113 Works

Data from: Forest structure provides the income for reproductive success in a southern population of Canada lynx

Megan K. Kosterman, John R. Squires, Joseph D. Holbrook, Daniel H. Pletscher & Mark Hebblewhite
Understanding intrinsic and extrinsic drivers of reproductive success is central to advancing animal ecology and characterizing critical habitat. Unfortunately, much of the work examining drivers of reproductive success is biased toward particular groups of organisms (e.g., colonial birds, large herbivores, capital breeders). Long-lived mammalian carnivores that are of conservation concern, solitary, and territorial present an excellent situation to examine intrinsic and extrinsic drivers of reproductive success, yet they have received little attention. Here, we used...

Data from: Age-specific infectious period shapes dynamics of pneumonia in bighorn sheep

Raina K. Plowright, Kezia R. Manlove, Thomas E. Besser, David J. Páez, Kimberly R. Andrews, Patrick E. Matthews, Lisette P. Waits, Peter J. Hudson & E. Frances Cassirer
Superspreading, the phenomenon where a small proportion of individuals contribute disproportionately to new infections, has profound effects on disease dynamics. Superspreading can arise through variation in contacts, infectiousness or infectious periods. The latter has received little attention, yet it drives the dynamics of many diseases of critical public health, livestock health and conservation concern. Here, we present rare evidence of variation in infectious periods underlying a superspreading phenomenon in a free-ranging wildlife system. We detected...

Code in support of: Physical and chemical mechanisms that influence the electrical conductivity of lignin-derived biochar

Seth Kane, Rachel Ulrich, Abigail Harrington, Nicholas P. Stadie & Cecily Ryan
Lignin-derived biochar is a promising, sustainable alternative to petroleum-based carbon powders (e.g., carbon black) for electrode and energy storage applications. Prior studies of these biochars demonstrate that high electrical conductivity and good capacitive behavior are achievable. These studies also show high variability in electrical conductivity between biochars (~10^-2-10^2 S/cm). The underlying mechanisms that lead to desirable electrical properties in these lignin-derived biochars are poorly understood. In this work, we examine the causes of the variation...

Repository Analytics and Metrics Portal (RAMP) 2020 data

Jonathan Wheeler & Kenning Arlitsch
Version update: The originally uploaded versions of the CSV files in this dataset included an extra column, "Unnamed: 0," which is not RAMP data and was an artifact of the process used to export the data to CSV format. This column has been removed from the revised dataset. The data are otherwise the same as in the first version. The Repository Analytics and Metrics Portal (RAMP) is a web service that aggregates use and performance...

Interspecific variation in evaporative water loss and temperature response, but not metabolic rate, among hibernating bats

Liam McGuire, Nathan Fuller, Yvonne Dzal, Catherine Haase, Brandon Klüg-Baerwald, Kirk Silas, Raina Plowright, Cori Lausen, Craig Willis & Sarah Olson
Hibernation is widespread among mammals in a variety of environmental contexts. However, few experimental studies consider interspecific comparisons, and for many unstudied (or understudied) species we must assume the underlying physiology of hibernation is comparable to the relatively few species that have been studied in detail. Studies of interspecific variation provide insight into general patterns of hibernation strategies. We studied 13 species of free-living bats, including populations spread over thousands of kilometers and diverse habitats....

Incorporating evaporative water loss into bioenergetic models of hibernation to test for relative influence of host and pathogen traits on white-nose syndrome

Catherine Haase, Nathan Fuller, C. Reed Hranac, David Hayman, Liam McGuire, Kaleigh Norquay, Kirk Silas, Craig Willis, Raina Plowright & Sarah Olson
Hibernation consists of extended durations of torpor interrupted by periodic arousals. The ‘dehydration hypothesis’ proposes that hibernating mammals arouse to replenish water lost through evaporation during torpor. Arousals are energetically expensive, and increased arousal frequency can alter survival throughout hibernation. Yet we lack a means to assess the effect of evaporative water loss (EWL), determined by animal physiology and hibernation microclimate, on torpor bout duration and subsequent survival. White-nose syndrome (WNS), a devastating disease impacting...

