161 Works

Data from: Phylogenomics resolves a spider backbone phylogeny and rejects a prevailing paradigm for orb web evolution

Jason E. Bond, Nicole L. Garrison, Chris A. Hamilton, Rebecca L. Godwin, Marshal Hedin & Ingi Agnarsson
Spiders represent an ancient predatory lineage known for their extraordinary biomaterials, including venoms and silks. These adaptations make spiders key arthropod predators in most terrestrial ecosystems. Despite ecological, biomedical, and biomaterial importance, relationships among major spider lineages remain unresolved or poorly supported. Current working hypotheses for a spider “backbone” phylogeny are largely based on morphological evidence, as most molecular markers currently employed are generally inadequate for resolving deeper-level relationships. We present here a phylogenomic analysis...

Data from: SNP discovery in wild and domesticated populations of blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus, using genotyping-by-sequencing and subsequent SNP validation

Chao Li, Geoff Waldbieser, Brian Bosworth, Benjamin H. Beck, Wilawan Thongda & Eric Peatman
Blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus, are valued in the United States as a trophy fishery for their capacity to reach large sizes, sometimes exceeding 45 kg. Additionally, blue catfish × channel catfish (I. punctatus) hybrid food fish production has recently increased the demand for blue catfish broodstock. However, there has been little study of the genetic impacts and interaction of farmed, introduced and stocked populations of blue catfish. We utilized genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) to capture and genotype...

Data from: Phylogenomics of Lophotrochozoa with consideration of systematic error

Kevin M. Kocot, Torsten H. Struck, Julia Merkel, Damien S. Waits, Christiane Todt, Pamela M. Brannock, David A. Weese, Johanna T. Cannon, Leonid L. Moroz, Bernhard Lieb & Kenneth M. Halanych
Phylogenomic studies have improved understanding of deep metazoan phylogeny and show promise for resolving incongruences among analyses based on limited numbers of loci. One region of the animal tree that has been especially difficult to resolve, even with phylogenomic approaches, is relationships within Lophotrochozoa (the animal clade that includes molluscs, annelids, and flatworms among others). Lack of resolution in phylogenomic analyses could be due to insufficient phylogenetic signal, limitations in taxon and/or gene sampling, or...

Data from: Habitat- and season-specific temperatures affect phenotypic development of hatchling lizards

Phillip R. Pearson & Daniel A. Warner
Embryonic environments influence phenotypic development, but relatively few experiments have explored the effects of natural environmental variation. We incubated eggs of the lizard Anolis sagrei under conditions that mimicked natural spatial and temporal thermal variation to determine their effects on offspring morphology and performance. Incubation temperatures mimicked two microhabitats (open, shade) at two different times of the incubation season (April, July). Egg survival, incubation duration and offspring size were influenced by interactions between habitat- and...

Data from: Geographic structure in the Southern Ocean circumpolar brittle star Ophionotus victoriae (Ophiuridae) revealed from mtDNA and single nucleotide polymorphism data

Matthew P. Galaska, Chester J. Sands, Scott R. Santos, Andrew R. Mahon & Kenneth M. Halanych
Marine systems have traditionally been thought of as “open” with few barriers to gene flow. In particular, many marine organisms in the Southern Ocean purportedly possess circumpolar distributions that have rarely been well verified. Here, we use the highly abundant and endemic Southern Ocean brittle star Ophionotus victoriae to examine genetic structure and determine whether barriers to gene flow have existed around the Antarctic continent. Ophionotus victoriae possesses feeding planktotrophic larvae with presumed high dispersal...

Data from: Laying sequence interacts with incubation temperature to influence rate of embryonic development and hatching synchrony in a precocial bird

Gary R. Hepp & Robert A. Kennamer
Incubation starts during egg laying for many bird species and causes developmental asynchrony within clutches. Faster development of late-laid eggs can help reduce developmental differences and synchronize hatching, which is important for precocial species whose young must leave the nest soon after hatching. In this study, we examined the effect of egg laying sequence on length of the incubation period in Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa). Because incubation temperature strongly influences embryonic development rates, we tested...

