144 Works

Data from: The population history of endogenous retroviruses in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus)

Pauline L. Kamath, Daniel Elleder, Le Bao, Paul C. Cross, John H. Powell & Mary Poss
Mobile elements are powerful agents of genomic evolution and can be exceptionally informative markers for investigating species and population-level evolutionary history. While several studies have utilized retrotransposon-based insertional polymorphisms to resolve phylogenies, few population studies exist outside of humans. Endogenous retroviruses are LTR-retrotransposons derived from retroviruses that have become stably integrated in the host genome during past infections and transmitted vertically to subsequent generations. They offer valuable insight into host-virus co-evolution and a unique perspective...

Data from: The effects of timing of grazing on plant and arthropod communities in high-elevation grasslands

Stacy C. Davis, Laura A. Burkle, Wyatt F. Cross & Kyle A. Cutting
Livestock grazing can be used as a key management tool for maintaining healthy ecosystems. However, the effectiveness of using grazing to modify habitat for species of conservation concern depends on how the grazing regime is implemented. Timing of grazing is one grazing regime component that is less understood than grazing intensity and grazer identity, but is predicted to have important implications for plant and higher trophic level responses. We experimentally assessed how timing of cattle...

Data from: Multi-scale model of CRISPR-induced coevolutionary dynamics: diversification at the interface of Lamarck and Darwin

Lauren Maressa Childs, Nicole L. Held, Mark J. Young, Rachel J. Whitaker & Joshua S. Weitz
The CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) system is a recently discovered type of adaptive immune defense in bacteria and archaea that functions via directed incorporation of viral and plasmid DNA into host genomes. Here, we introduce a multi-scale model of dynamic coevolution between hosts and viruses in an ecological context that incorporates CRISPR immunity principles. We analyze the model to test whether and how CRISPR immunity induces host and viral diversification and the...

Data from: Managing more than the mean: using quantile regression to identify factors related to large elk groups

Angela Brennan, Paul C. Cross & Scott Creel
1. Animal group size distributions are often right-skewed, whereby most groups are small, but most individuals occur in larger groups that may also disproportionately affect ecology and policy. In this case, examining covariates associated with upper quantiles of the group size distribution could facilitate better understanding and management of large animal groups. 2. We studied wintering elk groups in Wyoming, where group sizes span several orders of magnitude, and issues of disease, predation and property...

Spatial dynamics of pathogen transmission in communally roosting species: Impacts of changing habitats on bat-virus dynamics

Tamika Lunn, Tamika Lunn, Alison Peel, Hamish McCallum, Peggy Eby, Maureen Kessler, Raina Plowright & Olivier Restif
1. The spatial organisation of populations determines their pathogen dynamics. This is particularly important for communally roosting species, whose aggregations are often driven by the spatial structure of their environment. 2. We develop a spatially explicit model for virus transmission within roosts of Australian tree-dwelling bats (Pteropus spp.), parameterised to reflect Hendra virus. The spatial structure of roosts mirrors three study sites, and viral transmission between groups of bats in trees was modelled as a...

Data from: Mammal-bearing gastric pellets potentially attributable to Troodon formosus at the Cretaceous Egg Mountain locality, Two Medicine Formation, Montana, U.S.A.

William Freimuth, David Varricchio, Alexandria Brannick, Lucas Weaver & Gregory Wilson Mantilla
Fossil gastric pellets (regurgitalites) have distinct taphonomic characteristics that facilitate inferences of behavioural ecology in deep time, despite their rarity in the fossil record. Using the taphonomic patterns of both extant and fossil small mammals from more recent geologic deposits as a guide, we assess the taphonomy of three unusual multi-individual aggregates of mammal skeletons from paleosols at Egg Mountain, a dinosaur nesting locality from the Upper Cretaceous Two Medicine Formation, Montana, USA. One aggregate...

Data from: Entomopathogenic Nematodes Combined with Adjuvants Presents a New Potential Biological Control Method for Managing the Wheat Stem Sawfly, Cephus cinctus (Hymenoptera: Cephidae)

Scott L. Portman, Sindhu M. Krishnankutty, Gadi V.P. Reddy & Gadi V. P. Reddy
The wheat stem sawfly, (Cephus cinctus Norton) Hymenoptera: Cephidae, has been a major pest of winter wheat and barley in the northern Great Plains for more than 100 years. The insect's cryptic nature and lack of safe chemical control options make the wheat stem sawfly (WSS) difficult to manage; thus, biological control offers the best hope for sustainable management of WSS. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) have been used successfully against other above-ground insect pests and adding...

Data from: Severity of impacts of an introduced species corresponds with regional eco-evolutionary experience

Kimberley T. Davis, Ragan M. Callaway, Alex Fajardo, Anibal Pauchard, Martin A Nunez, Rob W Brooker, Bruce D. Maxwell, Romina D Dimarco, Duane A Peltzer, Bill Mason, Seppo Ruotsalainen, Anne C S McIntosh, Robin J Pakeman, Alyssa Laney Smith & Michael Gundale
Invasive plant impacts vary widely across introduced ranges. We tested the hypothesis that differences in the eco-evolutionary experience of native communities with the invader correspond with the impacts of invasive species on native vegetation, with impacts increasing with ecological novelty. We compared plant species richness and composition beneath Pinus contorta to that in adjacent vegetation and other P. contorta stands across a network of sites in its native (Canada and USA) and non-native (Argentina, Chile,...