Montana surveys of codling moth damage to apple fruit 2019-2020

Rachel Leisso, Chase Anderson, Tracy Novak, Katrina Mendrey, Olivia Soller & Zach Miller
Codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is the major insect pest of pome fruit (apples and pears) in Montana. This dataset reports codling moth damage to apple fruit ("strikes") in Montana orchards where site managers were not applying pesticides to control codling moth. Data was collected in August or September of 2019 and 2020. Certain sites east of the continental divide have nominally lower incidence of codling moth damage to fruit than sites west of the divide....

Body mass and hibernation microclimate may predict bat susceptibility to white-nose syndrome

Catherine Haase, Nathan Fuller, Yvonne Dzal, C. Reed Hranac, David Hayman, Cori Lausen, Kirk Silas, Sarah Olson & Raina Plowright
In multi-host disease systems, differences in mortality between species may reflect variation in host physiology, morphology, and behavior. In systems where the pathogen can persist in the environment, microclimate conditions, and the adaptation of the host to these conditions, may also impact mortality. White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease of hibernating bats caused by an environmentally persistent fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans. We assessed the effects of body mass, torpid metabolic rate, evaporative water loss, and hibernaculum...

Data from: Modelling misclassification in multi-species acoustic data when estimating occupancy and relative activity

Wilson J Wright, Kathryn M Irvine, Emily S Almberg & Andrea R Litt
1. Surveying wildlife communities provides data for informing conservation and management decisions that affect multiple species. Autonomous recording units (ARUs) can efficiently gather community data for a variety of taxa, but generally require software algorithms to classify each recorded call to a species. Species classification errors are possible during this process and result in both false negative and false positive detections. Available approaches for analysing ARU data do not model the species classification probabilities, meaning...

Data from: Improving learner-driven teaching practices through reflective assessment

Matthew T. Regan, Scott W. H. Young & Sara Mannheimer
Objective: Reflective assessment is an effective method of teacher evaluation, serving as an approach for, assessing teaching practices, generating insights, and connecting with colleagues, ultimately supporting meaningful transformation of teaching practice. In this paper, three librarians model a reflective assessment approach in evaluating and improving their experiences implementing learner-driven teaching practices in credit-bearing courses in topics related to library and information studies. Methods: Following a model of reflective assessment, we ask ourselves how our practice...

Data from: Translocation with targeted vaccination is the most effective strategy to protect an island endemic bird threatened by West Nile virus

Victoria Bakker, T. Sillett, Walter Boyce, Daniel Doak, T. Winston Vickers, William Reisen, Brian Cohen, Michael Hallworth & Scott Morrison
Aim Invasive pathogens are a growing conservation challenge and often occur in tandem with rapid environmental transformation, such as climate change, drought, and habitat loss. Climate change appears to have facilitated the spread of West Nile virus (WNV), a cause of widespread avian mortality. WNV is considered the primary threat to island scrub-jays (Aphelocoma insularis), endemic to Santa Cruz Island, California. Two approaches have been proposed to safeguard island scrub-jays: (1) vaccination and (2) conservation...

Repository Analytics and Metrics Portal (RAMP) 2021 data

Jonathan Wheeler & Kenning Arlitsch
The Repository Analytics and Metrics Portal (RAMP) is a web service that aggregates use and performance use data of institutional repositories. The data are a subset of data from RAMP, the Repository Analytics and Metrics Portal (http://rampanalytics.org), consisting of data from all participating repositories for the calendar year 2021. For a description of the data collection, processing, and output methods, please see the "methods" section below. The record will be revised periodically to make new...

Disentangling interactions among mercury, immunity, and infection in a Neotropical bat community

Daniel Becker, Kelly Speer, Jennifer Korstian, Dmitriy Volokhov, Hannah Droke, Alexis Brown, Catherene Baijnauth, Ticha Padgett-Stewart, Hugh Broders, Raina Plowright, Thomas Rainwater, Brock Fenton, Nancy Simmons & Matthew Chumchal
Contaminants such as mercury are pervasive and can have immunosuppressive effects on wildlife. Impaired immunity could be important for forecasting pathogen spillover risks, as many land-use changes that generate mercury contamination also bring wildlife into close contact with humans and domestic animals. However, the interactions among contaminants, immunity, and infection are difficult to study in natural systems, and empirical tests of possible directional relationships remain rare. We capitalized on extreme mercury variation in a diverse...

