91 Works

Seasonality of host immunity in a tropical disease system

Jamie Voyles, Goncalo Rosa, Rachel Perez, Lora Richards, Corinne Richards-Zawacki, Angela Smilanich, Laura K. Reinert, Louise A. Rollins-Smith, Daniel Wetzel & Jamie Voyles
Infectious disease systems frequently exhibit strong seasonal patterns, yet the mechanisms that underpin intra-annual cycles are unclear, particularly in tropical regions. We hypothesized that host immune function fluctuates seasonally, contributing to oscillations in infection patterns in a tropical disease system. To test this hypothesis, we investigated a key host defense of amphibians against a lethal fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). We integrated two field experiments in which we perturbed amphibian skin secretions, a critical host...

Age, tissue, genotype and virus infection regulate Wolbachia levels in Drosophila

Rupinder Kaur, Julien Martinez, Omar Rota-Stabelli, Frank Jiggins & Wolfgang Miller
The bacterial symbiont Wolbachia can protect insects against viral pathogens, and the varying levels of antiviral protection are correlated with the endosymbiont load within the insects. To understand why Wolbachia strains differ in their antiviral effects, we investigated the factors controlling Wolbachia density in five closely related strains in their natural Drosophila hosts. We found that Wolbachia density varied greatly across different tissues and between flies of different ages, and these effects depended on the...

Supporting information and data for \"Chapter 1: Constraining Hydraulic Permeability at Great Depth by Using Magnetotellurics\" in Pepin JD (2019) New Approaches to Geothermal Resource Exploration and Characterization (PhD dissertation)

Jeff D. Pepin, Mark A. Person, Shari A. Kelley, Jared R. Peacock & Jesus D. Gomez-Valez
This supporting information includes additional text, figures, and tables regarding the newly derived sodium-chloride fluid resistivity model and the magnetotelluric (MT) inversion methodology. It also includes additional simulated electrical resistivity results that are not explicitly presented in the main text; the three simulations featured in the main text are selected to represent this larger set of simulations. Six supporting datasets are also described in this document. The first is a compilation of previously published laboratory-measured...

Toward Linguistic Responsibility

Emanuele Costa
In this short article, I analyze forms of public speech by individuals in positions of power through a framework based on Austin’s theory of speech acts. I argue that because of the illocutionary and perlocutionary force attached to such individuals’ offices and their public figures, their public speech qualifies for being framed as speech acts—which are not covered by even a broad understanding of freedom of speech or right to privacy. Therefore, I formulate a...

Multimodal Molecular Imaging of Human Kidney Tissue From a 58 Year Old White Female Donor

Jeffrey Spraggins, Elizabeth Neumann, Nathan Patterson, David Anderson, Kavya Sharman, Lukasz Migas, Jamie Allen, Maya Brewer, Jennifer Harvey, Haichun Yang, Raymond Harris, Agnes Fogo, Mark deCaestecker, Danielle Gutierrez, Richard Caprioli & Raf Van de Plas
Multimodal molecular imaging data collected from the Right Kidney of a 58 year old White Female donor by the Biomolecular Multimodal Imaging Center (BIOMC) at Vanderbilt University. BIOMIC is a Tissue Mapping Center that is part of the NIH funded Human Biomolecular Atlas Program (HuBMAP). Datasets generated by BIOMIC combine MALDI imaging mass spectrometry with various microscopy modalities including autofluorescence and stained microscopy. Support was provided by the NIH Common Fund and National Institute of...

Behaviors Viewed as Deplorable by Peers: A Different Approach to Programming to Curb Unacceptable Behaviors in Fraternities and Sororities

Gordon W. Maples, Emily Perrin Britt, John M. Braxton & Amy S. Hirschy

(Re)Imagining (Re)Habilitation

Elizabeth Lanphier, Takunda Matose & Abu Ali Abdur'Rahman
In this article we argue that developing programs focused on rehabilitation in the setting of mass incarceration is an incoherent goal given that rehabilitation presupposes prior habilitation. Yet, histories of social and personal trauma render this initial habilitation illusive, at best, for much of the population that ends up incarcerated in a setting such as death row. Our claim is that traumatic histories can impede development and lead to antisocial consequences to such an extent...

Implicit Theories of Negotiation: Developing a Measure of Agreement Fluidity

Ray Friedman, Robin Pinkley, William Bottom, Wu Liu & Michele Gelfand

Data from: Audio-visual interactions uniquely contribute to resolution of visual conflict in people possessing absolute pitch

Sujin Kim, Randolph Blake, Minyoung Lee & Chai-Youn Kim
Individuals possessing absolute pitch (AP) are able to identify a given musical tone or to reproduce it without reference to another tone. The present study sought to learn whether this exceptional auditory ability impacts visual perception under stimulus conditions that provoke visual competition in the form of binocular rivalry. Nineteen adult participants with 3 - 19 years of musical training were divided into two groups according to their performance on a task involving identification of...

