28 Works

Floral traits influence the opportunity for selection among male gametophytes: independent and combined effects of style length and petal area

Susan Mazer, Joseph Chellew & Kristen Peach
The data set included here was used for the analyses published in a paper titled, " American Journal of Botany, for which the abstract is as follows: PREMISE: Strong correlations between traits can obscure their independent effects on components of reproduction. Style length (SL) and petal area (PA) vary within species, for example, but their independent effects on the opportunity for selection among pollen genotypes are poorly understood. Previous work in Clarkia detected a positive...

Data from: Synthesizing the effects of large, wild herbivore exclusion on ecosystem function

Elizabeth S. Forbes, J. Hall Cushman, Deron E. Burkepile, Truman P. Young, Maggie Klope & Hillary S. Young
1. Wild large herbivores are declining worldwide. Despite extensive use of exclosure experiments to investigate herbivore impacts, there is little consensus on the effects of wild large herbivores on ecosystem function. 2. Of the ecosystem functions likely impacted, we reviewed the five most-studied in exclosure experiments: ecosystem resilience/resistance to disturbance, nutrient cycling, carbon cycling, plant regeneration, and primary productivity. 3. Experimental data on large wild herbivores’ effects on ecosystem functions were predominately derived from temperate...

Data from: Better safe than sorry: spider societies mitigate risk by prioritizing caution

Colin M. Wright, James L.L. Lichtenstein, Lauren P. Luscuskie, Graham A. Montgomery, Noa Pinter-Wollman & Jonathan N. Pruitt
Group members often vary in the information that they have about their environment. In this study, we evaluated the relative contribution of information held by the population majority vs. new immigrants to groups in determining group function. To do so we created experimental groups of the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola that were either iteratively exposed to a dangerous predator, the ant Anoplopepis custodiens, or kept in safety. We then seeded these groups (i.e., the population...

Data from: Sources of intraspecific variation in the collective tempo and synchrony of ant societies

Grant Doering, Kirsten Sheehy, James Lichtenstein, Brian Drawert, Linda Petzold & Jonathan Pruitt
Populations of independently oscillating agents can sometimes synchronize. In the context of animal societies, conspicuous synchronization of activity is known in some social insects. However, the causes of variation in synchrony within and between species have received little attention. We repeatedly assessed the short-term activity cycle of ant colonies (Temnothorax rugatulus) and monitored the movements of individual workers and queens within nests. We detected persistent differences between colonies in the waveform properties of their collective...

Assessing the repeatability, robustness to disturbance, and parent‐offspring colony resemblance of collective behavior

David Fisher, James Lichtenstein, Raul Costa-Pereira, Justin Yeager & Jonathan Pruitt
Groups of animals possess phenotypes such as collective behaviour, which may determine the fitness of group members. However, the stability and robustness to perturbations of collective phenotypes in natural conditions is not established. Furthermore, whether group phenotypes are transmitted from parent to offspring groups with fidelity is required for understanding how selection on group phenotypes contributes to evolution, but parent-offspring resemblance at the group level is rarely estimated. We evaluated the repeatability, robustness to perturbation,...

Data from: Regulation of reproductive processes with Dynamic Energy Budgets

Erik B. Muller, Konstadia Lika, Roger M. Nisbet, Irvin R. Schultz, Jerome Casas, Andre Gergs, Cheryl A. Murphy, Diane Nacci & Karen H. Watanabe
1. Linking organismal level processes to underlying suborganismal mechanisms at the molecular, cellular and organ level constitutes a major challenge for predictive ecological risk assessments. This challenge can be addressed with the simple bioenergetic models in the family of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB), which consist of a small number of state equations quantifying universal processes, such as feeding, maintenance, development, reproduction and growth. 2. Motivated by the need for process-based models to evaluate the impact...

Data from: Looking back to look ahead: a vision for soil denitrification research

Maya Almaraz, Michelle Wong & Wendy Yang
Denitrification plays a critical role in regulating ecosystem nutrient availability and anthropogenic reactive nitrogen (N) production. Its importance has inspired an increasing number of studies, yet it remains the most poorly constrained term in terrestrial ecosystem N budgets. We censused the peer-reviewed soil denitrification literature (1975 to 2015) to identify opportunities for future studies to advance our understanding despite the inherent challenges in studying the process. We found that only one-third of studies reported estimates...

