32 Works

Data from: Of poisons and parasites: the defensive role of tetrodotoxin against infections in newts

Pieter T. J. Johnson, Dana M. Calhoun, Amber N. Stokes, Calvin B. Susbilla, Travis McDevitt-Galles, Cheryl J. Briggs, Jason T. Hoverman, Vasyl V. Tkach, Jaap C. De Roode & Jacobus C. De Roode
1. Classical research on animal toxicity has focused on the role of toxins in protection against predators, but recent studies suggest these same compounds can offer a powerful defense against parasites and infectious diseases. 2. Newts in the genus Taricha are brightly colored and contain the potent neurotoxin, tetrodotoxin (TTX), which is hypothesized to have evolved as a defense against vertebrate predators such as garter snakes. However, newt populations often vary dramatically in toxicity, which...

Data from: Microevolutionary processes impact macroevolutionary patterns

Jingchun Li, Jen-Pen Huang, Jeet Sukumaran & L Lacey Knowles
Background: Macroevolutionary modeling of species diversification plays important roles in inferring large-scale biodiversity patterns. It allows estimation of speciation and extinction rates and statistically testing their relationships with different ecological factors. However, macroevolutionary patterns are ultimately generated by microevolutionary processes acting at population levels, especially when speciation and extinction are considered protracted instead of point events. Neglecting the connection between micro- and macroevolution may hinder our ability to fully understand the underlying mechanisms that drive...

Data from: Behaviourally mediated predation avoidance in penguin prey: in situ evidence from animal-borne camera loggers

Jonathan M. Handley, Andréa Thiebault, Andrew Stanworth, David Schutt & Pierre Pistorius
Predator dietary studies often assume that diet is reflective of the diversity and relative abundance of their prey. This interpretation ignores species-specific behavioural adaptations in prey that could influence prey capture. Here, we develop and describe a scalable biologging protocol, using animal-borne camera loggers, to elucidate the factors influencing prey capture by a seabird, the gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua). From the video evidence, we show, for the first time, that aggressive behavioural defence mechanisms by...

Data from: Acute maneb exposure significantly alters both glycolysis and mitochondrial function in neuroblastoma cells

Colin C. Anderson, Stefanos Aivazidis, Crystal L. Kuzyk, Abhilasha Jain & James R. Roede
The pesticides paraquat (PQ) and maneb (MB) have been described as environmental risk factors for Parkinson’s disease (PD), with mechanisms associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species generation. A combined exposure of PQ and MB in murine models and neuroblastoma cells has been utilized to further advance understanding of the PD phenotype. MB acts as a redox modulator through alkylation of protein thiols and has been previously characterized to inhibit complex III of the...

Data from: Animals alter precipitation legacies: trophic and ecosystem engineering effects on plant community temporal dynamics

Joshua B. Grinath, Nicolas Deguines, John W. Chesnut, Laura R. Prugh, Justin S. Brashares & Katharine N. Suding
1. Multi-year precipitation ‘legacies’ can have stronger effects on plant community composition than rainfall in the current growing season, but variation in the magnitude of these effects is not fully understood. Direct interactions between plants and animals, such as herbivory, and indirect interactions, such as ecosystem engineering (via changes in the physical environment), may influence precipitation legacies by altering mechanisms of lagged effects. However, the role of direct and indirect plant-animal interactions in determining the...

Data from: Phylogenetic inference in section Archerythroxylum informs taxonomy, biogeography, and the domestication of coca (Erythroxylum species)

Dawson M. White, Melissa B. Islam & Roberta J. Mason-Gamer
This investigation establishes the first sequence-based phylogenetic hypothesis of species relationships in the Coca family (Erythroxylaceae). We focused our phylogenomic inference on the largest taxonomic section in the genus Erythroxylum (Archerythroxylum O. E. Schulz) using concatenation and gene tree reconciliation methods from hybridization-based target capture of 427 genes. We show that Neotropical Erythroxylum are monophyletic within the Paleotropical lineages, yet Archerythroxylum and all of the other taxonomic sections from which we sampled multiple species lack...

