4,862 Works

Data from: Leaf P increase outpaces leaf N in an Inner Mongolia grassland over 27 years

Zhaorong Mi, Yuanyuan Huang, Huijie Gan, Wenjia Zhou, Dan F. B. Flynn, Jin-Sheng He & J.-S. He
The dynamics of leaf nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) have been intensively explored in short-term experiments, but rarely at longer timescales. Here, we investigated leaf N : P stoichiometry over a 27-year interval in an Inner Mongolia grassland by comparing leaf N : P concentration of 2006 with that of 1979. Across 80 species, both leaf N and P increased, but the increase in leaf N lagged behind that of leaf P, leading to a...

Data from: The anatomy, taphonomy, taxonomy and systematic affinity of Markuelia: Early Cambrian to Early Ordovician scalidophorans

Xi-Ping Dong, Stefan Bengston, Neil J. Gostling, John A. Cunningham, Thomas H. P. Harvey, Artem Kouchinsky, Anatoly K. Val'kov, John E. Repetski, Marco Stampanoni, Federica Marone & Philip C. J. Donoghue
Markuelia is a vermiform, annulated introvertan animal known as embryonic fossils from the Lower Cambrian to Lower Ordovician. Analysis of an expanded and revised dataset for Introverta shows that the precise position of Markuelia within this clade is dependent on the taxa included. As a result, Markuelia is assigned to the scalidophoran total group to reflect uncertainty as to whether it is a stem-scalidophoran or a stem-priapulid. The taxonomy of the genus is revised to...

Data from: Nutrient addition affects scaling relationship of leaf nitrogen to phosphorus in Arabidopsis thaliana

Zhengbing Yan, Xiuping Li, Di Tian, Wenxuan Han, Xinghui Hou, Haihua Shen, Yalong Guo & Jingyun Fang
1. Ambient nutrient changes influence the coupling of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in terrestrial ecosystems, but whether it could alter the scaling relationship of plant leaf N to P concentrations remains unclear. 2. Here we conducted experimental manipulations using Arabidopsis thaliana, with five levels of N and P additions and nine repeated experiments, and then evaluated the changes in the scaling relationship of leaf N to P concentrations under nutrient additions. 3. Overall, leaf...

Data from: Range-wide and regional patterns of population structure and genetic diversity in the gopher tortoise

Daniel Gaillard, Joshua R. Ennen, Brian R. Kreiser, Carl P. Qualls, Sarah C. Sweat, Roger Birkhead, Tracey D. Tuberville, Matthew Aresco, Earl D. McCoy, Henry R. Mushinsky, Thomas W. Hentges, B.R. Kreiser, C.P. Qualls, T.D. Tuberville, E.D. McCoy, H.R. Mushinsky & T.W. Hentges
The gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) has experienced dramatic population declines throughout its distribution in the southeastern United States and is federally listed as threatened in the area west of the Tombigbee-Mobile Rivers. While there is molecular support for recognizing the listed portion of the range as genetically distinct, other research has suggested that additional population structure exists at both range-wide and regional scales. In this study, we sought to comprehensively define structure at both spatial...

The effect of methylene blue on white matter injury after MCAO in rats and mice

Quancheng Cheng, Xuhao Chen, Jiayi Ma, Xingyuan Jiang, Jiahui Chen, Mengqin Zhang, Yejun Wu, Weiguang Zhang & Chunhua Chen
Objectives: Methylene blue, the FDA-grandfathered drug was proved to be neuroprotective in ischemic stroke in rat. However, the mechanism of the protective effect was unknown. In this study, we used different animal models to investigate the effect of MB administration given within and beyond the therapeutic time window on behavioral deficits and infarct volume and related mechanism about the white matter protection. Methods: Middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO) and photothrombotic middle cerebral artery...

Data from: Brachial supporting structure of Spiriferida (Brachiopoda)

Zhiwei Yuan, Wen Guo, Dan Lü & Yuanlin Sun
The filter-feeding organ of some extinct brachiopods is supported by a skeletal apparatus called the brachidium. Although relatively well-studied in Atrypida and Athyridida, the brachidial morphology is usually neglected in Spiriferida. To investigate the variations of brachidial morphology in Spiriferida, 65 species belonging to eight superfamilies were analyzed. Based on the presence/absence of the jugal processes and normal/modified primary lamellae of the spiralia, four types of brachidium are recognized. Type-I (with jugal processes) and Type-II...

