70 Works

Spontaneous quantity discrimination of artificial flowers by foraging honeybees

Scarlett Howard, Jürgen Schramme, Jair Garcia, Leslie Ng, Aurore Avarguès-Weber, Andrew Greentree & Adrian Dyer
Many animals need to process numerical information in order to survive. Spontaneous quantity discrimination is useful for assessing food resources, aggressive interactions, predator avoidance, and prey choice. Spontaneous quantity discrimination is a numerical ability allowing differentiation between two or more quantities without reinforcement nor prior training on any numerical task. Honeybees have previously demonstrated the ability to learn to count landmarks, match quantities, use numerical rules, discriminate between quantities, and perform arithmetic, but have not...

Data from: The mechanics of predator-prey interactions: first principles of physics predict predator-prey size ratios

Sebastien Portalier, Gregor Fussmann, Michel Loreau & Mehdi Cherif
1. Robust predictions of predator-prey interactions are fundamental for the understanding of food webs, their structure, dynamics, resistance to species loss, response to invasions and ecosystem function. Most current food web models measure parameters at the food web level to predict patterns at the same level. Thus, they are sensitive to the quality of the data, and may be ineffective in predicting non-observed interactions and disturbed food webs. There is a need for mechanistic models...

Data from: The role of selection and historical factors in driving population differentiation along an elevational gradient in an island bird

Joris A. M. Bertrand, Boris Delahaie, Yann X. C. Bourgeois, Thomas Duval, Ricardo García-Jiménez, Josselin Cornuault, Benoit Pujol, Christophe Thébaud & Borja Mila
Adaptation to local environmental conditions and the range dynamics of populations can influence evolutionary divergence along environmental gradients. Thus, it is important to investigate patterns of both phenotypic and genetic variation among populations to reveal the respective roles of these two types of factors in driving population differentiation. Here, we test for evidence of phenotypic and genetic structure across populations of a passerine bird (Zosterops borbonicus) distributed along a steep elevational gradient on the island...

Data from: Threshold dynamics in plant succession after tree planting in agricultural riparian zones

Bérenger Bourgeois, Anne Vanasse, Eduardo González, Roxane Andersen & Monique Poulin
Trajectories of plant communities can be described by different models of plant succession. While a Clementsian (gradual continuum model) or Gleasonian approach (relay floristics model) has traditionally been used to inform restoration outcomes, alternative succession models developed recently may better represent restoration trajectories. The threshold dynamics succession model, which predicts an abrupt species turnover after an environmental threshold is crossed, has never been used in a restoration context. This model might, however, better describe shifts...

Data from: Evolutionary processes driving spatial patterns of intra-specific genetic diversity in river ecosystems

Ivan Paz-Viñas, Géraldine Loot, Virginie M. Stevens, Simon Blanchet & I. Paz-Vinas
Describing, understanding and predicting the spatial distribution of genetic diversity is a central issue in biological sciences. In river landscapes, it is generally predicted that neutral genetic diversity should increase downstream, but there have been few attempts to test and validate this assumption across taxonomic groups. Moreover, it is still unclear what are the evolutionary processes that may generate this apparent spatial pattern of diversity. Here, we quantitatively synthesized published results from diverse taxa living...

Data from: High-resolution forest mapping for behavioural studies in the nature reserve ‘Les Nouragues’, French Guiana

Max Ringler, Rosanna Mangione, Andrius Pašukonis, Gerhard Rainer, Kristin Gyimesi, Julia Felling-Wagner, Hannes Kronaus, Maxime Réjou-Méchain, Jérôme Chave, Karl Reiter & Eva Ringler
For animals with spatially complex behaviours at relatively small scales, the resolution of a global positioning system (GPS) receiver location is often below the resolution needed to correctly map animals’ spatial behaviour. Natural conditions such as canopy cover, canyons or clouds can further degrade GPS receiver reception. Here we present a detailed, high-resolution map of a 4.6 ha Neotropical river island and a 8.3 ha mainland plot with the location of every tree >5 cm...

