113 Works

Differential learning by native versus invasive predators to avoid distasteful cleaning mutualists

Lillian Tuttle, Robert Lamb & Allison Stringer
1. Cleaning symbioses on coral reefs are mutually beneficial interactions between two individuals, in which a ‘cleaner’ removes and eats parasites from the surface of a ‘client’ fish. A suite of behavioural and morphological traits of cleaners signal cooperation with co-evolved species, thus protecting the cleaner from being eaten by otherwise predatory clients. However, it is unclear whether cooperation between cleaners and predatory clients is innate or learned, and therefore whether an introduced predator might...

Data from: Characters matter: how narratives shape affective responses to risk communication

Elizabeth A. Shanahan, Ann Marie Reinhold, Eric D. Raile, Geoffrey C. Poole, Richard C. Ready, Clemente Izurieta, Jamie McEvoy, Nicolas T. Bergmann & Henry King
Introduction Whereas scientists depend on the language of probability to relay information about hazards, risk communication may be more effective when embedding scientific information in narratives. The persuasive power of narratives is theorized to reside, in part, in narrative transportation. Purpose This study seeks to advance the science of stories in risk communication by measuring real-time affective responses as a proxy indicator for narrative transportation during science messages that present scientific information in the context...

Resource allocation effects on the timing of reproduction in an avian habitat specialist

Kyle Cutting, Jay Rotella, James Waxe, Aaron O' Harra, Sean Schroff, Lorelle Berkeley, Mark Szczypinski, Andrea Litt & Bok Sowell
Variation in nutrient allocation can influence the timing of breeding and ultimately reproductive output. Time and space constraints might exist, however, if fewer food resources are available to meet the costs of reproduction early during the reproductive season. Here, for the first time, we test whether nutrient allocation strategies for reproduction in a shrub-dependent avian species differs with timing of breeding in different ecoregions: a high-elevation landscape, containing spatially complex vegetation (Rocky Mountains) versus a...

Repository Analytics and Metrics Portal (RAMP) 2017 data

Jonathan Wheeler & Kenning Arlitsch
The Repository Analytics and Metrics Portal (RAMP) is a web service that aggregates use and performance use data of institutional repositories. The data are a subset of data from RAMP, the Repository Analytics and Metrics Portal (http://rampanalytics.org), consisting of data from all participating repositories for the calendar year 2017. For a description of the data collection, processing, and output methods, please see the "methods" section below.

Data from the article: Narrative Risk Communication as a Lingua Franca for Environmental Hazard Preparation

Eric D. Raile, Elizabeth A. Shanahan, Richard C. Ready, Jamie McEvoy, Clemente Izurieta, Ann Marie Reinhold, Geoffrey C. Poole, Nicolas T. Bergmann & Henry King
Incorporating narrative elements into risk communication may encourage preparation for environmental hazards in ways that scientific language alone does not. We integrate narrative theory, narrative persuasion, and risk theories into a Narrative Risk Communication Framework and then assess the effectiveness of character selection as a narrative mechanism in scientific risk communication as compared to conventional science messaging alone. We utilize a survey experiment with residents along the flood-prone Yellowstone River in Montana and analyze the...

STL files and data to support: Improvements in methods for measuring the volume conductivity of electrically conductive carbon powders

Seth Kane, Cecily Ryan & Stephan Warnat
Electrically conductive carbon powders are commonly used as filler materials in polymers to create electrically semi-conductive composite materials for use in battery electrodes and anti-static applications. Current methods for characterizing the conductivity of these powders use two pistons to compress the powders. Two-piston methods are known to underestimate conductivity. This study develops a guard-electrode method based on ASTM D257 to better characterize the bulk conductivity and impedance spectra of electrically conductive powders. The conductivity and...