A comprehensive and comparative evaluation of primers for metabarcoding eDNA from fish

Shan Zhang, Jindong Zhao & Meng Yao
Accurate assessments of fish species diversity and community composition are essential for understanding fish ecology and conservation management. Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding has become an integrated method for monitoring fish species. The accuracy and efficacy of eDNA metabarcoding relies heavily on the choice of primers used for PCR amplification. A wide selection of metabarcoding primers for fish has been developed; however, there exists no comprehensive and comparative evaluation of their amplification or taxonomic classification of...

Data from: Global prevalence and burden of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder: A meta-analysis

Yunhe Wang, Moxuan Liu, Qingdong Lu, Michael Farrell, Julia Lappin, Jie Shi, Lin Lu & Yanping Bao
Objectives: We aimed to characterise the prevalence and burden of HAND and assess associated factors in the global population with HIV. Methods: We searched PubMed and Embase for cross-sectional or cohort studies reporting the prevalence of HAND or its subtypes in HIV-infected adult populations from Jan 1, 1996, to May 15, 2020, without language restrictions. Two reviewers independently undertook the study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment. We estimated pooled prevalence of HAND by a...

Predicting reservoir hosts based on early SARS-CoV-2 samples and analyzing later world-wide pandemic

Qian Guo, Mo Li, Chunhui Wang, Jinyuan Guo, Xiaoqing Jiang, Jie Tan, Peihong Wang, Shufang Wu, Tingting Xiao, Man Zhou, Zhencheng Fang, Yonghong Xiao & Huaiqiu Zhu
The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has raised the concern for reservoir hosts of the virus since the early-stage outbreak. To address this problem, we proposed a deep learning method, DeepHoF, based on extracting the viral genomic features, to calculate the infection likelihoods and further predict the probable hosts of novel viruses. Overcoming the limitation of sequence similarity-based methods, DeepHoF was applied to the analysis of SARS-CoV-2 in the 2020 pandemic. Using the isolates sequenced in the earliest...

Shifts in plant composition mediate grazing effects on carbon cycling in grasslands

Maowei Liang, Nicholas Smith, Jiquan Chen, Yantao Wu, Zhiwei Guo, Elise Gornish & Cunzhu Liang
Carbon cycling in grasslands can be impacted by livestock grazing, partially as an indirect result of herbivory-induced compositional shifts in the plant community. However, the underlying mechanisms of how these shifts impact carbon cycling are not well documented. We conducted a long-term grazing experiment with four sheep stocking rates in the semi-arid grasslands of Inner Mongolia, China, to examine grazing effects on the ratio of C3 to C4 species (C3:C4), shoot biomass, root biomass, root:shoot,...

Data from: Convenient fabrication of conjugated polymer semiconductor nanotubes and their application in organic electronics

Lanchao Ma, Shuixing Dai, Xiaowei Zhan, Xinyang Liu & Yu Li
Organic heterojunction is indispensable in organic electronic devices, such as organic solar cells (OSCs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and so on. Fabrication of core-shell nanostructure provides feasible and novel way to prepare organic heterojunction, which is beneficial for miniaturization and integration of organic electronic devices. Fabrication of nanotubes which constitute the core-shell structure in large quantity is the key for the realization of application. In this work, a simple and convenient method to prepare nanotubes...

Data from: Characterization of cytoplasmic viscosity of hundreds of single tumor cells based on micropipette aspiration

Ke Wang, Xiaohao H. Sun, Yi Zhang, Teng Zhang, Yu Zheng, Yuanchen C. Wei, Peng Zhao, Deyong Y. Chen, Hengan A. Wu, Wenhui H. Wang, Rong Long, Junbo B. Wang & Jian Chen
Background: Cytoplasmic viscosity (μc) is a key biomechanical parameter for evaluating the status of cellular cytoskeletons. Previous studies focused on white blood cells, but the data of cytoplasmic viscosity for tumor cells were missing. Methodology: Tumor cells (H1299, A549 and drug-treated H1299 with compromised cytoskeletons) were aspirated continuously through a micropipette at a pressure of -10 kPa or -5 kPa where aspiration lengths as a function of time were obtained and translated to cytoplasmic viscosity...

Data from: A consistent species richness-climate relationship for oaks across the Northern Hemisphere

Xiaoting Xu, Dimitar Dimitrov, Nawal Shrestha, Carsten Rahbek & Zhiheng Wang
Aim: Although the effects of climate on species richness are known, regional processes may lead to different species richness-climate relationships across continents resulting in species richness anomalies, especially for tropical groups. Phylogenetic niche conservatism may also influence species richness-climate relationships of different lineages. Here, we tested whether regional effects also exist for temperate lineages using the genus Quercus. Location: Northern Hemisphere Time period: Present day Major taxa studied: Quercus (Fagaceae) Methods: We used a dated...