Data from: Effects of ovarian fluid and genetic differences on sperm performance and fertilization success of alternative reproductive tactics in Chinook salmon

Sarah J. Lehnert, Ian A.E. Butts, Erin W. Flannery, Kia M. Peters, Daniel D. Heath, Trevor E. Pitcher & I. A. E. Butts
In many species, sperm velocity affects variation in the outcome of male competitive fertilization success. In fishes, ovarian fluid (OF) released with the eggs can increase male sperm velocity and potentially facilitate cryptic female choice for males of specific phenotypes and/or genotypes. Therefore, to investigate the role of OF on fertilization success, we measured sperm velocity and conducted in vitro competitive fertilizations with paired Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) males representing two alternative reproductive tactics, jacks...

Data from: Hindlimb muscle function in turtles: is novel skeletal design correlated with novel muscle function?

Christopher J. Mayerl, Jenna E. Pruett, Morgan N. Summerlin, Angela R. V. Rivera & Richard W. Blob
Variations in musculoskeletal lever systems have formed an important foundation for predictions about the diversity of muscle function and organismal performance. Changes in the structure of lever systems may be coupled with changes in muscle use and give rise to novel muscle functions. The two extant turtle lineages, cryptodires and pleurodires, exhibit differences in hindlimb structure. Cryptodires possess the ancestral musculoskeletal morphology, with most hip muscles originating on the pelvic girdle, which is not fused...

Data from: An experimental test of the relationship between yolk testosterone and the social environment in a colonial passerine

Alexandra B. Bentz, Victoria A. Andreasen & Kristen J. Navara
Maternal hormones can be transferred to offspring during prenatal development in response to the maternal social environment, and may adaptively alter offspring phenotype. For example, numerous avian studies show that aggressive competition with conspecifics tends to result in females allocating more testosterone to their egg yolks, and this may cause offspring to have more competitive phenotypes. However, deviations from this pattern of maternal testosterone allocation are found, largely in studies of colonial species, and have...

Data from: Early hatching enhances survival despite beneficial phenotypic effects of late-season developmental environments

Phillip R. Pearson & Daniel A. Warner
Seasonal shifts in environmental conditions provide predictable cues to which organisms can respond in adaptive ways. For example, seasonal changes in temperature can induce phenotypes at different times of the year that have season-specific fitness benefits. Here, we tested the hypothesis that embryo responses to seasonal changes in thermal environments are adaptively matched to the timing of reproduction (environmental-matching hypothesis). We collected eggs of the brown anole lizard (Anolis sagrei) from early and late seasons...

Data from: Systematic revision of Symbiodiniaceae highlights the antiquity and diversity of coral endosymbionts

Todd C. LaJeunesse, John Everett Parkinson, Paul W. Gabrielson, Hae Jin Jeong, James Davis Reimer, Christian R. Voolstra & Scott R. Santos
The advent of molecular data has transformed the science of organizing and studying life on Earth. Genetics-based evidence provides fundamental insights into the diversity, ecology, and origins of many biological systems, including the mutualisms between metazoan hosts and their micro-algal partners. A well-known example is the dinoflagellate endosymbionts (“zooxanthellae”) that power the growth of stony corals and coral reef ecosystems. Once assumed to encompass a single panmictic species, genetic evidence has revealed a divergent and...

Data from: Biomechanical factors influencing successful self-righting in the pleurodire turtle, Emydura subglobosa

Alexander M Rubin, Richard W Blob & Christopher J Mayerl
Self-righting performance is a key ability for most terrestrial animals, and has been used as a metric of fitness, exhaustion, and thermal limits in a variety of taxa. However, there is little understanding of the underlying mechanisms that drive variation in self-righting performance. To evaluate the mechanical factors that contribute to success versus failure when animals attempt to self-right, we compared force production and kinematic behavior in the rigid-bodied, pleurodire turtle Emydura subglobosa between successful...