Data from: Assessing cetacean populations using integrated population models: an example with Cook Inlet beluga whales

Eiren Jacobson, Charlotte Boyd, Tamara McGuire, Kim Shelden, Gina Himes Boor & André Punt
Effective conservation and management of animal populations requires knowledge of abundance and trends. For many species, these quantities are estimated using systematic visual surveys. Additional individual-level data are available for some species. Integrated population modelling (IPM) offers a mechanism for leveraging these datasets into a single estimation framework. IPMs that incorporate both population- and individual-level data have previously been developed for birds, but have rarely been applied to cetaceans. Here, we explore how IPMs can...

Repeated fire shifts carbon and nitrogen cycling by changing plant inputs and soil decomposition across ecosystems

Adam Francis Pellegrini, Sarah Hobbie, Peter Reich, Ari Jumpponen, Jack Brookshire, Anthony Caprio, Corli Coetsee & Robert Jackson
Fires shape the biogeochemistry and functioning of many ecosystems, and fire frequencies are changing across much of the globe. Frequent fires can change soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage by altering the quantity and chemistry of plant inputs through changes in plant biomass and composition as well as altering decomposition of soil organic matter. How decomposition rates change with shifting inputs remains uncertain because most studies focus on the effects of single fires, where...

Counterintuitive scaling between population abundance and local density: implications for modelling transmission of infectious diseases in bat populations

Tamika Lunn, Alison Peel, Peggy Eby, Remy Brooks, Raina Plowright, Maureen Kessler & Hamish McCallum
1. Models of host-pathogen interactions help to explain infection dynamics in wildlife populations and to predict and mitigate the risk of zoonotic spillover. Insights from models inherently depend on the way contacts between hosts are modelled, and crucially, how transmission scales with animal density. 2. Bats are important reservoirs of zoonotic disease and are among the most gregarious of all mammals. Their population structures can be highly heterogenous, underpinned by ecological processes across different scales,...

Data from: Sources of variation in maternal allocation in a long-lived mammal

Kaitlin R. Macdonald, Jay J. Rotella, Robert A. Garrott & William A. Link
Life history theory predicts allocation of energy to reproduction varies with maternal age but additional maternal features may be important to the allocation of energy to reproduction. We aimed to characterize age-specific variation in maternal allocation and assess the relationship between maternal allocation and other static and dynamic maternal features. Mass measurements of 531 mothers and pups were used with Bayesian hierarchical models to explain the relationship between diverse maternal attributes and both the proportion...

Data from: Birth dates vary with fixed and dynamic maternal features, offspring sex, and extreme climatic events in a high-latitude marine mammal

Jay J. Rotella, J. Terrill Paterson & Robert A. Garrott
Reproductive synchrony tends to be widespread in diverse species of plants and animals, especially at higher latitudes. However, for long-lived mammals, birth dates for different individuals can vary by weeks within a population. A mother's birth timing can reveal useful information about her reproductive abilities and have important implications for the characteristics and survival of her offspring. Despite this, our current knowledge of factors associated with variation in birth dates is modest. We used long-term...

Data from: Effects of apical meristem mining on plant fitness, architecture and flowering phenology in Cirsium altissimum (Asteracaeae)

Subodh Adhikari & F. Leland Russell
Premise of the study: Interactions that limit lifetime seed production have the potential to limit plant population sizes and drive adaptation through natural selection. Effects of insect herbivory to apical meristems (apical meristem mining) on lifetime seed production rarely have been quantified experimentally. We studied Cirsium altissimum (tall thistle), whose meristems are mined by Platyptilia carduidactyla (artichoke plume moth), to determine how apical damage affects plant maternal fitness and evaluate both direct and indirect mechanisms...

Data from: Assessing the sustainability of African lion trophy hunting, with recommendations for policy

Scott Creel, Jassiel M'soka, Egil Dröge, Elias Rosenblatt, Matthew S. Becker, Wigganson Matandiko, Twakundine Simpamba & Eli Rosenblatt
While trophy hunting provides revenue for conservation, it must be carefully managed to avoid negative population impacts, particularly for long-lived species with low natural mortality rates. Trophy hunting has had negative effects on lion populations throughout Africa, and the species serves as an important case study to consider the balance of costs and benefits, and to consider the effectiveness of alternative strategies to conserve exploited species. Age-restricted harvesting is widely recommended to mitigate negative effects...