Data from: Horizontal and vertical diversity jointly shape food web stability against small and large perturbations

Qinghua Zhao, Paul J. Van Den Brink, Camille Carpentier, Yingying. X. G. Wang, Pablo Rodríguez-Sánchez, Chi Xu, Silke Vollbrecht, Frits Gillissen, Marlies Vollebregt, Shaopeng Wang & Frederik De Laender
The biodiversity of food webs is composed of horizontal (i.e. within trophic levels) and vertical diversity (i.e. the number of trophic levels). Understanding their joint effect on stability is a key challenge. Theory mostly considers their individual effects and focuses on small perturbations near equilibrium in hypothetical food webs. Here, we study the joint effects of horizontal and vertical diversity on the stability of hypothetical (modelled) and empirical food webs. In modelled food webs, horizontal...

Data from: Phosphorus alleviation of nitrogen-suppressed methane sink in global grasslands

Lihua Zhang, Fenghui Yuan, Junhong Bai, Hongtao Duan, Xueying Gu, Longyu Hou, Yao Huang, Mingan Yang, Jinsheng He, Zhenghua Zhang, Lijun Yu, Changchun Song, David Lipson, Donatella Zona, Walter Oechel, Ivan Janssens & Xiaofeng Xu
Grassland ecosystems account for more than 10% of the global CH4 sink in soils. A 4-year field experiment found that addition of P alone did not affect CH4 uptake and experimental addition of N alone significantly suppressed CH4 uptake, while concurrent N and P additions suppressed CH4 uptake to a lesser degree. A meta-analysis including 382 data points in global grasslands corroborated these findings. Global extrapolation with an empirical modeling approach estimated that contemporary N...

Soil extracellular enzyme activity and stoichiometry in China’s forests

Luhong Zhou, Shangshi Liu, Haihua Shen, Mengying Zhao, Longchao Xu, Aijun Xing & Jingyun Fang
1. Ecoenzymatic stoichiometry links microbial decomposition with nutrient mineralization and improves our understanding of nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Microbial C:N:P acquisition in the topsoil converged at a ratio of 1:1:1 in global ecosystems. However, whether the ratio of microbial acquisition is stable in forest soils, and is applicable among different soil depths remain unknown. 2. Based on large-scale soil sampling in China’s forests, we examined the patterns and environmental drivers of the eight most-widely...

Global distribution and evolutionary transitions of angiosperm sexual systems

Yunyun Wang, Ao Luo, Tong Lyu, Dimitar Dimitrov, Xiaoting Xu, Robert Freckleton, Yaoqi Li, Xiangyan Su, Yichao Li, Yunpeng Liu, Denis Sandanov, Qingjun Li, Zhanqing Hao, Shuguang Liu & Zhiheng Wang
Angiosperm sexual systems are fundamental to the evolution and distribution of plant diversity, yet spatiotemporal patterns in angiosperm sexual systems and their drivers remain poorly known. Using data on sexual systems and distributions of 68453 angiosperm species, we present the first global maps of sexual system frequencies and evaluate sexual system evolution during the Cenozoic. Frequencies of dioecy and monoecy increase with latitude, while hermaphrodites are more frequent in warm and arid regions. Transitions to...

Patterns of nitrogen and phosphorus pools in terrestrial ecosystems in China

Yi-Wei Zhang, Yanpei Guo, Zhiyao Tang, Yuhao Feng, Xinrong Zhu, Wenting Xu, Yongfei Bai, Guoyi Zhou, Zongqiang Xie & Jingyun Fang
Recent increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and temperature relieve their limitations on terrestrial ecosystem productivity, while nutrient availability constrains the increasing plant photosynthesis more intensively. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are critical for plant physiological activities and consequently regulates ecosystem productivity. Here, for the first time, we mapped N and P densities and concentrations of leaves, woody stems, roots, litter and soil in forest, shrubland and grassland ecosystems across China, based on an intensive...

Dataset for estimation of the biotic and climatic niche breadths and geographic range size of beech (Fagus) species worldwide

Qiong Cai, Erik Welk, Chengjun Ji, Wenjing Fang, Francesco Maria Sabatini, Jianxiao Zhu, Jiangling Zhu, Zhiyao Tang, Fabio Attorre, Juan Antonio Campos, Andraž Čarni, Milan Chytrý, Süleyman Çoban, Jürgen Dengler, Jiri Dolezal, Richard Field, József Pál Frink, Hamid Gholizadeh, Adrian Indreica, Ute Jandt, Dirk Nikolaus Karger, Jonathan Lenoir, Robert K. Peet, Remigiusz Pielech, Michele De Sanctis … & Helge Bruelheide
This dataset could be used to test whether the commonly observed positive range size–niche breadth relationship, as posited by the “niche breadth hypothesis”, exists for Fagus, one of the most dominant and widespread broad‐leaved deciduous tree genera in temperate forests of the Northern Hemisphere. There are many ways to estimate niche breadth. Here, we estimated biotic and climatic niche breadths per species using plot‐based co‐occurrence data and climate data, respectively. The range sizes of the...