Data from: Convergence in reduced body size, head size, and blood glucose in three island reptiles

Amanda M. Sparkman, Amanda D. Clark, Lilly J. Brummett, Kenneth R. Chism, Lucia L. Combrink, Nicole M. Kabey & Tonia S. Schwartz
Many oceanic islands harbor diverse species that differ markedly from their mainland relatives with respect to morphology, behaviour, and physiology. A particularly common morphological change exhibited by a wide range of species on islands worldwide involves either a reduction in body size, termed island dwarfism, or an increase in body size, termed island gigantism. While numerous instances of dwarfism and gigantism have been well documented, documentation of other morphological changes on islands remains limited. Furthermore,...

Data from: Multiple paternity and number of offspring in mammals

F. Stephen Dobson, Ash Abebe, Hannah Correia, Christian Kasumo, Bertram Zinner & Hannah E. Correia
Many cooperative social attributes are being linked to characteristics of mating systems, particularly to the rate of multiple paternity that typifies a population. Under the logic that greater offspring production by females should engender greater competition among males to mate with females, it is predicted that multiple paternity should increase with litter sizes. We tested the predicted positive association of multiple paternity and litter size with a meta-analysis of 59 species of mammals. The probability...

Data from: Bees and flowers: how to feed an invasive beetle species

Jérémy Gonthier, Anna Papach, Lars Straub, Joshua W. Campbell, Geoffrey R. Williams & Peter Neumann
Invasive species may exploit a wide range of food sources, thereby fostering their success and hampering mitigation, but the actual degree of opportunism is often unknown. The small hive beetle (SHB), Aethina tumida, is a parasite of honeybee colonies endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. SHBs have now spread on all habitable continents and can also infest colonies of other social bees. To date, the possible role of solitary bee nests as alternative hosts is unknown. Similarly,...

Paluxy sandstone

Lauren Beckingham, Ishan Anjikar & Fanqi Qin
X-ray CT images of Paluxy sandstone.

The weakest link: Haploid honey bees are more susceptible to neonicotinoid insecticides

Lars Straub, Andrea Friedli, Geoffrey R. Williams, Selina Bruckner & Peter Neumann
Neonicotinoid insecticides are currently of major concern for the health of wild and managed insects that provide key ecosystem services like pollination. Even though sublethal effects of neonicotinoids are well known, there is surprisingly little information on how they possibly impact developmental stability, and to what extent genetics are involved. This holds especially true for haploid individuals because they are hemizygous at detoxification loci and may be more susceptible. Here we take advantage of haplodiploidy...

Contrasting signatures of introgression in North American box turtle (Terrapene spp.) contact zones

Bradley T. Martin, Marlis R. Douglas, Tyler K. Chafin, John S. Placyk, Roger D. Birkhead, Christopher A. Phillips & Michael E. Douglas
Hybridization occurs differentially across the genome in a balancing act between selection and migration. With the unprecedented resolution of contemporary sequencing technologies, selection and migration can now be effectively quantified such that researchers can identify genetic elements involved in introgression. Furthermore, genomic patterns can now be associated with ecologically relevant phenotypes, given availability of annotated reference genomes. We do so in North American box turtles (Terrapene) by deciphering how selection affects hybrid zones at the...

A morphometric assessment of species boundaries in a widespread anole lizard (Squamata: Dactyloidae)

Tanner Myers, Pietro De Mello & Richard Glor
Cryptic species - genetically distinct species that are morphologically difficult to distinguish - present challenges to systematists. Operationally, cryptic species are very difficult to identify and sole usage of genetic data or morphological data can fail to recognize evolutionarily isolated lineages. We use morphometric data to test species boundaries hypothesized with genetic data in the North Caribbean Bark Anole (Anolis distichus), a suspected species complex. We use univariate and multivariate analyses to test if candidate...

Conspecific attraction for conservation and management of terrestrial breeding birds: current knowledge and future research directions

Jonathon Valente, Christa LeGrande-Rolls, James Rivers, Anna Tucker, Richard Fischer & Matthew Betts
Conspecific presence can indicate the location or quality of resources, and animals settling near conspecifics often gain fitness benefits. This can result in adaptive conspecific attraction during breeding habitat selection as demonstrated in numerous terrestrial, territorial birds. There is growing interest in using simulated conspecific social cues (e.g., decoys, broadcasted vocalizations) to manage bird distributions, yet it remains unclear when this approach is likely to succeed. We reviewed published studies to evaluate whether the strength...

