Mammals have diversified into many dietary niches. Specialized myrmecophagous (ant- and termite-eating) placental mammals represent a textbook example of evolutionary convergence driven by extreme diet specialization. Armadillos, anteaters, aardvarks, pangolins and aardwolves thus provide a model system for understanding the potential role of gut microbiota in the convergent adaptation to myrmecophagy. Here, we expand upon previous mammalian gut microbiome studies by using high-throughput barcoded Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize the composition...
Data from: Genomics of Compositae crops: reference transcriptome assemblies, and evidence of hybridization with wild relativesKathryn A. Hodgins, Zhao Lai, Luiz O. Oliveira, David W. Still, Moira Scascitelli, Michael S. Barker, Nolan C. Kane, Hannes Dempewolf, Alex Kozik, Richard V. Kesseli, John M. Burke, Richard W. Michelmore & Loren H. Rieseberg
Although the Compositae harbours only two major food crops, sunflower and lettuce, many other species in this family are utilized by humans and have experienced various levels of domestication. Here we have used next generation sequencing technology to develop 15 reference transcriptome assemblies for Compositae crops or their wild relatives. These data allow us to gain insight into the evolutionary and genomic consequences of plant domestication. Specifically, we performed Illumina sequencing of Cichorium endivia, Cichorium...
1. Similar to other infectious diseases, the prevalence of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) has been seen to exhibit marked seasonal variation. However, mechanisms driving this variation in wild birds have yet to be tested. We investigated the validity of three previously suggested drivers for the seasonal dynamics in LPAIV infections in wild birds: (1) host density, (2) immunologically-naïve young, and (3) increased susceptibility in migrants. 2. To address these questions, we sampled a...
Data from: Do pathogens reduce genetic diversity of their hosts? Variable effects of sylvatic plague in black-tailed prairie dogsLoren C. Sackett, Sharon K. Collinge & Andrew P. Martin
Introduced diseases can cause dramatic declines in—and even the loss of—natural populations. Extirpations may be followed by low recolonization rates, leading to inbreeding and a loss of genetic variation, with consequences on population viability. Conversely, extirpations may create vacant habitat patches that individuals from multiple source populations can colonize, potentially leading to an influx of variation. We tested these alternative hypotheses by sampling 15 colonies in a prairie dog metapopulation during 7 years that encompassed...
Data from: Genetic hitchhiking and the dynamic buildup of genomic divergence during speciation with gene flowSamuel Melvin Flaxman, Jeffrey L. Feder & Patrik Nosil
A major issue in evolutionary biology is explaining patterns of differentiation observed in population genomic data, as divergence can be due to both direct selection on a locus and genetic hitchhiking. “Divergence hitchhiking” (DH) theory postulates that divergent selection on a locus reduces gene flow at physically linked sites, facilitating the formation of localized clusters of tightly linked, diverged loci. “Genome hitchhiking” (GH) theory emphasizes genome-wide effects of divergent selection. Past theoretical investigations of DH...
Global climate change is expected to produce large shifts in vegetation distribution and has already increased tree mortality, altering forest structure. However, long-term shifts will be partly dependent on the ability of species to reproduce under a novel climate. Few studies have examined the impact of climate change on the reproductive output of long-lived ‘masting' species, or species characterized by episodic reproductive events. Here, we show that seed cone production among pinyon pine (Pinus edulis),...
Evolutionary change in individual species has been hypothesized to have far-reaching consequences for entire ecological communities, and such coupling of ecological and evolutionary dynamics (“eco-evolutionary dynamics”) has been demonstrated for a variety systems. However, the relative importance of evolutionary dynamics for ecological dynamics remains unclear. Here, we investigate how spatial patterns of local adaptation in the stick insect Timema cristinae, driven by natural selection, gene flow and founder effects, structure metapopulations, communities, and multitrophic interactions....
Data from: Localized hotspots drive continental geography of abnormal amphibians on U.S. wildlife refugesMari K. Reeves, Kimberly A. Medley, Alfred E. Pinkney, Marcel Holyoak, Pieter T. J. Johnson & Michael J. Lannoo
Amphibians with missing, misshapen, and extra limbs have garnered public and scientific attention for two decades, yet the extent of the phenomenon remains poorly understood. Despite progress in identifying the causes of abnormalities in some regions, a lack of knowledge about their broader spatial distribution and temporal dynamics has hindered efforts to understand their implications for amphibian population declines and environmental quality. To address this data gap, we conducted a nationwide, 10-year assessment of 62,947...
Data from: Environmental harshness is positively correlated with intraspecific divergence in mammals and birdsCarlos A. Botero, Roi Dor, Christy M. McCain & Rebecca J. Safran
Life on Earth is conspicuously more diverse in the tropics. Although this intriguing geographical pattern has been linked to many biotic and abiotic factors, their relative importance and potential interactions are still poorly understood. The way in which latitudinal changes in ecological conditions influence evolutionary processes is particularly controversial, as there is evidence for both a positive and a negative latitudinal gradient in speciation rates. Here, we identify and address some methodological issues (how patterns...
Data from: Chemical ecology of fruit defense: synergistic and antagonistic interactions among amides from PiperSusan R. Whitehead & M. Deane Bowers
1. Although ripe, fleshy fruits function primarily to attract seed dispersers, they must also be defended against diverse communities of seed predators and pathogens. For some plants, the concentration and diversity of secondary metabolites in fruits can exceed that of leaves and other plant parts, but little is known about the functional significance of the suites of compounds found in fruits. Fruit secondary metabolites may function in defense, or they may play a variety of...
Data from: Genome skimming reveals the origin of the Jerusalem Artichoke tuber crop species: neither from Jerusalem nor an ArtichokeDan G. Bock, Nolan C. Kane, Daniel P. Ebert & Loren H. Rieseberg
The perennial sunflower Helianthus tuberosus, known as Jerusalem Artichoke or Sunchoke, was cultivated in eastern North America before European contact. As such, it represents one of the few taxa that can support an independent origin of domestication in this region. Its tubers were adopted as a source of food and forage when the species was transferred to the Old World in the early 1600s, and are still used today. Despite the cultural and economic importance...
University of Colorado Boulder11
Indiana University Bloomington3
University of British Columbia2
University of Sheffield2
University of California, Davis2
University of Massachusetts Amherst1
University of Notre Dame1
University of Georgia1
Erasmus University Medical Center1
Nederlands Instituut voor Ecologie1