Data from: ‘Becoming a species by becoming a pest’ or how two maize pests of the genus Ostrinia possibly evolved through parallel ecological speciation events

Denis Bourguet, Sergine Ponsard, Rejane Streiff, Serge Meusnier, Philippe Audiot, Jing Li & Zhen-Ying Wang
New agricultural pest species attacking introduced crops may evolve from pre-existing local herbivores by ecological speciation, thereby becoming a species by becoming a pest. We compare the evolutionary pathways by which two maize pests (the Asian and the European corn borers, ACB and ECB) in the genus Ostrinia (Lepidoptera, Crambidae) probably diverged from an ancestral species close to the current Adzuki bean borer (ABB). We typed larval Ostrinia populations collected on maize and dicotyledons across...

Data from: A combinatorial analysis using observational data identifies species that govern ecosystem functioning

Benoît Jaillard, Philippe Deleporte, Michel Loreau & Cyrille Violle
Understanding the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning has so far resulted from two main approaches: the analysis of species' functional traits, and the analysis of species interaction networks. Here we propose a third approach, based on the association between combinations of species or of functional groups, which we term assembly motifs, and observed ecosystem functioning. Each assembly motif describes a biotic environment in which species interactions have particular effects on a given ecosystem function....

Data from: A novel locus on chromosome 1 underlies the evolution of a melanic plumage polymorphism in a wild songbird

Yann X.C. Bourgeois, Boris Delahaie, Mathieu Gautier, Emeline Lhuillier, Pierre-Jean G. Malé, Joris A.M. Bertrand, Josselin Cornuault, Kazumasa Wakamatsu, Olivier Bouchez, Claire Mould, Jade Bruxaux, Hélène Holota, Borja Mila, Christophe Thébaud, Joris A. M. Bertrand & Yann X. C. Bourgeois
Understanding the mechanisms responsible for phenotypic diversification within and among species ultimately rests with linking naturally occurring mutations to functionally and ecologically significant traits. Colour polymorphisms are of great interest in this context because discrete colour patterns within a population are often controlled by just a few genes in a common environment. We investigated how and why phenotypic diversity arose and persists in the Zosterops borbonicus white-eye of Reunion (Mascarene archipelago), a colour polymorphic songbird...

Data from: Maternal exposure to predator scents: offspring phenotypic adjustment and dispersal

Elvire Bestion, Aimeric Teyssier, Fabien Aubret, Jean Clobert & Julien Cote
Predation is a strong selective pressure generating morphological, physiological and behavioural responses in organisms. As predation risk is often higher during juvenile stages, antipredator defences expressed early in life are paramount to survival. Maternal effects are an efficient pathway to produce such defences. We investigated whether maternal exposure to predator cues during gestation affected juvenile morphology, behaviour and dispersal in common lizards (Zootoca vivipara). We exposed 21 gravid females to saurophagous snake cues for one...

Data from: Melanin-based colouration and host-parasite interactions under global change

Jessica Côte, Amandine Boniface, Simon Blanchet, Andrew Hendry, Julien Gasparini & Lisa Jacquin
The role of parasites in shaping melanin-based colour polymorphism, and the consequences of colour polymorphism for disease resistance, remain debated. Here we review recent evidence of the links between melanin-based colouration and the behavioural and immunological defences of vertebrates against their parasites. First we propose that (1) differences between colour morphs can result in variable exposure to parasites, either directly (certain colours might be more or less attractive to parasites) or indirectly (variations in behaviour...

Data from: Climate change and human colonization triggered habitat loss and fragmentation in Madagascar.

Jordi Salmona, Rasmus Heller, Erwan Quéméré & Lounès Chikhi
The relative effect of past climate fluctuations and anthropogenic activities on current biome distribution is subject to increasing attention, notably in biodiversity hot spots. In Madagascar, where humans arrived in the last ~4 to 5,000 years, the exact causes of the demise of large vertebrates that cohabited with humans are yet unclear. The prevailing narrative holds that Madagascar was covered with forest before human arrival and that the expansion of grasslands was the result of...

Data from: The demographic history of populations experiencing asymmetric gene flow: combining simulated and empirical data.