Data from: Mating system and historical climate conditions affect population mean seed mass: evidence for adaptation and a new component of the selfing syndrome in Clarkia

Susan Mazer, Isaac Park, Matthew Kimura, Aaron Yim, Emma Maul & Kristen Peach
1. The evolution of seed size may be influenced by intrinsic attributes of populations, such as mating system, and extrinsic factors, such as climate. Several hypotheses propose that the evolution of self-fertilization from an outcrossing progenitor will be accompanied by a reduction in seed size, but this prediction has not been rigorously tested. Many studies report that the mean seed size of populations or taxa is associated with long-term climate conditions. Here, we examined the...

Variations in the Intensity and Spatial Extent of Tropical Cyclone Precipitation

Danielle Touma, Samantha Stevenson, Suzana J. Camargo, Daniel E. Horton & Noah S. Diffenbaugh
The intensity and spatial extent of tropical cyclone precipitation (TCP) often shapes the risk posed by landfalling storms. Here we provide a comprehensive climatology of landfalling TCP characteristics as a function of tropical cyclone strength, using daily precipitation station data and Atlantic US landfalling tropical cyclone tracks from 1900-2017. We analyze the intensity and spatial extent of ≥ 1 mm/day TCP (Z1) and ≥ 50 mm/day TCP (Z50) over land. We show that the highest...

Data from: Experimental evidence of frequency-dependent selection on group behaviour

Jonathan N. Pruitt, Brendan L. McEwen, Steven T. Cassidy, Gabriella M. Najm & Noa Pinter-Wollman
Evolutionary ecologists often seek to identify the mechanisms maintaining intraspecific variation. In social animals, whole groups can exhibit between-group differences in their collective traits. We examined whether negative frequency-dependent selection (i.e., a rare-type advantage) could help to maintain between-group variation. We engineered neighborhoods of social spider colonies bearing bold or shy foraging phenotypes and monitored their fecundity in situ. We found that bold colonies enjoyed a rare-type advantage that is lost as the frequency of...

Data from: The social cost of lobbying over climate policy

Kyle C. Meng & Ashwin Rode
Domestic political processes shape climate policy. In particular, there is increasing concern regarding the role of political lobbying over climate policy. This paper examines how lobbying spending on the Waxman-Markey bill, the most prominent and promising U.S. climate regulation to date, altered its likelihood of being implemented. We combine data from comprehensive U.S. lobbying records together with an empirical method for forecasting the policy’s effect on the value of publicly-listed firms. Our statistical analysis suggests...

Quantum supremacy using a programmable superconducting processor

John M. Martinis, Sergio Boixo, Hartmut Neven, Frank Arute, Kunal Arya, Ryan Babbush, Dave Bacon, Joseph C. Bardin, Rami Barends, Rupak Biswas, Fernando G. S. L. Brandao, David A. Buell, Brian Burkett, Yu Chen, Zijun Chen, Ben Chiaro, Roberto Collins, William Courtney, Andrew Dunsworth, Edward Farhi, Brooks Foxen, Austin Fowler, Craig Gidney, Marissa Giustina, Rob Graff … & Adam Zalcman
The tantalizing promise of quantum computers is that certain computational tasks might be executed exponentially faster on a quantum processor than on a classical processor. A fundamental challenge is to build a high-fidelity processor capable of running quantum algorithms in an exponentially large computational space. Here, we report using a processor with programmable superconducting qubits to create quantum states on 53 qubits, corresponding to a computational state-space of dimension 2^53 ∼ 10^16. Measurements from repeated...

ICD-1/BTF3 antagonizes SKN-1-mediated endoderm specification in Caenorhabditis elegans

Chee Kiang Ewe, Yamila N Torres Cleuren & Joel H Rothman
The entire C. elegans intestine is derived from a single endodermal progenitor cell (E), the posterior daughter arising from the asymmetric division of the EMS blastomere. During early embryonic development, maternally provided SKN-1/Nrf2 activates the mesendoderm gene regulatory network (GRN) in both E and its sister, MS. A triply redundant Wnt/MAPK/Src signaling system from the neighboring P2 blastomere polarizes EMS, resulting in activation of E fate on the side contacting it. In MS, and in...

