84 Works

A new Changhsingian (Lopingian) brachiopod fauna of the shallow-water clastic-shelf facies from Fujian Province, southeastern China

Huiting Wu, Yang Zhang, Thomas Stubbs, Jingqi Liu & Yuanlin Sun
Although much attention has been paid to Changhsingian brachiopods in South China, there are only two Chinese studies, published in 1979 and 1990, on Changhsingian brachiopods from the southeastern part of South China. Based on systematically collected fossil material, this paper describes and quantitatively analyses a Changhsingian brachiopod fauna from the Luokeng Formation at the Hongtian section, Fujian Province, southeastern China, for the first time. Among the brachiopods (30 species in 18 genera) described and...

Specimen list and landmark coordinates for the palate of early salamanders

Jia Jia, Guangzhao Li & Ke-Qin Gao
Ecological preferences and life history strategies have enormous impacts on the evolution and phenotypic diversity of salamanders, but the yet established reliable ecological indicators hinder investigations on the paleobiology of early salamanders. Here we statistically demonstrate using geometric morphometric analysis that both the shape of the palate and many non-shape variables particularly associated with vomerine teeth are ecologically informative in early stem- and basal crown-group salamanders. The morphology of the palate is heavily impacted by...

Data from: Low genetic diversity and strong population structure shaped by anthropogenic habitat fragmentation in a critically endangered primate, Trachypithecus leucocephalus

Weiran Wang, Yu Qiao, Sheng Li, Wenshi Pan & Meng Yao
Habitat fragmentation may strongly impact population genetic structure and reduce the genetic diversity and viability of small and isolated populations. The white-headed langur (Trachypithecus leucocephalus) is a critically endangered primate species living in a highly fragmented and human-modified habitat in southern China. We examined the population genetic structure and genetic diversity of the species and investigated the environmental and anthropogenic factors that may have shaped its population structure. We used 214 unique multi-locus genotypes from...

Data from: Asymmetric winter warming advanced plant phenology to a greater extent than symmetric warming in an alpine meadow

Ji Suonan, Aimée T. Classen, Zhenhua Zhang & Jin-Sheng He
The warming of terrestrial high-latitude ecosystems, while increasing, will likely be asymmetric across seasons – where winter non-growing seasons will warm more than summer growing seasons. Asymmetric winter warming in temperature-sensitive ecosystems may delay spring phenological events by reducing the opportunity that a plants’ chilling requirement is met. Similarly, symmetric warming can advance spring phenology. To explore the impact of asymmetric warming on plant phenology, we applied a year-round warming and a winter warming treatment...

Data from: An alternative approach to reduce algorithm-derived biases in monitoring soil organic carbon changes

Weixin Zhang, Yuanqi Chen, Leilei Shi, Xiaoli Wang, Yongwen Liu, Rong Mao, Xingquan Rao, Yongbiao Lin, Yuanhu Shao, Xiaobo Li, Cancan Zhao, Shengjie Liu, Shilong Piao, Weixing Zhu, Xiaoming Zou & Shenglei Fu
Quantifying soil organic carbon (SOC) changes is a fundamental issue in ecology and sustainable agriculture. However, the algorithm-derived biases in comparing SOC status have not been fully addressed. Although the methods based on equivalent soil mass (ESM) and mineral-matter mass (EMMM) reduced biases of the conventional methods based on equivalent soil volume (ESV), they face challenges in ensuring both data comparability and accuracy of SOC estimation due to unequal basis for comparison and using un-conserved...

Phytogeographic history of the Tea family inferred through high-resolution phylogeny and fossils

Yujing Yan, Charles Davis, Dimitar Dimitrov, Zhiheng Wang, Carsten Rahbek & Michael Borregaard
The tea family (Theaceae) has a highly unusual amphi-Pacific disjunct distribution: most extant species in the family are restricted to subtropical evergreen broadleaf forests in East Asia, while a handful of species occur exclusively in the subtropical and tropical Americas. Here we used an approach that integrates the rich fossil evidence of this group with phylogenies in biogeographic analysis to study the processes behind this distribution pattern. We first combined genome-skimming sequencing with existing molecular...

Rainfall pulses mediate long-term plant community compositional dynamics in a semi-arid rangeland

Maowei Liang, Xiao Feng & Elise Gornish
1. Semi-arid rangelands, comprising more than 40% of the Earth’s land surface, provide critical ecosystem services. Worldwide, these ecosystems are experiencing rapid degradation due to overgrazing and precipitation changes. However, how plants respond to these interacting factors remains relatively unexplored, and precisely which and how rainfall factors determine plant community dynamics in rangelands has not been well developed. 2. We used a long-term (1953‒2018) dataset from semi-arid rangeland to investigate coupled effects of grazing intensity...

