The physical environment occupied by group-living animals can profoundly affect their cooperative social interactions and therefore their collective behavior and success. These effects can be especially apparent in human-modified habitats, which often harbor substantial variation in the physical environments available within them. For nest-building animal societies, this influence of the physical environment on collective behavior can be mediated by the construction of nests—nests could either buffer animal behavior from changes in the physical environment or...

Data from: The Aquilegia genome provides insight into adaptive radiation and reveals an extraordinarily polymorphic chromosome with a unique history

Danièle L. Filiault, Evangeline S. Ballerini, Terezie Mandakova, Gökçe Aköz, Nathan J. Derieg, Jeremy Schmutz, Jerry Jenkins, Jane Grimwood, Shengqiang Shu, Richard D. Hayes, Uffe Hellsten, Kerrie Barry, Juying Yan, Sirma Mihaltcheva, Miroslava Karafiatova, Viktoria Nizhynska, Elena M. Kramer, Martin A. Lysak, Scott A. Hodges & Magnus Nordborg
The columbine genus Aquilegia is a classic example of an adaptive radiation, involving a wide variety of pollinators and habitats. Here we present the genome assembly of A. coerulea 'Goldsmith', complemented by high-coverage sequencing data from 10 wild species covering the world-wide distribution. Our analyses reveal extensive allele sharing among species, and demonstrate that introgression and selection played a role in the Aquilegia radiation. We also present the remarkable discovery that the evolutionary history of...

Effects of social structure and management on risk of disease establishment in wild pigs

Anni Yang, Peter Schlichting, Bethany Wight, Wesley Anderson, Sarah Chinn, Mark Wilber, Ryan Miller, James Beasley, Raoul Boughton, Kurt VerCauteren, George Wittemyer & Kim Pepin
1. Contact heterogeneity among hosts determines invasion and spreading dynamics of infectious disease, thus its characterization is essential for identifying effective disease control strategies. Yet, little is known about the factors shaping contact networks in many wildlife species and how wildlife management actions might affect contact networks. 2. Wild pigs in North America are an invasive, socially-structured species that pose a health concern for domestic swine given their ability to transmit numerous devastating diseases such...

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