Data from: Computed tomography shows high fracture prevalence among physically active forager-horticulturalists with high fertility

Jonathan Stieglitz, Benjamin C. Trumble, Study Team HORUS, Caleb Finch, Dong Li, Matthew J. Budoff, Hillard Kaplan & Michael Gurven
Modern humans have more fragile skeletons than other hominins, which may result from physical inactivity. Here we test whether reproductive effort also compromises bone strength, by measuring using computed tomography thoracic vertebral bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture prevalence among physically active Tsimane forager-horticulturalists. Earlier onset of reproduction and shorter interbirth intervals are associated with reduced BMD for women. Tsimane BMD is lower versus Americans, but only for women, contrary to simple predictions relying on...

Overfishing and the ecological impacts of extirpating large parrotfish from Caribbean coral reefs

Andrew Shantz, Mark Ladd & Deron Burkepile
The unique traits of large animals often allow them to fulfill functional roles in ecosystems that small animals cannot. However, large animals are also at greater risk from human activities. Thus, it is critical to understand how losing large animals impacts ecosystem function. In the oceans, selective fishing for large animals alters the demographics and size-structure of numerous species. While the community-wide impacts of losing large animals is a major theme in terrestrial research, the...

Data from: Generic and specific facets of vulnerability for analyzing trade-offs and synergies in natural resource management

Stefan Gelcich, Joshua E. Cinner & Sebastian Tapia-Lewin
1. The concept of vulnerability as the combination of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity to a stressor is gaining traction outside of the climate realm, opening new avenues to address contemporary sustainability issues more holistically. Yet, critical notions that underpin vulnerability have yet to be integrated into its application to natural resource management and non-climatic stressors. In particular, the way generic and stressor-specific facets of vulnerability interact and can inform decision-makers about how interventions combine...

Affiliation history and age similarity predict alliance formation in adult male bottlenose dolphins

Livia Gerber, Richard Connor, Stephanie King, Simon Allen, Samuel Wittwer, Manuela Bizzozzero, Whitney Friedman, Stephanie Kalberer, William Sherwin, Sonja Wild, Erik Willems & Michael Kruetzen
Male alliances are an intriguing phenomenon in the context of reproduction since, in most taxa, males compete over an indivisible resource, female fertilization. Adult male bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in Shark Bay, Western Australia, form long-term, multi-level alliances to sequester estrus females. These alliances are therefore critical to male reproductive success. Yet, the long-term processes leading to the formation of such complex social bonds are still poorly understood. To identify the criteria by which male...

Precision mapping of snail habitat provides a powerful indicator of human schistosomiasis transmission

Chelsea Wood, Susanne Sokolow, Isabel Jones, Andrew Chamberlin, Kevin Lafferty, Armand Kuris, Merlijn Jocque, Skylar Hopkins, Grant Adams, Julia Buck, Andrea Lund, Ana Garcia-Vedrenne, Evan Fiorenza, Jason Rohr, Fiona Allan, Bonnie Webster, Muriel Rabone, Joanne Webster, Lydie Bandagny, Raphael Ndione, Simon Senghor, Anne-Marie Schacht, Nicolas Jouanard, Gilles Riveau & Giulio De Leo
Recently, the World Health Organization recognized that efforts to interrupt schistosomiasis transmission through mass drug administration have been ineffective in some regions; one of their new recommended strategies for global schistosomiasis control emphasizes targeting the freshwater snails that transmit schistosome parasites. We sought to identify robust indicators that would enable precision targeting of these snails. At the site of the world’s largest recorded schistosomiasis epidemic—the Lower Senegal River Basin in Senegal—intensive sampling revealed positive relationships...

Data from: Fish culling reduces tapeworm burden in Arctic charr by increasing parasite mortality rather than by reducing density‐dependent transmission

Eirik Haugstvedt Henriksen, André Frainer, Rune Knudsen, Roar Kristoffersen, Armand M. Kuris, Kevin D. Lafferty & Per-Arne Amundsen
1. Two common Dibothriocephalus (formerly Diphyllobothrium) tapeworm species were significantly reduced by experimental culling of their fish host Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) in a subarctic lake. 2. Between 1984 and 1991, funnel traps were used to cull ~ 35 metric tons of Arctic charr, reducing charr density by ~ 80%. As charr densities decreased, tapeworm prevalence and then intensity also declined over the following three decades, with D. dendriticus (formerly dendriticum) responding faster than D....