Data from: Intraspecific variability and reaction norms of forest understory plant species traits

Julia I. Burton, Steven S. Perakis, Sean C. McKenzie, Caitlin E. Lawrence & Klaus J. Puettmann
1.Trait-based models of ecological communities typically assume intraspecific variation in functional traits is not important, though such variation can change species trait rankings along gradients in resources and environmental conditions, and thus influence community structure and function. 2. We examined the degree of intraspecific relative to interspecific variation, and reaction norms of 11 functional traits for 57 forest understory plant species, including: intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE), Δ15N, 5 leaf traits, 2 stem traits and 2...

Data from: A segmentation algorithm for characterizing Rise and Fall segments in seasonal cycles: an application to XCO2 to estimate benchmarks and assess model bias

Leonardo Calle, Benjamin Poulter & Prabir K. Patra
There is more useful information in the time series of satellite-derived column-averaged carbon dioxide (XCO2) than is typically characterized. Often, the entire time series is treated at once without considering detailed features at shorter timescales, such as nonstationary changes in signal characteristics – amplitude, period and phase. In many instances, signals are visually and analytically differentiable from other portions in a time series. Each rise (increasing) and fall (decreasing) segment in the seasonal cycle is...

Data from: The utility of normalized difference vegetation index for predicting African buffalo forage quality

Sadie J. Ryan, Paul C. Cross, John Winnie, Craig Hay, Justin Bowers & Wayne M. Getz
Many studies of mammalian herbivores have employed remotely sensed vegetation greenness, in the form of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as a proxy for forage quality. The assumption that reflected greenness represents forage quality often goes untested, and limited data exist on the relationships between remotely sensed and traditional forage nutrient indicators. We provide the first study connecting NDVI and forage nutrient indicators within a free-ranging African herbivore ecosystem. We examined the relationships between fecal...

Data from: Modern pollen from small hollows reflects Athrotaxis cupressoides density across a wildfire gradient in subalpine forests of the Central Plateau, Tasmania, Australia

Philip E. Higuera, Jesse L. Morris, Simon Haberle & Cathy Whitlock
Pollen assemblages from 50 small hollows were used to resolve fire-caused vegetation patterns in a ~2-km2 subalpine landscape on the Central Plateau of Tasmania, Australia. Sites were characterized by varying abundance of the dominant tree species, Athrotaxis cupressoides, reflecting mortality from a wildfire that occurred 53 years prior to sampling. Sites were classified a priori based on fire-related Athrotaxis mortality as burned (100% standing dead), unburned (<5% standing dead), and mixed (intermediate proportions). Non-parametric analysis...

Data from: Development of epithelial tissues: how are cleavage planes chosen?

Ying Xin, Chathuri Madubhashini Karunarathna Mudiyanselage & Winfried Just
The cross-section of a cell in a monolayer epithelial tissue can be modeled mathematically as a k-sided polygon. Empirically studied distributions of the proportions of k-sided cells in epithelia show remarkable similarities in a wide range of evolutionarily distant organisms. A variety of mathematical models have been proposed for explaining this phenomenon. The highly parsimonious simulation model of (Patel et al., PLoS Comput. Biol., 2009) that takes into account only the number of sides of...

Data from: Continuous corn and corn–soybean profits over a 45-year tillage and fertilizer experiment

Andrew Trlica, Maninder K. Walia, Ron Krausz, Silvia Secchi & Rachel L. Cook
Studies comparing profitability of tillage systems often examine narrow historic windows or exclude annual price fluctuations. This study uses a continuous corn (Zea mays L.) (CC; 1970–1990) and corn–soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] (CS; 1991–2014) Tillage × Fertilizer study in somewhat poorly drained soils in southern Illinois to reconstruct partial annual budgets with historical prices for crops, fertilizers, lime, herbicides, fuel, labor, and machinery. Combinations of tillage (moldboard plow [MP], chisel tillage [ChT], alternate tillage...