Data from: Time-integrated habitat availability is a resource attribute that informs patterns of use in intertidal areas

Leonardo Calle, Lauri Green, Allan Strong & Dale E. Gawlik
In dynamic environments, resource availability may change by several orders of magnitude, over hours to months, but the duration of resource availability is not often included as a characteristic attribute of resources even though temporal resource dynamics might limit patterns of use. In our study of wading birds foraging in intertidal areas, tides cause large changes in the areal extent of shallow-water foraging habitat (i.e., the resource), but tides also constrain the duration of availability,...

North American winter season (Nov-Mar) 500 mb geopotential height classification scheme, 1979-2018

Andrew Schauer
This dataset comes from a study that investigated the link between atmospheric circulation patterns and deep persistent slab avalanches for three study sites in the western United States: Bridger Bowl, MT; Jackson Hole, WY; and Mammoth Mountain, CA. We used Self-organizing maps to generate 20 synoptic types that summarize the primary modes of atmospheric variability for 5,899 daily 500 mb geopotential height charts on record for the North American winter season (Nov. 1 - Mar....

Data from: Soil microbes alter herbivore-induced volatile emissions in response to cereal cropping systems

Shealyn Malone, Amy Trowbridge, David Weaver, Fabian Menalled, Tim Seipel & Megan Hofland
Soil microbes can influence the emissions of plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which serve as host-location cues for insect pests and their natural enemies. Agricultural practices steer unique soil microbial communities, but how this influences crop VOCs and subsequent insect attraction remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diversified agricultural practices on constitutive and herbivore-induced VOC emissions by crops through soil-microbe legacy effects. In a full factorial experiment, we...

Data from: User experience methods and maturity in academic libraries

Scott W. H. Young, Zoe Chao & Adam Chandler
This article presents a mixed-methods study of the methods and maturity of user experience (UX) practice in academic libraries. The authors apply qualitative content analysis and quantitative statistical analysis to a research dataset derived from a survey of UX practitioners. Results reveal the type and extent of UX methods currently in use by practitioners in academic libraries. Themes extracted from the survey responses also reveal a set of factors that influence the development of UX...

Individual variation creates diverse migratory portfolios in native populations of a mountain ungulate

Blake Lowrey, Doug McWhirter, Kelly Proffitt, Kevin Monteith, Alyson Courtemanch, Patrick White, John Paterson, Sarah Dewey & Robert Garrott
Ecological theory and empirical studies have demonstrated population‐level demographic benefits resulting from a diversity of migratory behaviors with important implications for ecology, conservation, and evolution of migratory organisms. Nevertheless, evaluation of migratory portfolios (i.e., the variation in migratory behaviors across space and time among individuals within populations) has received relatively little attention in migratory ungulates, where research has focused largely on the dichotomous behaviors (e.g., resident and migrant) of partially migratory populations. Using GPS data...

Data from: Kinetics of calcite precipitation by ureolytic bacteria under aerobic and anaerobic conditions

Andrew C. Mitchell, Erika J. Espinosa-Ortiz, Stacy L. Parks, Adrienne J. Phillips, Alfred B. Cunningham & Robin Gerlach
The kinetics of urea hydrolysis (ureolysis) and induced calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation for engineering use in the subsurface was investigated under aerobic conditions using Sporosarcina pasteurii (ATCC strain 11859) as well as Bacillus sphaericus strains 21776 and 21787. All bacterial strains showed ureolytic activity inducing CaCO3 precipitation aerobically. Rate constants not normalized to biomass demonstrated slightly higher rate coefficients for both ureolysis (kurea) and CaCO3 precipitation (kprecip) for B. sphaericus 21776 (kurea = 0.10 ±...

Pinniped comparative survival data

Brusa Jamie
Survival rates are a central component of life-history strategies of large vertebrate species. However, comparative studies seldom investigate interspecific variation in survival rates with respect to other life-history traits, especially for males. The lack of such studies could be due to the challenges associated with obtaining reliable datasets, incorporating information on the 0-1 probability scale, or dealing with several types of measurement error in life-history traits, which can be a computationally intensive process that is...

Town of Ennis traffic calming project August - October 2020

Matthew Madsen
The Western Transporation Institute in partnership with the Town of Ennis and the Montana Department of Transportation conducted a temporary traffic calming project on Main Street in Ennis, MT. The project was installed on August 3rd and was removed on October 19th. The traffic calming included the use of curb extensions, road diets, crosswalks, and restriping to simulate a reconstruction project. The goal of the project was to improve safety for pedestrians along and crossing...