From crypsis to masquerade: ontogeny changes the colour defences of a crab spider hiding as bird droppings

Long Yu, Xin Xu, Fan Li, Wei Zhou, Hua Zeng, Eunice Tan, Shichang Zhang & Daiqin Li
Selection imposed by visually-hunting predators has driven the evolution of colour-based antipredator defence strategies such as crypsis, masquerade, mimicry and aposematism. Individuals of many animals are generally considered to rely on a single type of defence strategy, but individuals of some species use multiple colour-based defences. Many animals switch between colour-based defences against visually-hunting predators during ontogeny. However, why this occurs remains poorly understood. The crab spider Phrynarachne ceylonica is an often-cited example of a...

Towards an understanding of the latitudinal patterns in thermal tolerance and vulnerability of woody plants under climate warming

Shijia Peng, Yunpeng Liu, Tong Lyu, Xiaoling Zhang, Yaoqi Li & Zhiheng Wang
Predicting spatial patterns in thermal tolerance and vulnerability of species under climate warming remains a challenge. Current knowledge is mainly from experiment-based thermal physiology of limited numbers of ectotherms, yet large-scale evaluations on plants remain elusive. Here, using distribution maps with spatial resolutions of 20×20 km for 5628 woody species in China, we propose a novel approach, i.e. thermal distribution curves, to describe species' realized thermal niches, and then estimate their thermal tolerance and warming...

Conservation of woody species in China under future climate and land-cover changes

Shijia Peng, Jian Zhang, Xiaoling Zhang, Yaoqi Li, Yunpeng Liu & Zhiheng Wang
Climate and land-cover changes are major threats to biodiversity, and their impacts are expected to intensify in the future. Protected areas (PAs) are crucial for biodiversity conservation. However, their effectiveness under future climate and land-cover changes remains to be evaluated. Moreover, the impacts of climate and land-cover changes on multi-dimensions of biodiversity are rarely considered when expanding PAs. Using distributions of 8732 woody species in China and species distribution models, we identified species that will...

Rivers as the largest source of mercury to coastal oceans worldwide

Maodian Liu, Qianru Zhang, Taylor Maavara, Shaoda Liu, Xuejun Wang & Peter Raymond
Mercury is a potent neurotoxic substance and accounts for 250,000 intellectual disabilities annually. Worldwide, coastal fisheries contribute the majority of human exposure to mercury through fish consumption. Recent global mercury cycling and risk models attribute all the mercury loading to the ocean to atmospheric deposition. Nevertheless, new regional research has noted that the riverine mercury export to coastal oceans may also be significant to the oceanic burden of mercury. Here we construct an unprecedented high-spatial-resolution...

Protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs) negatively regulate ebolavirus structural glycoprotein expression in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via the autophagy-lysosomal pathway

Bin Wang, Jing Zhang, Xin Liu, Qingqing Chai, Xiaoran Lu, Xiaoyu Yao, Zhichang Yang, Liangliang Sun, Silas F. Johnson, Richard C Schwartz & Yong-Hui Zheng
Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) causes a severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates with high morbidity and mortality. EBOV infection is dependent on its structural glycoprotein (GP), but high levels of GP expression also trigger cell rounding, detachment, and downregulation of many surface molecules that is thought to contribute to its high pathogenicity. Thus, EBOV has evolved an RNA editing mechanism to reduce its GP expression and increase its fitness. We now report that the...

Rapid increase in China’s industrial ammonia emissions: evidence from unit-based mapping

Yuang Chen, Qianru Zhang, Xingrui Cai, Haoran Zhang, Huiming Lin, Chaoyue Zheng, Zhanqiang Guo, Shanying Hu, Long Chen, Shu Tao, Maodian Liu & Xuejun Wang
Ammonia (NH3) is an important precursor of secondary inorganic aerosols and greatly impacts nitrogen deposition and acid rain. Previous studies have mainly focused on the agricultural NH3 emissions, while recent research has noted that industrial sources could be significant in China. However, detailed estimates of NH3 emitted from industrial sectors in China are lacking. Here we established an unprecedented high-spatial-resolution dataset of China’s industrial NH3 emissions using up-to-date measurements of NH3 and point source-level information...

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