Change in terrestrial human footprint drives continued loss of intact ecosystems

Brooke Williams, Oscar Venter, James Allan, Scott Atkinson, Jose Rehbein, Michelle Ward, Moreno Di Marco, Hedley Grantham, Jamison Ervin, Scott Goetz, Andrew Hansen, Patrick Jantz, Rajeev Pillay, Susana Rodríguez-Buriticá, Christina Supples, Anne Virnig & James Watson
Human pressure mapping is important for understanding humanity's role in shaping Earth’s patterns and processes. Our ability to map this influence has evolved, thanks to powerful computing, earth observing satellites, and new bottom-up census and crowd-sourced data. Here, we provide the latest temporally inter-comparable maps of the terrestrial human footprint, and assessment of change in human pressure at global, biome, and ecoregional scales. In 2013, 42% of terrestrial Earth could be considered relatively free of...

Gunshots recorded in an open field using iPod Touch devices

Seth Cooper & Steven Shaw
Seven different firearms, including four pistols and three rifles, were fired at least three times each, in order, at a target located at a distance of 45 meters from the shooter, in an open field in Gallatin County, Montana. Sound was recorded from four different iPod Touch devices.

Analytic dataset informing modeling of winter species distributions of North American bat species

Sarah Olson, Meredith McClure, Catherine Haase, Carter Hranac, David Hayman, Brett Dickson, Liam McGuire, Daniel Crowley, Nathan Fuller, Cori Lausen & Raina Plowright
The fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans and resultant white-nose syndrome (WNS) continues to advance across North America, infecting new bat populations, species, and hibernacula. Western North America hosts the highest bat diversity in the U.S. and Canada, yet little is known about hibernacula and hibernation behavior in this region. An improved understanding of where bats hibernate and the conditions that create suitable hibernacula is critical if land managers are to anticipate and address the conservation needs...

RAMP data subset, January 1 through May 31, 2019

Jonathan Wheeler, Kenning Arlitsch, Minh Pham, Nikolaus Parulian, Patrick OBrien & Jeff Mixter
The data are a subset of data from RAMP, the Repository Analytics and Metrics Portal (http://ramp.montana.edu/), consisting of data from 35 (out of 50) participating institutional repositories (IR) from the period of January 1 through May 31, 2019. This subset represents data analyzed for a pending publication. For a description of the data collection, processing, and output methods, please see the "methods" section below. The 'RAMP Primer,' a Jupyter Notebook consisting of Python code for...

Public opinion about management strategies for a low-profile Species across multiple jurisdictions: whitebark pine in the northern Rockies

Elizabeth Shanahan, Eric Raile, Helen Naughton, Michael Wallner & Kendall Houghton
1. As public land managers seek to adopt and implement conservation measures aimed at reversing or slowing the negative effects of climate change, they are looking to understand public opinion regarding different management strategies. 2. This study explores drivers of attitudes toward different management strategies (i.e., no management, protection, and restoration) for a low-profile but keystone tree species, the whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Since the whitebark pine species has a...

Data from: Temporal scale-dependence of plant-pollinator networks

Benjamin Schwarz, Diego Vázquez, Paul CaraDonna, Tiffany Knight, Gita Benadi, Carsten Dormann, Benoit Gauzens, Elena Motivans, Julian Resasco, Nico Blüthgen, Laura Burkle, Qiang Fang, Christopher Kaiser-Bunbury, Ruben Alarcón, Justin Bain, Natacha Chacoff, Shuang-Quan Huang, Gretchen LeBuhn, Molly MacLeod, Theodora Petanidou, Claus Rasmussen, Michael Simanonok, Amibeth Thompson, Daniel Cariveau, Michael Roswell … & Jochen Fründ
The study of mutualistic interaction networks has led to valuable insights into ecological and evolutionary processes. However, our understanding of network structure may depend upon the temporal scale at which we sample and analyze network data. To date, we lack a comprehensive assessment of the temporal scale-dependence of network structure across a wide range of temporal scales and geographic locations. If network structure is temporally scale-dependent, networks constructed over different temporal scales may provide very...

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