Retention fraction of 15N-labelled deposited ammonium and nitrate in forests

Geshere Abdisa Gurmesa, Ang Wang, Shanlong Li, Shushi Peng, Wim De Vries, Per Gundersen, Philippe Ciais, Oliver L Phillips, Erik Hobbie, Weixing Zhu, Knute Nadelhoffer, Yi Xi, Edith Bai, Tao Sun, Dexiang Chen, Wenjun Zhou, Yiping Zhang, Yingrong Guo, Jiaojun Zhu, Lei Duan, Dejun Li, Keisuke Koba, Enzai Du, Guoyi Zhou, Xingguo Han … & Yunting Fang
The impacts of enhanced nitrogen (N) deposition on global forest carbon (C) sink and other ecosystem services may depend on whether N is deposited in reduced (mainly as ammonium) or oxidized forms (mainly as nitrate) and the subsequent fate of each. However, the fates of the two key reactive N forms and its contribution to forest C sink is unclear. We conducted ecosystem-scale paired 15N-labelling experiments in nine forests across China to quantify N retention...

Plotting receiver operating characteristic and precision-recall curves from presence and background data

Wenkai Li & Qinghua Guo
The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and precision-recall (PR) plots have been widely used to evaluate the performances of species distribution models. Plotting the ROC/PR curves requires a traditional test set with both presence and absence data (namely PA approach), but species absence data are usually not available in reality. Plotting the ROC/PR curves from presence-only data while treating background data as pseudo absence data (namely PO approach) may provide misleading results. In this study we...

Data from: Range-wide and regional patterns of population structure and genetic diversity in the gopher tortoise

Daniel Gaillard, Joshua R. Ennen, Brian R. Kreiser, Carl P. Qualls, Sarah C. Sweat, Roger Birkhead, Tracey D. Tuberville, Matthew Aresco, Earl D. McCoy, Henry R. Mushinsky, Thomas W. Hentges, B.R. Kreiser, C.P. Qualls, T.D. Tuberville, E.D. McCoy, H.R. Mushinsky & T.W. Hentges
The gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) has experienced dramatic population declines throughout its distribution in the southeastern United States and is federally listed as threatened in the area west of the Tombigbee-Mobile Rivers. While there is molecular support for recognizing the listed portion of the range as genetically distinct, other research has suggested that additional population structure exists at both range-wide and regional scales. In this study, we sought to comprehensively define structure at both spatial...

Data from: Convenient fabrication of conjugated polymer semiconductor nanotubes and their application in organic electronics

Lanchao Ma, Shuixing Dai, Xiaowei Zhan, Xinyang Liu & Yu Li
Organic heterojunction is indispensable in organic electronic devices, such as organic solar cells (OSCs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and so on. Fabrication of core-shell nanostructure provides feasible and novel way to prepare organic heterojunction, which is beneficial for miniaturization and integration of organic electronic devices. Fabrication of nanotubes which constitute the core-shell structure in large quantity is the key for the realization of application. In this work, a simple and convenient method to prepare nanotubes...

Data from: The anatomy, taphonomy, taxonomy and systematic affinity of Markuelia: Early Cambrian to Early Ordovician scalidophorans

Xi-Ping Dong, Stefan Bengston, Neil J. Gostling, John A. Cunningham, Thomas H. P. Harvey, Artem Kouchinsky, Anatoly K. Val'kov, John E. Repetski, Marco Stampanoni, Federica Marone & Philip C. J. Donoghue
Markuelia is a vermiform, annulated introvertan animal known as embryonic fossils from the Lower Cambrian to Lower Ordovician. Analysis of an expanded and revised dataset for Introverta shows that the precise position of Markuelia within this clade is dependent on the taxa included. As a result, Markuelia is assigned to the scalidophoran total group to reflect uncertainty as to whether it is a stem-scalidophoran or a stem-priapulid. The taxonomy of the genus is revised to...

Data from: Horizontal and vertical diversity jointly shape food web stability against small and large perturbations

Qinghua Zhao, Paul J. Van Den Brink, Camille Carpentier, Yingying. X. G. Wang, Pablo Rodríguez-Sánchez, Chi Xu, Silke Vollbrecht, Frits Gillissen, Marlies Vollebregt, Shaopeng Wang & Frederik De Laender
The biodiversity of food webs is composed of horizontal (i.e. within trophic levels) and vertical diversity (i.e. the number of trophic levels). Understanding their joint effect on stability is a key challenge. Theory mostly considers their individual effects and focuses on small perturbations near equilibrium in hypothetical food webs. Here, we study the joint effects of horizontal and vertical diversity on the stability of hypothetical (modelled) and empirical food webs. In modelled food webs, horizontal...