Data from: Plant diversity and density predict belowground diversity and function in an early successional alpine ecosystem

Dorota L. Porazinska, Emily C. Farrer, Marko J. Spasojevic, Cliff P. Bueno De Mesquita, Sam A. Sartwell, Jane G. Smith, Caitlin T. White, Andrew J. King, Katharine N. Suding, Steven K. Schmidt, Clifton P. Bueno De Mesquita & Steve K. Schmidt
Despite decades of interest, few studies have provided evidence supporting theoretical expectations for coupled relationships between aboveground and belowground diversity and ecosystem functioning in non-manipulated naturalecosystems. We characterized plant species richness and density, soil bacterial, fungal and eukaryotic species richness and phylogenetic diversity (using 16S, ITS, and 18S gene sequencing), and ecosystem function (levels of soil C and N, and rates of microbial enzyme activities) along a natural gradient in plant richness and density in...

Data from: Marine protected areas enhance structural complexity but do not buffer the consequences of ocean warming for an overexploited precious coral

Ignasi Montero-Serra, Joaquim Garrabou, Daniel F. Doak, Jean-Baptiste Ledoux & Cristina Linares
1. Global warming and overexploitation both threaten the integrity and resilience of marine ecosystems. Many calls have been made to at least partially offset climate change impacts through local conservation management. However, a mechanistic understanding of the interactions of multiple stressors is generally lacking for habitat-forming species; preventing the development of sound conservation strategies. 2. We examined the effectiveness of no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) at enhancing structural complexity and resilience to climate change on...

Data from: Elementary sensory-motor transformations underlying olfactory navigation in walking fruit flies

Efrén Álvarez-Salvado, Angela M. Licata, Erin G. Connor, Margaret K. McHugh, Benjamin M.N. King, Nicholas Stavropoulos, Jonathan D. Victor, John P. Crimaldi, Katherine I. Nagel & Benjamin MN King
Odor attraction in walking Drosophila melanogaster is commonly used to relate neural function to behavior, but the algorithms underlying attraction are unclear. Here we develop a high-throughput assay to measure olfactory behavior in response to well-controlled sensory stimuli. We show that odor evokes two behaviors: an upwind run during odor (ON response), and a local search at odor offset (OFF response). Wind orientation requires antennal mechanoreceptors, but search is driven solely by odor. Using dynamic...

Data from: Host associated bacterial community succession during amphibian development

Tiffany L. Prest, Abigail K. Kimball, Jordan G. Kueneman & Valerie J. Mckenzie
Amphibians undergo significant developmental changes during their life cycle, as they typically move from a primarily aquatic environment to a more terrestrial one. Amphibian skin is a mucosal tissue that assembles communities of symbiotic microbiota. However, it is currently not well understood as to where amphibians acquire their skin symbionts, and whether the sources of microbial symbionts change throughout development. In this study, we utilized data collected from four wild boreal toad populations (Anaxyrus boreas);...

Data from: Risky business: linking Toxoplasma gondii infection and entrepreneurship behaviours across individuals and countries

Stefanie K. Johnson, Fitza A. Markus, Daniel A. Lerher, Dana M. Calhoun, Marissa A. Beldon, Elsa T. Chan & Pieter T. J. Johnson
Disciplines such as business and economics often rely on the assumption of rationality when explaining complex human behaviours. However, growing evidence suggests that behaviour may concurrently be influenced by infec- tious microorganisms. The protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, infects an estimated 2 billion people worldwide and has been linked to behavioural alterations in humans and other vertebrates. Here we integrate primary data from college students and business professionals with national-level information on cultural attitudes toward business to...

Data from: Spatial variation of the rain-snow temperature threshold across the Northern Hemisphere

Keith S. Jennings, Taylor S. Winchell, Ben Livneh & Noah P. Molotch
We present the first continuous map of rain-snow air temperature thresholds over the Northern Hemisphere land surface, underlining the spatial variability of precipitation phase partitioning. Land surface models typically discriminate between rain and snow using a simple, spatially uniform air temperature threshold, but observations indicate the threshold is not static. Our analysis of a 29-year observational dataset (n = 17.8 million) shows the threshold varies significantly, averaging 1.0°C and ranging from -0.4°C to 2.4°C for...

Data from: Structure and function of the bacterial and fungal gut microbiota of Neotropical butterflies

Alison Ravenscraft, Michelle Berry, Tobin Hammer, Kabir Peay & Carol Boggs
The relationship between animals and their gut flora is simultaneously one of the most common and most complex symbioses on Earth. Despite its ubiquity, our understanding of this invisible but often critical relationship is still in its infancy. We employed adult Neotropical butterflies as a study system to ask three questions: First, how does gut microbial community composition vary across host individuals, species and dietary guilds? Second, how do gut microbiota compare to food microbial...