Uncovering patterns of freshwater positive interactions using meta‐analysis: identifying the roles of common participants, invasive species and environmental context

Michael MacDonald, Lindsey Albertson, Benjamin Tumolo, Michelle Briggs, Zachary Maguire, Sierra Quinn, Jose Sanchez-Ruiz, Jaris Veneros & Laura Burkle
General understanding of freshwater positive interactions has been far outpaced by knowledge of these important relationships in terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Positive interactions are sensitive to human impacts, necessitating synthetic approaches to elucidate broad patterns and predict future changes if these interactions are altered or lost. We conducted a global meta-analysis to evaluate the magnitude of positive interactions across freshwater habitats. In 340 studies, we found substantial positive effects, with facilitators increasing beneficiaries by, on...

The Effects of Fraternity/Sorority Membership on College Experiences and Outcomes: A Portrait of Complexity

Ashley M. Asel, Tricia A. Seifert & Ernest T. Pascarella

Systematics of Vigna subgenus Lasiospron (Benth.) Maréchal et al. (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae: Phaseolinae)

Alfonso Delgado, Matt Lavin, Cristiane Snak & Gwilym Lewis
A taxonomic treatment is herein provided for the six primarily Neotropical species of Vigna subg. Lasiospron. This subgenus is distinguished, in part, by its close relationship with Old World Vigna species, but rather than having an Old World Vigna floral asymmetry where distal floral parts can have a right-hand curvature (from a face-view perspective), distal parts of subg. Lasiospron flowers, like those of American Phaseolinae, curve to the left. Our proposed taxonomy reflects published phylogenetic...

Influence of beaver mimicry restoration on habitat availability for fishes, including Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus)

Lindsey Albertson
Beaver-dam-mimicry is an emergent conservation practice. We evaluated the influence of constructed riffles, a unique type of beaver mimicry aimed to store water and allow fish passage, on habitat for fishes in one control reach and one manipulated reach with mimicry structures added. The beaver mimicry reach had deeper pool habitats and deeper and wider riffle habitats compared to an unmanipulated control reach. Dissolved oxygen was similar among reaches, averaging 8.7 ± 0.2 and 8.9...

Leukocyte proportions in Pteropus alecto blood smears

Dale Hansen, Brooklin Hunt, Caylee Falvo, Manuel Ruiz-Aravena, Maureen Kessler, Jane Hall, Paul Thompson, Karrie Rose, Devin Jones, Tamika Lunn, Adrienne Dale, Alison Peel & Raina Plowright
The black flying fox (Pteropus alecto) is a natural reservoir for Hendra virus, a paramyxovirus that causes fatal infections in humans and horses in Australia. Increased excretion of Hendra virus by flying foxes has been hypothesized to be associated with physiological or energetic stress in the reservoir hosts. The objective of this study was to explore the leukocyte profiles of wild-caught P. alecto, with a focus on describing the morphology of each cell type to...

Mycorrhizae influence plant vegetative and floral traits and intraspecific trait variation

Laura Burkle & Catherine Zabinski
Premise. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can strongly influence host plant vegetative growth, but less is known about AMF effects on other plant traits, the relative impacts of AMF on vegetative growth versus floral traits, or AMF-induced intraspecific variation in traits. Key results. AMF species varied in their effects on host plants, from negative to positive effects. AMF often had inconsistent effects on vegetative biomass versus floral traits, and therefore quantifying one or the other may...

Effects of temperature and wildflowers on survival and macronutrient stores of the alfalfa leafcutting bee under extended cold storage

Mia Park, Casey Delphia, Cassandra Prince, George Yocum, Joseph Rinehart, Kevin O'Neill, Laura Burkle, Julia Bowsher & Kendra Greenlee
Megachile rotundata (F.) is an important pollinator of alfalfa in the United States. Enhancing landscapes with wildflowers is a primary strategy for conserving pollinators and may improve sustainability of M. rotundata. Changing cold storage temperatures from a traditionally static thermal regime (STR) to a fluctuating thermal regime (FTR) improves overwintering success and extends M. rotundata’s shelf life and pollination window. Whether floral resources enhance overwintering survival and/or interact with thermal regime are unknown. With these...

Data from: Ungulate distributions in a rangeland with competitors, predators, and pastoralists

Paul Schuette, Scott Creel & Dave Christianson
African rangelands support diverse ungulate communities whose member species exhibit unique combinations of body morphology and behaviour that have evolved over millions of years to limit the effects of competition and predation on fitness, and more recently, to cope with people and livestock. The mechanisms by which native ungulates cope with the combined effects of competition, predation and human disturbance are poorly understood. Addressing this knowledge gap will help guide management and conservation plans for...

Data from: Fire-regime complacency and sensitivity to centennial- through millennial-scale climate change in Rocky Mountain subalpine forests, Colorado, U.S.A.

Philip E. Higuera, Christy E. Briles & Cathy Whitlock
1. Key uncertainties in anticipating future fire regimes are their sensitivity to climate change, and the degree to which climate will impact fire regimes directly, through increasing the probability of fire, versus indirectly, through changes in vegetation and landscape flammability. 2. We studied the sensitivity of subalpine forest fire regimes (i.e., fire frequency, fire severity) to previously documented climate variability over the past 6000 years, utilizing pollen and macroscopic charcoal from high-resolution lake-sediment records in...

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