Data from: Leaf P increase outpaces leaf N in an Inner Mongolia grassland over 27 years

Zhaorong Mi, Yuanyuan Huang, Huijie Gan, Wenjia Zhou, Dan F. B. Flynn, Jin-Sheng He & J.-S. He
The dynamics of leaf nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) have been intensively explored in short-term experiments, but rarely at longer timescales. Here, we investigated leaf N : P stoichiometry over a 27-year interval in an Inner Mongolia grassland by comparing leaf N : P concentration of 2006 with that of 1979. Across 80 species, both leaf N and P increased, but the increase in leaf N lagged behind that of leaf P, leading to a...

Data from: A consistent species richness-climate relationship for oaks across the Northern Hemisphere

Xiaoting Xu, Dimitar Dimitrov, Nawal Shrestha, Carsten Rahbek & Zhiheng Wang
Aim: Although the effects of climate on species richness are known, regional processes may lead to different species richness-climate relationships across continents resulting in species richness anomalies, especially for tropical groups. Phylogenetic niche conservatism may also influence species richness-climate relationships of different lineages. Here, we tested whether regional effects also exist for temperate lineages using the genus Quercus. Location: Northern Hemisphere Time period: Present day Major taxa studied: Quercus (Fagaceae) Methods: We used a dated...

Data from: Characterization of cytoplasmic viscosity of hundreds of single tumor cells based on micropipette aspiration

Ke Wang, Xiaohao H. Sun, Yi Zhang, Teng Zhang, Yu Zheng, Yuanchen C. Wei, Peng Zhao, Deyong Y. Chen, Hengan A. Wu, Wenhui H. Wang, Rong Long, Junbo B. Wang & Jian Chen
Background: Cytoplasmic viscosity (μc) is a key biomechanical parameter for evaluating the status of cellular cytoskeletons. Previous studies focused on white blood cells, but the data of cytoplasmic viscosity for tumor cells were missing. Methodology: Tumor cells (H1299, A549 and drug-treated H1299 with compromised cytoskeletons) were aspirated continuously through a micropipette at a pressure of -10 kPa or -5 kPa where aspiration lengths as a function of time were obtained and translated to cytoplasmic viscosity...

Data from: Nutrient addition affects scaling relationship of leaf nitrogen to phosphorus in Arabidopsis thaliana

Zhengbing Yan, Xiuping Li, Di Tian, Wenxuan Han, Xinghui Hou, Haihua Shen, Yalong Guo & Jingyun Fang
1. Ambient nutrient changes influence the coupling of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in terrestrial ecosystems, but whether it could alter the scaling relationship of plant leaf N to P concentrations remains unclear. 2. Here we conducted experimental manipulations using Arabidopsis thaliana, with five levels of N and P additions and nine repeated experiments, and then evaluated the changes in the scaling relationship of leaf N to P concentrations under nutrient additions. 3. Overall, leaf...

Rapid increase in China’s industrial ammonia emissions: evidence from unit-based mapping

Yuang Chen, Qianru Zhang, Xingrui Cai, Haoran Zhang, Huiming Lin, Chaoyue Zheng, Zhanqiang Guo, Shanying Hu, Long Chen, Shu Tao, Maodian Liu & Xuejun Wang
Ammonia (NH3) is an important precursor of secondary inorganic aerosols and greatly impacts nitrogen deposition and acid rain. Previous studies have mainly focused on the agricultural NH3 emissions, while recent research has noted that industrial sources could be significant in China. However, detailed estimates of NH3 emitted from industrial sectors in China are lacking. Here we established an unprecedented high-spatial-resolution dataset of China’s industrial NH3 emissions using up-to-date measurements of NH3 and point source-level information...

High dimensionality of stoichiometric niches in soil fauna

Bing Zhang, Haozhen Chen, Mingqin Deng, Jingyi Li, Angélica González & Shaopeng Wang
The ecological niche is a fundamental concept to understand species coexistence in natural communities. The recently developed framework of the multidimensional stoichiometric niche (MSN) characterizes species niches using chemical elements in living organisms. Despite the fact that living organisms are composed by multiple elements, stoichiometric studies have so far mostly focused on carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P), and therefore a quantitative analysis of the dimensionality of the MSN in living organisms is still...

