Quartet-based computations of internode certainty provide robust measures of phylogenetic incongruenceXiaofan Zhou, Sarah Lutteropp, Lucas Czech, Alexandros Stamatakis, Moritz Von Looz & Antonis Rokas
Incongruence, or topological conflict, is prevalent in genome-scale data sets. Internode certainty (IC) and related measures were recently introduced to explicitly quantify the level of incongruence of a given internal branch among a set of phylogenetic trees and complement regular branch support measures (e.g., bootstrap, posterior probability) that instead assess the statistical confidence of inference. Since most phylogenomic studies contain data partitions (e.g., genes) with missing taxa and IC scores stem from the frequencies of...
Immune responses evolve to balance the benefits of microbial killing against the costs of autoimmunity and energetic resource use. Models that explore the evolution of optimal immune responses generally include a term for constitutive immunity, or the level of immunological investment prior to microbial exposure, and for inducible immunity, or investment in immune function after microbial challenge. However, studies rarely consider the functional form of inducible immune responses with respect to microbial density, despite the...
Extinction of North American Cuvieronius (Mammalia, Proboscidea, Gomphotheriidae) driven by dietary resource competition with sympatric mammoths and mastodonsGregory Smith & Larisa DeSantis
The gomphotheres were a diverse and widespread group of proboscideans occupying Eurasia, North America, and South America throughout the Neogene. Their decline was temporally and spatially heterogeneous and the gomphotheres ultimately became extinct during the late Pleistocene; however, the genus Cuvieronius is rarely represented in late Pleistocene assemblages in North America. Two alternative hypotheses have been invoked to explain this phenomenon: (1) competitive exclusion by sympatric mammoths and mastodons, or (2) ecologic displacement due to...
Epidermal Growth Factor signaling promotes sleep through a combined series and parallel neural circuitJan Konietzka, Maximilian Fritz, Silvan Spiri, Rebecca McWhirter, Andreas Leha, Sierra Palumbos, Wagner Steuer Costa, Alexandra Oranth, Alexander Gottschalk, , Alex Hajnal & Henrik Bringmann
Sleep requires sleep-active neurons that depolarize to inhibit wake circuits. Sleep-active neurons are under the control of homeostatic mechanisms that determine sleep need. However, little is known about the molecular and circuit mechanisms that translate sleep need into the depolarization of sleep-active neurons. During many stages and conditions in C. elegans, sleep requires a sleep-active neuron called RIS. Here, we defined the transcriptome of RIS to discover that genes of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor...
Temporal Inflection Points in Decorated Pottery: a Bayesian Refinement of the Late Formative Chronology in the Southern Lake Titicaca Basin, BoliviaChristine Hastorf, Erik Marsh, Andrew Roddick, Maria Bruno, Scott Smith & John Janusek
The Late Formative Period immediately precedes the emergence of Tiwanaku, one of the earliest South American states, yet is one of the most poorly understood periods in the southern Lake Titicaca Basin (Bolivia). In this paper, we refine this period’s ceramic chronology with large sets of dates from eight sites, focusing on temporal inflection points in decorated ceramic styles. These points, estimated here by Bayesian models, index specific moments of change: (1) cal AD 140...
Data from: Selection on multiple sexual signals in two Central- and Eastern-European populations of the barn swallowPeter Laszlo Pap, Attila Fülöp, Marie Adamkova-Kotasova, Jaroslav Cepak, Romana Michalkova, Rebecca J. Safran, Alexandru N. Stermin, Oldrich Tomasek, Csongor I. Vágási, Orsolya Vincze, Matthew R. Wilkins & Tomas Albrecht
Variation in intensity and targets of sexual selection on multiple traits has been suggested to play a major role in promoting phenotypic differentiation between populations, although the divergence in selection may depend on year, local conditions or age. In this study, we quantified sexual selection for two putative sexual signals across two Central and East European barn swallow (Hirundo rustica rustica) populations from Czech Republic and Romania over multiple years. We then related these differences...
Data from: Evidence for convergent evolution of ultrasonic hearing in toothed whales (Cetacea: Odontoceti)Rachel A. Racicot, Robert W. Boessenecker, Simon A.F. Darroch & Jonathan H. Geisler
Toothed whales (Cetacea: Odontoceti) are the most diverse group of modern cetaceans, originating during the Eocene/Oligocene transition ~38 million years ago. All extant odontocetes echolocate; a single origin for this behavior is supported by a unique facial source for ultrasonic vocalizations and a cochlea adapted for hearing the corresponding echoes. The craniofacial and inner ear morphology of Oligocene odontocetes support a rapid (Simocetus and Olympicetus suggest an ability to generate ultrasonic sound, until now, the...
Migratory divides coincide with reproductive barriers across replicated avian hybrid zones above the Tibetan PlateauElizabeth Scordato, Chris C. R. Smith, Georgy A. Semenov, Yu Liu, Matthew R. Wilkins, Wei Liang, Alexander Rubtsov, Gomboobaatar Sundev, Kazuo Koyama, Sheela P. Turbek, Michael B. Wunder, Craig A. Stricker & Rebecca Safran
Migratory divides are proposed to be catalysts for speciation across a diversity of taxa. However, it is difficult to test the relative contributions of migratory behavior vs. other divergent traits to reproductive isolation. Comparing hybrid zones with and without migratory divides offers a rare opportunity to directly examine the contribution of divergent migratory behavior to reproductive barriers. We show that across replicate sampling transects of two pairs of barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) subspecies, strong reproductive...
University of Colorado Boulder2
College of Charleston1
Key Laboratory of Guangdong Province1
University of California, Berkeley1
New York Institute of Technology1
Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies1
University of Göttingen1