Ivan Paz Viñas, Erwan Quéméré, Lounès Chikhi, Géraldine Loot & Simon Blanchet
Population structure can significantly affect genetic-based demographic inferences, generating spurious bottleneck-like signals. Previous studies have typically assumed island or stepping-stone models, which are characterized by symmetric gene flow. However, many organisms are characterized by asymmetric gene flow. Here, we combined simulated and empirical data to test whether asymmetric gene flow affects the inference of past demographic changes. Through the analysis of simulated genetic data with three methods (i.e. bottleneck, M-ratio and msvar), we demonstrated that...

Data from: Offspring social network structure predicts fitness in families

Nick J. Royle, Thomas W. Pike, Phillip Heeb, Heinz Richner, Mathias Kölliker & M. Kolliker
Social structures such as families emerge as outcomes of behavioural interactions among individuals, and can evolve over time if families with particular types of social structures tend to leave more individuals in subsequent generations. The social behaviour of interacting individuals is typically analysed as a series of multiple dyadic (pair-wise) interactions, rather than a network of interactions among multiple individuals. However, in species where parents feed dependent young, interactions within families nearly always involve more...

Démasquer le masque

Eric Remy
Il est de ces objets qui, sur une période particulière de notre histoire et de notre vie, portent en eux la société toute entière. Il y a peu de temps, c’est le gilet jaune qui s’est ancré dans l’imaginaire collectif national. Avec la crise sanitaire de la Covid19, c’est le masque qui est devenu un objet iconique de la culture matérielle contemporaine. Sans prétendre à l’exhaustivité, nous revenons sur quelques éléments de lecture nous permettant...

La Libido sciendi et la consommation

Eric Remy

Disfluency patterns in Alzheimer’s disease and Frontotemporal lobar degeneration

Aurélie Pistono, Marie Rafiq, Jérémie Pariente & Mélanie Jucla

Data package from 'Pantropical variability in tree crown allometry' Global Ecology and Biogeography 2021. DOI: 10.1111/geb.13231

Grace Jopaul Loubota Panzou, Adeline Fayolle, Tommaso Jucker, Oliver Phillips, Stephanie Bohlman, Lindsay F. Banin, Simon L. Lewis, Kofi Affum-Baffoe, Luciana F. Alves, Cécile Antin, Eric Arets, Luzmila Arroyo, Timothy R. Baker, Nicolas Barbier, Hans Beeckman, Uta Berger, Yannick Enock Bocko, Frans Bongers, Sam Bowers, Thom Brade, Eduardo S. Brondizio, Arthur Chantrain, Jerome Chave, Halidou Compaore & David Coomes

Data from: An a posteriori species clustering for quantifying the effects of species interactions on ecosystem functioning

Benoît Jaillard, Camille Richon, Philippe Deleporte, Michel Loreau & Cyrille Violle
1. Quantifying the effects of species interactions is key to understanding the relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning but remains elusive due to combinatorics issues. Functional groups have been commonly used to capture the diversity of forms and functions and thus simplify the reality. However, the explicit incorporation of species interactions is still lacking in functional group-based approaches. Here we propose a new approach based on an a posteriori clustering of species to quantify the...

Data from: Extremely reduced dispersal and gene flow in an island bird

Joris A. M. Bertrand, Yann X. C. Bourgeois, Boris Delahaie, Thomas Duval, Ricardo García-Jiménez, Josselin Cornuault, Philipp Heeb, Borja Milá, Benoit Pujol & Christophe Thébaud
The Réunion grey white-eye, Zosterops borbonicus, a passerine bird endemic to Réunion Island in the Mascarene archipelago, represents an extreme case of microgeographical plumage colour variation in birds, with four distinct colour forms occupying different parts of this small island (2512 km2). To understand whether such population differentiation may reflect low levels of dispersal and gene flow at a very small spatial scale, we examined population structure and gene flow by analysing variation at 11...