Data from: Experimental habitat fragmentation disrupts nematode infections in Australian skinks

Julian Resasco, Matthew E. Bitters, Saul A. Cunningham, Hugh I. Jones, Valerie J. McKenzie & Kendi F. Davies
Habitat conversion and fragmentation threaten biodiversity and disrupt species interactions. While parasites are recognized as ecologically important, the impacts of fragmentation on parasitism are poorly understood relative to other species interactions. This lack of understanding is in part due to confounding landscape factors that accompany fragmentation. Fragmentation experiments provide the opportunity to fill this knowledge gap by mechanistically testing how fragmentation affects parasitism while controlling landscape factors. In a large-scale, long-term experiment, we asked how...

Data from: FEATHER: automated analysis of force spectroscopy unbinding and unfolding data via a Bayesian algorithm

Patrick R. Heenan & Thomas T. Perkins
Single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) provides a powerful tool to explore the dynamics and energetics of individual proteins, protein-ligand interactions, and nucleic acid structures. In the canonical assay, a force probe is retracted at constant velocity to induce a mechanical unfolding/unbinding event. Next, two energy landscape parameters, the zero-force dissociation rate constant (ko) and the distance to the transition state (Δx‡), are deduced by analyzing the most probable rupture force as a function of the loading...

Data from: Multiple mechanisms confer stability to isolated populations of a rare endemic plant

Reilly R. Dibner, Megan L. Peterson, Allison M. Louthan & Daniel F. Doak
The persistence of small populations remains a puzzle for ecology and conservation. Especially interesting is how naturally small, isolated populations are able to persist in the face of multiple environmental forces that create fluctuating conditions and should, theory predicts, lead to high probabilities of extirpation. We used a combination of long term census data and a five-year demographic study of a naturally rare, endemic plant, Yermo xanthocephalus, to evaluate the importance of several possible mechanisms...

Data from: Composition of micro-eukaryotes on the skin of the Cascades frog (Rana cascadae) and patterns of correlation between skin microbes and Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

Jordan G. Kueneman, Sophie Weiss & Valerie J. McKenzie
Global amphibian decline linked to fungal pathogens has galvanized research on applied amphibian conservation. Skin-associated bacterial communities of amphibians have been shown to mediate fungal skin infections and the development of probiotic treatments with antifungal bacteria has become an emergent area of research. While exploring the role of protective bacteria has been a primary focus for amphibian conservation, we aim to expand and study the other microbes present in amphibian skin communities including fungi and...

Data from: Explosion-generated infrasound recorded on ground and airborne microbarometers at regional distances

Eliot F. Young, Daniel C. Bowman, Jonathan M. Lees, Viliam Klein, Steven J. Arrowsmith & Courtney Ballard
Recent work in deploying infrasound (low frequency sound) sensors on aerostats and free flying balloons has shown them to be viable alternatives to ground stations. However, no study to date has compared the performance of surface and free floating infrasound microbarometers with respect to acoustic events at regional (100s of kilometers) range. The prospect of enhanced detection of aerial explosions at similar ranges, such as those from bolides, has not been investigated either. We examined...

Data from: Information-theoretic analysis of realistic odor plumes: what cues are useful for determining location?

Sebastian D. Boie, Erin G. Connor, Margaret McHugh, Katherine I. Nagel, G. Bard Ermentrout, John P. Crimaldi & Jonathan D. Victor
Many species rely on olfaction to navigate towards food sources or mates. Olfactory navigation is a challenging task since odor environments are typically turbulent. While time-averaged odor concentration varies smoothly with the distance to the source, instaneous concentrations are intermittent and obtaining stable averages takes longer than the typical intervals between animals’ navigation decisions. How to effectively sample from the odor distribution to determine sampling location is the focus on this article. To investigate which...