Communicating risk in human-wildlife interactions: how stories and images move minds

Sara Guenther & Elizabeth Shanahan
Effectively communicating risk is critical to reducing conflict in human-wildlife interactions. Using a survey experiment fielded in the midst of contentious public debate over flying fox management in urban and suburban areas of Australia, we find that stories with characters (i.e., narratives) are more effective than descriptive information at mobilizing support for different forms of bat management, including legal protection, relocation, and habitat restoration. We use conditional process analysis to show that narratives, particularly with...

Interspecific trait variability and local soil conditions modulate grassland model community responses to climate

Franklin Alongi, Jana Rüthers, Justyna Giejsztowt, Katrina LaPaglia & Anke Jentsch
High elevation grasslands provide critical services in agriculture and ecosystem stabilization. However, these ecosystems face elevated risks of disturbance due to predicted soil and climate changes. We experimentally exposed model grassland communities, comprised of three species grown on either local or reference soil, to varied climatic environments along an elevational gradient in the European Alps, measuring the effects on species and community traits. Although species-specific biomass varied across soil and climate, species’ proportional contributions to...

Wildfire severity alters drivers of interaction beta-diversity in plant-bee networks

Laura A. Burkle, R. Travis Belote & Jonathan A. Myers
Spatial variation in species interactions (interaction β-diversity) and its ecological drivers are poorly understood, despite their relevance to community assembly, conservation, and ecosystem functioning. We investigated effects of wildfire severity on patterns and four proximate ecological drivers of interaction β-diversity in plant-bee communities across three localities in the Northern Rocky Mountains (Montana, USA). Wildfires decreased interaction β-diversity but increased interaction frequency (number of visits) and richness (number of links). After controlling for interaction frequency and...

Loss of an apex predator in the wild induces physiological changes in prey

Neil Hammerschlag, Chris Fallows, Michael Meyer, Simon Seakamela, Samantha Orndorff, Stephen Kirkman, Deon Kotze & Scott Creel
Predators can impact prey via predation or risk effects, which can initiate trophic cascades. Given widespread population declines of apex predators, understanding and predicting the associated ecological consequences is a priority. When predation risk is relatively unpredictable or uncontrollable by prey, the loss of predators is hypothesized to release prey from stress; however, there are few tests of this hypothesis in the wild. A well-studied predator-prey system between white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) and Cape fur...

Data from: The effects of timing of grazing on plant and arthropod communities in high-elevation grasslands

Stacy C. Davis, Laura A. Burkle, Wyatt F. Cross & Kyle A. Cutting
Livestock grazing can be used as a key management tool for maintaining healthy ecosystems. However, the effectiveness of using grazing to modify habitat for species of conservation concern depends on how the grazing regime is implemented. Timing of grazing is one grazing regime component that is less understood than grazing intensity and grazer identity, but is predicted to have important implications for plant and higher trophic level responses. We experimentally assessed how timing of cattle...

Data from: The population history of endogenous retroviruses in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus)

Pauline L. Kamath, Daniel Elleder, Le Bao, Paul C. Cross, John H. Powell & Mary Poss
Mobile elements are powerful agents of genomic evolution and can be exceptionally informative markers for investigating species and population-level evolutionary history. While several studies have utilized retrotransposon-based insertional polymorphisms to resolve phylogenies, few population studies exist outside of humans. Endogenous retroviruses are LTR-retrotransposons derived from retroviruses that have become stably integrated in the host genome during past infections and transmitted vertically to subsequent generations. They offer valuable insight into host-virus co-evolution and a unique perspective...

Data from: Managing more than the mean: using quantile regression to identify factors related to large elk groups

Angela Brennan, Paul C. Cross & Scott Creel
1. Animal group size distributions are often right-skewed, whereby most groups are small, but most individuals occur in larger groups that may also disproportionately affect ecology and policy. In this case, examining covariates associated with upper quantiles of the group size distribution could facilitate better understanding and management of large animal groups. 2. We studied wintering elk groups in Wyoming, where group sizes span several orders of magnitude, and issues of disease, predation and property...