Halite precipitation from double-diffusive salt fingers in the Dead Sea: Numerical simulations

Raphael Ouillon, Eckart Meiburg, Nadav Lensky, Vladimir Lyakhovsky & Ali Arnon
We employ direct numerical simulations in order to analyze the role of double-diffusive salt fingering in halite precipitation from hypersaline lakes. Guided by field observations from the Dead Sea, which represents the only modern deep stratified lake that precipitates halite under hydrological crisis, we consider a saturated layer of warm, salty brine (epilimnion) overlying a layer of colder, less salty brine (hypolimnion) that is also saturated. The double-diffusive instability originating in the metalimnion gives rise...

Sex-specific floral attraction traits in a sequentially hermaphroditic species

Kristen Peach, Susan Mazer, Jasen Liu & Kristen Klitgaard
The examination of sexual dimorphism in plants has primarily been restricted to dioecious taxa. However, most angiosperms produce cosexual flowers in which male and female function are separated temporally, which may also generate sexual dimorphism (between the male and female stages of floral lifespan). The temporal separation between male and female function in such flowers may be associated with variation in traits that influence pollinator attraction and may function to minimize self-fertilization or to maximize...

Aerial Measurements from Outdoor 2.4GHz 802.15.4 Network

Mikhail Nekrasov, Ryan Allen & Elizabeth Belding
Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), i.e. drones, have been commercially successful in both the consumer and industrial sectors in part due to the wide variety of applications they benefit. In environmental monitoring and precision agriculture, UASs can be utilized for data collection from rural IoT sensor networks. These networks frequently operate over some variant of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, taking advantage of the standard's low power usage. Consumer 802.15.4 radios are widely available in compact form...

Data from: Chancelloriid sclerites from the Dyeran–Delamaran (lower–middle Cambrian) boundary interval of the Pioche–Caliente region, Nevada, USA

J. Moore, Susannah Porter & Mark Webster
Chancelloriids are a poorly understood group of phylogenetically problematic Cambrian metazoans; complete specimens show they were sessile, radially symmetric, club-shaped organisms covered with sclerites in the form of rosettes of spines. While isolated sclerites are common components of Cambrian shelly assemblages, they have been relatively little studied. We describe chancelloriid sclerites from a series of nine sections spanning the upper Dyeran (uppermost traditional ‘lower’ Cambrian of Laurentia) to lower Delamaran (lowermost traditional ‘middle’ Cambrian) stages...

Historical dynamics of the demersal fish community in the East and South China Seas

Jin Gao, James Thorson, Cody Szuwalski & Hui-Yu Wang
Taiwan has a long history of fishery operations and contributes significantly to global fishery harvest. The East and South China seas are important fishing grounds with very limited public data. More efforts are needed to digitize and analyze historical catch rate data to illuminate species and community changes in this region. In this study, we digitize historical records of catch and effort from government fishery reports for nine commercial species caught by otter trawl, reported...

Data from: Predicting functional responses in agro-ecosystems from animal movement data to improve management of invasive pests

Mark Wilber, Sarah Chinn, James Beasley, Raoul Boughton, Ryan Brook, Stephen Ditchkoff, Justin Fischer, Steve Hartley, Lindsey Holstrom, John Kilgo, Jesse Lewis, Ryan Miller, Nathan Snow, Kurt VerCauteren, Samantha Wisely, Colleen Webb & Kim Pepin
Functional responses describe how changing resource availability affects consumer resource use, thus providing a mechanistic approach to prediction of the invasibility and potential damage of invasive alien species (IAS). However, functional responses can be context-dependent, varying with resource characteristics and availability, consumer attributes, and environmental variables. Identifying context-dependencies can allow invasion and damage risk to be predicted across different ecoregions. Understanding how ecological factors shape the functional response in agro-ecosystems can improve predictions of hotspots...

Registration Year

  • 2019
    28

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    27
  • Data Paper
    1

Affiliations

  • University of California, Santa Barbara
    28
  • McMaster University
    4
  • Stanford University
    3
  • Arizona State University
    2
  • University of California Los Angeles
    2
  • Northwestern University
    1
  • Emory University School of Medicine
    1
  • Frankfurt Zoological Society
    1
  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
    1
  • University of Washington
    1