Data from: Genomic differentiation during speciation-with-gene-flow: comparing geographic and host-related variation in divergent life history adaptation in Rhagoletis pomonella

Meredith M. Doellman, Gregory J. Ragland, Glen R. Hood, Peter J. Meyers, Scott P. Egan, Thomas H.Q. Powell, Peter Lazorchak, Mary M. Glover, Cheyenne Tait, Hannes Schuler, Daniel A. Hahn, Stewart H. Berlocher, James J. Smith, Patrik Nosil, Jeffrey L. Feder, Daniel Hahn, Stewart Berlocher, Peter Meyers, Scott Egan, Jeffrey Feder, Glen Hood, Thomas Powell & Gregory Ragland
A major goal of evolutionary biology is to understand how variation within populations gets partitioned into differences between reproductively isolated species. Here, we examine the degree to which diapause life history timing, a critical adaptation promoting population divergence, explains geographic and host-related genetic variation in ancestral hawthorn and recently derived apple-infesting races of Rhagoletis pomonella. Our strategy involved combining experiments on two different aspects of diapause (initial diapause intensity and adult eclosion time) with a...

Data from: Disease and climate effects on individuals drive post-reintroduction population dynamics of an endangered amphibian

Maxwell B. Joseph & Roland A. Knapp
The emergence of novel pathogens often has dramatic negative effects on previously unexposed host populations. Subsequent disease can drive populations and even species to extinction. After establishment in populations, pathogens can continue to affect host dynamics, influencing the success or failure of species recovery efforts. However, quantifying the effect of pathogens on host populations in the wild is challenging because individual hosts and their pathogens are difficult to observe. Here we use long-term mark-recapture data...

Data from: Intransitive competition is common across five major taxonomic groups and is driven by productivity, competitive rank and functional traits.

Santiago Soliveres, Anika Lehmann, Steffen Boch, Florian Altermatt, Francesco Carrara, Thomas W. Crowther, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Anne Kempel, Daniel S. Maynard, Matthias C. Rillig, Brajesh K. Singh, Pankaj Trivedi & Eric Allan
1. Competition can be fully hierarchical or intransitive, and this degree of hierarchy is driven by multiple factors, including environmental conditions, the functional traits of the species involved or the topology of competition networks. Studies simultaneously analyzing these drivers of competition hierarchy are rare. Additionally, organisms compete either directly or via interference competition for resources or space, within a local neighbourhood or across the habitat. Therefore, the drivers of competition could change accordingly and depend...

Data from: Disentangling elevational richness: a multi-scale hierarchical Bayesian occupancy model of Colorado ant communities

Tim M. Szewczyk & Christy M. McCain
Understanding the forces that shape the distribution of biodiversity across spatial scales is central in ecology and critical to effective conservation. To assess effects of possible richness drivers, we sampled ant communities on four elevational transects across two mountain ranges in Colorado, USA, with seven or eight sites on each transect and twenty repeatedly sampled pitfall trap pairs at each site each for a total of 90 days. With a multi-scale hierarchical Bayesian community occupancy...

Data from: Influences of fire–vegetation feedbacks and post-fire recovery rates on forest landscape vulnerability to altered fire regimes

Alan J. Tepley, Enrique Thomann, Thomas T. Veblen, George L.W. Perry, Andrés Holz, Juan Paritsis, Thomas Kitzberger, Kristina J. Anderson-Teixeira & George L. W. Perry
1. In the context of on-going climatic warming, forest landscapes face increasing risk of conversion to non-forest vegetation through alteration of their fire regimes and their post-fire recovery dynamics. However, this pressure could be amplified or dampened, depending on how fire-driven changes to vegetation feed back to alter the extent or behavior of subsequent fires. 2. Here we develop a mathematical model to formalize understanding of how fire–vegetation feedbacks and the time to forest recovery...

Data from: Strong linkages between depth, longevity and demographic stability across marine sessile species

Ignasi Montero-Serra, Cristina Linares, Daniel F. Doak, Jean-Baptiste Ledoux & Joaquim Garrabou
Understanding the role of the environment in shaping the evolution of life histories remains a major challenge in ecology and evolution. We synthesize longevity patterns of marine sessile species and find strong positive relationships between depth and maximum lifespan across multiple sessile marine taxa, including corals, bivalves, sponges and macroalgae. Using long-term demographic data on marine sessile and terrestrial plant species, we show that extreme longevity leads to strongly dampened population dynamics. We also used...

Registration Year

  • 2018

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Colorado Boulder
  • Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research
  • Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
  • New York University Langone Medical Center
  • Duke University
  • University of Barcelona
  • Institut de Ciències del Mar
  • Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals
  • Rice University
  • University of Washington