Data from: Entomopathogenic Nematodes Combined with Adjuvants Presents a New Potential Biological Control Method for Managing the Wheat Stem Sawfly, Cephus cinctus (Hymenoptera: Cephidae)

Scott L. Portman, Sindhu M. Krishnankutty, Gadi V.P. Reddy & Gadi V. P. Reddy
The wheat stem sawfly, (Cephus cinctus Norton) Hymenoptera: Cephidae, has been a major pest of winter wheat and barley in the northern Great Plains for more than 100 years. The insect's cryptic nature and lack of safe chemical control options make the wheat stem sawfly (WSS) difficult to manage; thus, biological control offers the best hope for sustainable management of WSS. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) have been used successfully against other above-ground insect pests and adding...

Data from: Kinetics of calcite precipitation by ureolytic bacteria under aerobic and anaerobic conditions

Andrew C. Mitchell, Erika J. Espinosa-Ortiz, Stacy L. Parks, Adrienne J. Phillips, Alfred B. Cunningham & Robin Gerlach
The kinetics of urea hydrolysis (ureolysis) and induced calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation for engineering use in the subsurface was investigated under aerobic conditions using Sporosarcina pasteurii (ATCC strain 11859) as well as Bacillus sphaericus strains 21776 and 21787. All bacterial strains showed ureolytic activity inducing CaCO3 precipitation aerobically. Rate constants not normalized to biomass demonstrated slightly higher rate coefficients for both ureolysis (kurea) and CaCO3 precipitation (kprecip) for B. sphaericus 21776 (kurea = 0.10 ±...

Data from: Time-integrated habitat availability is a resource attribute that informs patterns of use in intertidal areas

Leonardo Calle, Lauri Green, Allan Strong & Dale E. Gawlik
In dynamic environments, resource availability may change by several orders of magnitude, over hours to months, but the duration of resource availability is not often included as a characteristic attribute of resources even though temporal resource dynamics might limit patterns of use. In our study of wading birds foraging in intertidal areas, tides cause large changes in the areal extent of shallow-water foraging habitat (i.e., the resource), but tides also constrain the duration of availability,...

Data from: Severity of impacts of an introduced species corresponds with regional eco-evolutionary experience

Kimberley T. Davis, Ragan M. Callaway, Alex Fajardo, Anibal Pauchard, Martin A Nunez, Rob W Brooker, Bruce D. Maxwell, Romina D Dimarco, Duane A Peltzer, Bill Mason, Seppo Ruotsalainen, Anne C S McIntosh, Robin J Pakeman, Alyssa Laney Smith & Michael Gundale
Invasive plant impacts vary widely across introduced ranges. We tested the hypothesis that differences in the eco-evolutionary experience of native communities with the invader correspond with the impacts of invasive species on native vegetation, with impacts increasing with ecological novelty. We compared plant species richness and composition beneath Pinus contorta to that in adjacent vegetation and other P. contorta stands across a network of sites in its native (Canada and USA) and non-native (Argentina, Chile,...

Data from: Multi-scale model of CRISPR-induced coevolutionary dynamics: diversification at the interface of Lamarck and Darwin

Lauren Maressa Childs, Nicole L. Held, Mark J. Young, Rachel J. Whitaker & Joshua S. Weitz
The CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) system is a recently discovered type of adaptive immune defense in bacteria and archaea that functions via directed incorporation of viral and plasmid DNA into host genomes. Here, we introduce a multi-scale model of dynamic coevolution between hosts and viruses in an ecological context that incorporates CRISPR immunity principles. We analyze the model to test whether and how CRISPR immunity induces host and viral diversification and the...

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  • Montana State University
  • United States Geological Survey
  • University of Montana
  • University of Arizona
  • University of New Mexico
  • University of Georgia
  • University of Glasgow
  • Wildlife Conservation Society
  • University of Washington
  • University of Vermont