Supplement to: Global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on stroke care and intravenous thrombolysis

Raul Nogueira, Muhammed Qureshi, Mohamad Abdalkader, Sheila Martins, Hiroshi Yamagami, Zhongming Qiu, Ossama Mansour, Anvitha Sathya, Anna Czlonkowska, Georgios Tsivgoulis, Diana Aguiar De Sousa, Jelle Demeestere, Robert Mikulik, Peter Vanacker, James Siegler, Janika Korv, Jose Biller, Conrad Liang, Navdeep Sangha, Alicia Zha, Alexandra Czap, Christine Holmstedt, Tanya Turan, George Ntaios, Konark Malhotra … & Thanh Nguyen
Objective: The objectives of this study were to measure the global impact of the pandemic on the volumes for intravenous thrombolysis (IVT), IVT transfers, and stroke hospitalizations over 4 months at the height of the pandemic (March 1 to June 30, 2020) compared with two control 4-month periods. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, observational, retrospective study across 6 continents, 70 countries, and 457 stroke centers. Diagnoses were identified by their ICD-10 codes and/or classifications in...

Ecological adaptation drives wood frog population divergence in life history traits

Emily Le Sage
Phenotypic variation among populations is thought to be generated from spatial heterogeneity in environments that exert selection pressures that overcome the effects of gene flow and genetic drift. Here, we tested for evidence of isolation by distance or by ecology (i.e., ecological adaptation) to generate variation in early life history traits and phenotypic plasticity among 13 wood frog populations spanning 1200 km and 7° latitude. We conducted a common garden experiment and related trait variation...

Combining metabolomics and experimental evolution reveals key mechanisms underlying longevity differences in laboratory evolved Drosophila melanogaster populations

Mark Phillips, Kenneth R. Arnold, Zer Vue, Heather K. Beasley, Edgar Garza-Lopez, Andrea G. Marshall, Derrick J. Morton, Melanie R. McReynolds, Thomas T. Barter & Antentor Hinton
Experimental evolution with Drosophila melanogaster has been used extensively for decades to study aging and longevity. In recent years, the addition of DNA and RNA sequencing to this framework has allowed researchers to leverage the statistical power inherent to experimental evolution to study the genetic basis of longevity itself. Here, we incorporated metabolomic data into to this framework to generate even deeper insights into the physiological and genetic mechanisms underlying longevity differences in three groups...

Data from: Evidence for structure and variable recombination rates among Dutch populations of the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus

Corné H. W. Klaassen, John G. Gibbons, Natalie D. Fedorova, Jacques S. Meis & Antonis Rokas
As the frequency of antifungal drug resistance continues to increase, understanding the genetic structure of fungal populations, where resistant isolates have emerged and spread, is of major importance. Aspergillus fumigatus is an ubiquitously distributed fungus and the primary causative agent of invasive aspergillosis (IA), a potentially lethal infection in immunocompromised individuals. In the last few years, an increasing number of A. fumigatus isolates has evolved resistance to triazoles, the primary drugs for treating IA infections....

Data from: Mitochondrial gene diversity associated with the atp9 stop codon in natural populations of wild carrot (Daucus carota ssp. carota)

Jennifer R. Mandel, Edward V. McAssey, Katherine M. Roland & David E. McCauley
Mitochondrial genomes extracted from wild populations of Daucus carota have been used as a genetic resource by breeders of cultivated carrot, yet little is known concerning the extent of their diversity in nature. Of special interest is a SNP in the putative stop codon of the mitochondrial gene atp9 that has been associated previously with male-sterile and male-fertile phenotypic variants. In this study either sequence or PCR/RFLP genotypes were obtained from the mitochondrial genes atp1,...

Data from: Postmating isolation and genetically variable host use in ecologically divergent host forms of Neochlamisus bebbianae leaf beetles

Scott P Egan, Eric M Janson, Christopher G Brown & Daniel J Funk
Ecological speciation studies have more thoroughly addressed premating than postmating reproductive isolation. This study examines multiple postmating barriers between host forms of Neochlamisus bebbianae leaf beetles that specialize on Acer versus Salix trees. We demonstrate cryptic isolation and reduced hybrid fitness via controlled matings of these host forms. These findings reveal host-associated postmating isolation, although a non-ecological, ‘intrinsic’ basis for these patterns cannot be ruled out. Host preference and performance results among cross types further...

Data from: Selection and genomic differentiation during ecological speciation: isolating the contributions of host association via a comparative genome scan of Neochlamisus bebbianae leaf beetles

Scott P. Egan, Patrik Nosil & Daniel J. Funk
This study uses a comparative genome scan to evaluate the contributions of host plant related divergent selection to genetic differentiation and ecological speciation in maple- and willow-associated populations of Neochlamisus bebbianae leaf beetles. For each of 15 pairwise population comparisons, we identified "outlier loci" whose strong differentiation putatively reflects divergent selection. Of 447 AFLP loci, 15% were outliers across multiple population comparisons, and low linkage disequilibrium indicated that these outliers derived from multiple regions of...

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