ISIMIP3b N-deposition input data

Jia Yang & Hanqin Tian
The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) provides a framework for the collation of a consistent set of climate impact data across sectors and scales. It also provides a unique opportunity for considering interactions between climate change impacts across sectors through consistent scenarios.
The ISIMIP3b part of the third simulation round is dedicated to a quantification of climate-related risks at different levels of global warming and socio-economic change. ISIMIP3b group I simulations are based on historical...

A genetic switch for male UV-iridescence in an incipient species pair

Vincent Ficarrotta, Joseph J. Hanly, Ling S. Loh, Caroline M. Francescutti, Anna Ren, Kalle Tunström, Christopher W. Wheat, Adam H. Porter, Brian A. Counterman & Arnaud Martin
Mating cues evolve rapidly and can contribute to species formation and maintenance. However, little is known about how sexual signals diverge and how this variation integrates with other barrier loci to shape the genomic landscape of reproductive isolation. Here, we elucidate the genetic basis of UV iridescence, a courtship signal that differentiates the males of Colias eurytheme butterflies from a sister species, allowing females to avoid costly heterospecific matings. Anthropogenic range expansion of the two...

Data from: Reduced mitochondrial respiration in hybrid asexual lizards

Randy L. Klabacka, Hailey A. Parry, Kang Nian Yap, Ryan A. Cook, Victoria A. Herron, L. Miles Horne, Jose A. Maldonado, Jamie R. Oaks, Andreas N. Kavazis, Matthew K. Fujita, Tonia S. Schwartz & Matthew E. Wolak
The scarcity of asexual reproduction in vertebrates alludes to an inherent cost. Several groups of asexual vertebrates exhibit lower endurance capacity (a trait predominantly sourced by mitochondrial respiration) compared to congeneric sexual species. Here we measure endurance capacity in five species of Aspidoscelis lizards and examine mitochondrial respiration between sexual and asexual species using mitochondrial respirometry. Our results show reduced endurance capacity, mitochondrial respiration, and phenotypic variability in asexual species compared to parental sexual species...

Building consensus for ambitious climate action through the World Climate Simulation

Juliette Rooney-Varga, Margaret Hensel, Carolyn McCarthy, Karen McNeal, Nicole Norfles, Kenneth Rath, Audrey Schnell, John Sterman, Juliette N. Rooney‐Varga, Audrey H. Schnell & John D. Sterman
Sociopolitical values are an important driver of climate change beliefs, attitudes, and policy preferences. People with 'individualist-hierarchical' values favor individual freedom, competition, and clearly defined social hierarchies, while communitarian-egalitarians value interdependence and equality across gender, age, heritage, and ethnicity. In the US, individualist-hierarchs generally perceive less risk from climate change and express lower support for actions to mitigate it than communitarian-egalitarians. Exposure to scientific information does little to change these views. Here, we ask if...

Data for synergistic and antagonistic interactions between Varroa destructor mites and neonicotinoid insecticides in male Apis mellifera honey bees

Geoffrey Williams, Peter Neumann, Lars Straub & Selina Bruckner
Pressures from multiple, sometimes interacting, stressors can have negative consequences to important ecosystem-service providing species like the western honey bee (Apis mellifera). The introduced parasite Varroa destructor and the neonicotinoid class of insecticides each represent important, nearly ubiquitous biotic and abiotic stressors to honey bees, respectively. Previous research demonstrated that they can synergistically interact to negatively affect non-reproductive honey bee female workers, but no data exist on how concurrent exposure may affect reproductive honey bee...

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  • Auburn University
  • University of Queensland
  • University of Gothenburg
  • University of Kansas
  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
  • Zhejiang University
  • University of Georgia
  • Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University
  • Tianjin Medical University General Hospital
  • Yunnan University