84 Works

Patterns of nitrogen and phosphorus pools in terrestrial ecosystems in China

Yi-Wei Zhang, Yanpei Guo, Zhiyao Tang, Yuhao Feng, Xinrong Zhu, Wenting Xu, Yongfei Bai, Guoyi Zhou, Zongqiang Xie & Jingyun Fang
Recent increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and temperature relieve their limitations on terrestrial ecosystem productivity, while nutrient availability constrains the increasing plant photosynthesis more intensively. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are critical for plant physiological activities and consequently regulates ecosystem productivity. Here, for the first time, we mapped N and P densities and concentrations of leaves, woody stems, roots, litter and soil in forest, shrubland and grassland ecosystems across China, based on an intensive...

From crypsis to masquerade: ontogeny changes the colour defences of a crab spider hiding as bird droppings

Long Yu, Xin Xu, Fan Li, Wei Zhou, Hua Zeng, Eunice Tan, Shichang Zhang & Daiqin Li
Selection imposed by visually-hunting predators has driven the evolution of colour-based antipredator defence strategies such as crypsis, masquerade, mimicry and aposematism. Individuals of many animals are generally considered to rely on a single type of defence strategy, but individuals of some species use multiple colour-based defences. Many animals switch between colour-based defences against visually-hunting predators during ontogeny. However, why this occurs remains poorly understood. The crab spider Phrynarachne ceylonica is an often-cited example of a...

Global distribution and evolutionary transitions of angiosperm sexual systems

Yunyun Wang, Ao Luo, Tong Lyu, Dimitar Dimitrov, Xiaoting Xu, Robert Freckleton, Yaoqi Li, Xiangyan Su, Yichao Li, Yunpeng Liu, Denis Sandanov, Qingjun Li, Zhanqing Hao, Shuguang Liu & Zhiheng Wang
Angiosperm sexual systems are fundamental to the evolution and distribution of plant diversity, yet spatiotemporal patterns in angiosperm sexual systems and their drivers remain poorly known. Using data on sexual systems and distributions of 68453 angiosperm species, we present the first global maps of sexual system frequencies and evaluate sexual system evolution during the Cenozoic. Frequencies of dioecy and monoecy increase with latitude, while hermaphrodites are more frequent in warm and arid regions. Transitions to...

Rivers as the largest source of mercury to coastal oceans worldwide

Maodian Liu, Qianru Zhang, Taylor Maavara, Shaoda Liu, Xuejun Wang & Peter Raymond
Mercury is a potent neurotoxic substance and accounts for 250,000 intellectual disabilities annually. Worldwide, coastal fisheries contribute the majority of human exposure to mercury through fish consumption. Recent global mercury cycling and risk models attribute all the mercury loading to the ocean to atmospheric deposition. Nevertheless, new regional research has noted that the riverine mercury export to coastal oceans may also be significant to the oceanic burden of mercury. Here we construct an unprecedented high-spatial-resolution...

A comprehensive and comparative evaluation of primers for metabarcoding eDNA from fish

Shan Zhang, Jindong Zhao & Meng Yao
Accurate assessments of fish species diversity and community composition are essential for understanding fish ecology and conservation management. Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding has become an integrated method for monitoring fish species. The accuracy and efficacy of eDNA metabarcoding relies heavily on the choice of primers used for PCR amplification. A wide selection of metabarcoding primers for fish has been developed; however, there exists no comprehensive and comparative evaluation of their amplification or taxonomic classification of...

The effect of methylene blue on white matter injury after MCAO in rats and mice

Quancheng Cheng, Xuhao Chen, Jiayi Ma, Xingyuan Jiang, Jiahui Chen, Mengqin Zhang, Yejun Wu, Weiguang Zhang & Chunhua Chen
Objectives: Methylene blue, the FDA-grandfathered drug was proved to be neuroprotective in ischemic stroke in rat. However, the mechanism of the protective effect was unknown. In this study, we used different animal models to investigate the effect of MB administration given within and beyond the therapeutic time window on behavioral deficits and infarct volume and related mechanism about the white matter protection. Methods: Middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO) and photothrombotic middle cerebral artery...

Data from: Brachial supporting structure of Spiriferida (Brachiopoda)

Zhiwei Yuan, Wen Guo, Dan Lü & Yuanlin Sun
The filter-feeding organ of some extinct brachiopods is supported by a skeletal apparatus called the brachidium. Although relatively well-studied in Atrypida and Athyridida, the brachidial morphology is usually neglected in Spiriferida. To investigate the variations of brachidial morphology in Spiriferida, 65 species belonging to eight superfamilies were analyzed. Based on the presence/absence of the jugal processes and normal/modified primary lamellae of the spiralia, four types of brachidium are recognized. Type-I (with jugal processes) and Type-II...

Predicting reservoir hosts based on early SARS-CoV-2 samples and analyzing later world-wide pandemic

Qian Guo, Mo Li, Chunhui Wang, Jinyuan Guo, Xiaoqing Jiang, Jie Tan, Peihong Wang, Shufang Wu, Tingting Xiao, Man Zhou, Zhencheng Fang, Yonghong Xiao & Huaiqiu Zhu
The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has raised the concern for reservoir hosts of the virus since the early-stage outbreak. To address this problem, we proposed a deep learning method, DeepHoF, based on extracting the viral genomic features, to calculate the infection likelihoods and further predict the probable hosts of novel viruses. Overcoming the limitation of sequence similarity-based methods, DeepHoF was applied to the analysis of SARS-CoV-2 in the 2020 pandemic. Using the isolates sequenced in the earliest...

Data from: Global prevalence and burden of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder: A meta-analysis

Yunhe Wang, Moxuan Liu, Qingdong Lu, Michael Farrell, Julia Lappin, Jie Shi, Lin Lu & Yanping Bao
Objectives: We aimed to characterise the prevalence and burden of HAND and assess associated factors in the global population with HIV. Methods: We searched PubMed and Embase for cross-sectional or cohort studies reporting the prevalence of HAND or its subtypes in HIV-infected adult populations from Jan 1, 1996, to May 15, 2020, without language restrictions. Two reviewers independently undertook the study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment. We estimated pooled prevalence of HAND by a...

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