Towards an understanding of the latitudinal patterns in thermal tolerance and vulnerability of woody plants under climate warming

Shijia Peng, Yunpeng Liu, Tong Lyu, Xiaoling Zhang, Yaoqi Li & Zhiheng Wang
Predicting spatial patterns in thermal tolerance and vulnerability of species under climate warming remains a challenge. Current knowledge is mainly from experiment-based thermal physiology of limited numbers of ectotherms, yet large-scale evaluations on plants remain elusive. Here, using distribution maps with spatial resolutions of 20×20 km for 5628 woody species in China, we propose a novel approach, i.e. thermal distribution curves, to describe species' realized thermal niches, and then estimate their thermal tolerance and warming...

Conservation of woody species in China under future climate and land-cover changes

Shijia Peng, Jian Zhang, Xiaoling Zhang, Yaoqi Li, Yunpeng Liu & Zhiheng Wang
Climate and land-cover changes are major threats to biodiversity, and their impacts are expected to intensify in the future. Protected areas (PAs) are crucial for biodiversity conservation. However, their effectiveness under future climate and land-cover changes remains to be evaluated. Moreover, the impacts of climate and land-cover changes on multi-dimensions of biodiversity are rarely considered when expanding PAs. Using distributions of 8732 woody species in China and species distribution models, we identified species that will...

Soil extracellular enzyme activity and stoichiometry in China’s forests

Luhong Zhou, Shangshi Liu, Haihua Shen, Mengying Zhao, Longchao Xu, Aijun Xing & Jingyun Fang
1. Ecoenzymatic stoichiometry links microbial decomposition with nutrient mineralization and improves our understanding of nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Microbial C:N:P acquisition in the topsoil converged at a ratio of 1:1:1 in global ecosystems. However, whether the ratio of microbial acquisition is stable in forest soils, and is applicable among different soil depths remain unknown. 2. Based on large-scale soil sampling in China’s forests, we examined the patterns and environmental drivers of the eight most-widely...

Data from: Phosphorus alleviation of nitrogen-suppressed methane sink in global grasslands

Lihua Zhang, Fenghui Yuan, Junhong Bai, Hongtao Duan, Xueying Gu, Longyu Hou, Yao Huang, Mingan Yang, Jinsheng He, Zhenghua Zhang, Lijun Yu, Changchun Song, David Lipson, Donatella Zona, Walter Oechel, Ivan Janssens & Xiaofeng Xu
Grassland ecosystems account for more than 10% of the global CH4 sink in soils. A 4-year field experiment found that addition of P alone did not affect CH4 uptake and experimental addition of N alone significantly suppressed CH4 uptake, while concurrent N and P additions suppressed CH4 uptake to a lesser degree. A meta-analysis including 382 data points in global grasslands corroborated these findings. Global extrapolation with an empirical modeling approach estimated that contemporary N...

Dataset for estimation of the biotic and climatic niche breadths and geographic range size of beech (Fagus) species worldwide

Qiong Cai, Erik Welk, Chengjun Ji, Wenjing Fang, Francesco Maria Sabatini, Jianxiao Zhu, Jiangling Zhu, Zhiyao Tang, Fabio Attorre, Juan Antonio Campos, Andraž Čarni, Milan Chytrý, Süleyman Çoban, Jürgen Dengler, Jiri Dolezal, Richard Field, József Pál Frink, Hamid Gholizadeh, Adrian Indreica, Ute Jandt, Dirk Nikolaus Karger, Jonathan Lenoir, Robert K. Peet, Remigiusz Pielech, Michele De Sanctis … & Helge Bruelheide
This dataset could be used to test whether the commonly observed positive range size–niche breadth relationship, as posited by the “niche breadth hypothesis”, exists for Fagus, one of the most dominant and widespread broad‐leaved deciduous tree genera in temperate forests of the Northern Hemisphere. There are many ways to estimate niche breadth. Here, we estimated biotic and climatic niche breadths per species using plot‐based co‐occurrence data and climate data, respectively. The range sizes of the...

Shifts in plant composition mediate grazing effects on carbon cycling in grasslands

Maowei Liang, Nicholas Smith, Jiquan Chen, Yantao Wu, Zhiwei Guo, Elise Gornish & Cunzhu Liang
Carbon cycling in grasslands can be impacted by livestock grazing, partially as an indirect result of herbivory-induced compositional shifts in the plant community. However, the underlying mechanisms of how these shifts impact carbon cycling are not well documented. We conducted a long-term grazing experiment with four sheep stocking rates in the semi-arid grasslands of Inner Mongolia, China, to examine grazing effects on the ratio of C3 to C4 species (C3:C4), shoot biomass, root biomass, root:shoot,...

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