Geographical variation in the trait-based assembly patterns of multitrophic invertebrate communities

Diane S. Srivastava, A. Andrew M. MacDonald, Valério D. Pillar, Pavel Kratina, Vanderlei J. Debastiani, Laura Melissa Guzman, M. Kurtis Trzcinski, Olivier Dézerald, Ignacio M. Barberis, Paula M. De Omena, Gustavo Q. Romero, Fabiola Ospina Bautista, Nicholas A. C. Marino, Céline Leroy, Vinicius F. Farjalla, Barbara A. Richardson, Ana Z. Gonçalves, Bruno Corbara, Jana S. Petermann, Michael J. Richardson, Michael C. Melnychuk, Merlijn Jocqué, Jacqueline T. Ngai, Stanislas Talaga, Gustavo C. O. Piccoli … & Régis Céréghino
It has been argued that the mechanisms structuring ecological communities may be more generalizable when based on traits than on species identities. If so, patterns in the assembly of community-level traits along environmental gradients should be similar in different places in the world. Alternatively, geographic change in the species pool and regional variation in climate might result in site-specific relationships between community traits and local environments. These competing hypotheses are particularly untested for animal communities....

Analysis of temporal patterns in animal movement networks

Cristian Pasquaretta, Thibault Dubois, Tamara Gomez-Moracho, Guillaume Le Loc’h, Virginie Perilhon Delepoulle, Philipp Heeb & Mathieu Lihoreau
1. Understanding how animal movements change across space and time is a fundamental question in ecology. While classical analyses of trajectories give insightful descriptors of spatial patterns, a satisfying method for assessing the temporal succession of such patterns is lacking. 2. Network analyses are increasingly used to capture properties of complex animal trajectories in simple graphical metrics. Here, building on this approach, we introduce a method that incorporates time into movement network analyses based on...

A new, undescribed species of Melanocharis berrypecker from western New Guinea and the evolutionary history of the family Melanocharitidae

Borja Milá, Jade Bruxaux, Guillermo Friis, Katerina Sam, Hidayat Ashari & Christophe Thébaud
Western New Guinea remains one of the last biologically underexplored regions of the world, and much remains to be learned regarding the diversity and evolutionary history of its fauna and flora. During a recent ornithological expedition to the Kumawa Mountains in West Papua, we encountered an undescribed species of Melanocharis berrypecker (Melanocharitidae) in cloud forest at an elevation of 1200 m asl. Its main characteristics are iridescent blue-black upperparts, satin-white underparts washed lemon yellow, and...

Ancient horse genomes reveal the timing and extent of dispersals across the Bering Land Bridge

Alisa Vershinina, Peter Heintzman, Duane Froese, Grant Zazula, Molly Cassatt-Johnstone, Love Dalén, Clio Der Sarkissian, Shelby Dunn, Luca Ermini, Cristina Gamba, Pamela Groves, Joshua Kapp, Daniel Mann, Andaine Seguin-Orlando, John Southon, Mathias Stiller, Matthew Wooller, Gennady Baryshnikov, Dmitry Gimranov, Eric Scott, Elizabeth Hall, Susan Hewitson, Irina Kirillova, Pavel Kosintsev, Fedor Shidlovsky … & Beth Shapiro
The Bering Land Bridge (BLB) last connected Eurasia and North America during the Pleistocene. Although the BLB would have enabled transfers of terrestrial biota in both directions, it also acted as an ecological filter whose permeability varied considerably over time. Here we explore the possible impacts of this ecological corridor on genetic diversity within, and connectivity among, populations of a once wide-ranging group, the caballine horses (Equus spp.). Using a panel of 187 mitochondrial and...

Behavioral and chemical composition data for: Maternal and personal information mediates the use of social cues about predation risk

Laurane Winandy & Julien Cote
Organisms can gain information about predation risks from their parents, their own personal experience, and their conspecifics and adjust their behavior to alleviate these risks. These different sources of information can, however, provide conflicting information due to spatial and temporal variation of the environment. This raises the question of how these cues are integrated to produce adaptive antipredator behavior. We investigated how common lizards (Zootoca vivipara) adjust the use of conspecific cues about predation risk...

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