128 Works

Communicating risk in human-wildlife interactions: how stories and images move minds

Sara Guenther & Elizabeth Shanahan
Effectively communicating risk is critical to reducing conflict in human-wildlife interactions. Using a survey experiment fielded in the midst of contentious public debate over flying fox management in urban and suburban areas of Australia, we find that stories with characters (i.e., narratives) are more effective than descriptive information at mobilizing support for different forms of bat management, including legal protection, relocation, and habitat restoration. We use conditional process analysis to show that narratives, particularly with...

Habitat Selection by a Threatened Desert Amphibian

Ross Hinderer
Aim. Habitat degradation and fragmentation are major drivers of amphibian declines. The loss of environmental features that allow for movement between water sources may be particularly detrimental for amphibians in arid environments. Climate changes will increase the importance of microhabitats to amphibians. Enhancing areas to facilitate movement may be a necessary conservation strategy for many animal species that depend on wetlands, including federally-threatened Chiricahua leopard frogs (Lithobates chiricahuensis). Habitat preferences of this frog species are...

Repository Analytics and Metrics Portal (RAMP) 2021 data

Jonathan Wheeler & Kenning Arlitsch
The Repository Analytics and Metrics Portal (RAMP) is a web service that aggregates use and performance use data of institutional repositories. The data are a subset of data from RAMP, the Repository Analytics and Metrics Portal (http://rampanalytics.org), consisting of data from all participating repositories for the calendar year 2021. For a description of the data collection, processing, and output methods, please see the "methods" section below. The record will be revised periodically to make new...

Wildfire severity alters drivers of interaction beta-diversity in plant-bee networks

Laura A. Burkle, R. Travis Belote & Jonathan A. Myers
Spatial variation in species interactions (interaction β-diversity) and its ecological drivers are poorly understood, despite their relevance to community assembly, conservation, and ecosystem functioning. We investigated effects of wildfire severity on patterns and four proximate ecological drivers of interaction β-diversity in plant-bee communities across three localities in the Northern Rocky Mountains (Montana, USA). Wildfires decreased interaction β-diversity but increased interaction frequency (number of visits) and richness (number of links). After controlling for interaction frequency and...

Loss of an apex predator in the wild induces physiological changes in prey

Neil Hammerschlag, Chris Fallows, Michael Meyer, Simon Seakamela, Samantha Orndorff, Stephen Kirkman, Deon Kotze & Scott Creel
Predators can impact prey via predation or risk effects, which can initiate trophic cascades. Given widespread population declines of apex predators, understanding and predicting the associated ecological consequences is a priority. When predation risk is relatively unpredictable or uncontrollable by prey, the loss of predators is hypothesized to release prey from stress; however, there are few tests of this hypothesis in the wild. A well-studied predator-prey system between white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) and Cape fur...

Influence of biomimicry structures on ecosystem function in a Rocky Mountain incised stream

James Reinert, Lindsey Albertson & James Junker
Rising levels of stream degradation have motivated a boom in restoration projects across the globe. However, post-restoration monitoring is still frequently lacking and does not always incorporate biotic responses to changes in the physical template. Beaver mimicry structures (BMS) are becoming a popular tool to restore degraded streams throughout the American West, but relatively little is known about how these installations influence both biotic and abiotic factors, with consequences for ecosystem functioning. We monitored basal...

Interspecific trait variability and local soil conditions modulate grassland model community responses to climate

Franklin Alongi, Jana Rüthers, Justyna Giejsztowt, Katrina LaPaglia & Anke Jentsch
High elevation grasslands provide critical services in agriculture and ecosystem stabilization. However, these ecosystems face elevated risks of disturbance due to predicted soil and climate changes. We experimentally exposed model grassland communities, comprised of three species grown on either local or reference soil, to varied climatic environments along an elevational gradient in the European Alps, measuring the effects on species and community traits. Although species-specific biomass varied across soil and climate, species’ proportional contributions to...

Disentangling interactions among mercury, immunity, and infection in a Neotropical bat community

Daniel Becker, Kelly Speer, Jennifer Korstian, Dmitriy Volokhov, Hannah Droke, Alexis Brown, Catherene Baijnauth, Ticha Padgett-Stewart, Hugh Broders, Raina Plowright, Thomas Rainwater, Brock Fenton, Nancy Simmons & Matthew Chumchal
Contaminants such as mercury are pervasive and can have immunosuppressive effects on wildlife. Impaired immunity could be important for forecasting pathogen spillover risks, as many land-use changes that generate mercury contamination also bring wildlife into close contact with humans and domestic animals. However, the interactions among contaminants, immunity, and infection are difficult to study in natural systems, and empirical tests of possible directional relationships remain rare. We capitalized on extreme mercury variation in a diverse...

Chickensplash: splash trial videos

Caitlin Carmody, Rebecca Mueller, Benjamin Grodner, Ondrej Chlumsky, James Wilking & Scott McCalla
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends against washing raw chicken due to the risk of transferring dangerous food-borne pathogens through splashed drops of water. Many cooks continue to wash raw chicken despite this warning, however, and there is a lack of scientific research assessing the extent of microbial transmission in splashed droplets. Here we use large agar plates to confirm that bacteria can be transferred from the surface of raw chicken through splashing. We...

Heterogeneity in risk-sensitive allocation of somatic reserves in a long-lived mammal

Rachel Smiley, Rachel Smiley, Brittany L. Wagler, Tayler LaSharr, Kristin Denryter, Thomas Stephenson, Alyson Courtemanch, Tony Mong, Daryl Lutz, Doug McWhirter, Doug Brimeyer, Patrick Hnilicka, Blake Lowrey & Kevin Monteith
Patterns of food quality and availability, when combined with energetic demands in seasonal environments, shape resource acquisition and allocation by animals and hold consequences for life-history strategies. In long-lived species with extensive maternal care, regulation of somatic reserves of energy and protein can occur in a risk-sensitive manner, wherein resources are preferentially allocated to support survival at the cost of investment in reproduction. We investigated how Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), an alpine mammal...

Repository Analytics and Metrics Portal (RAMP) 2020 data

Jonathan Wheeler & Kenning Arlitsch
Version update: The originally uploaded versions of the CSV files in this dataset included an extra column, "Unnamed: 0," which is not RAMP data and was an artifact of the process used to export the data to CSV format. This column has been removed from the revised dataset. The data are otherwise the same as in the first version. The Repository Analytics and Metrics Portal (RAMP) is a web service that aggregates use and performance...

Code in support of: Physical and chemical mechanisms that influence the electrical conductivity of lignin-derived biochar

Seth Kane, Rachel Ulrich, Abigail Harrington, Nicholas P. Stadie & Cecily Ryan
Lignin-derived biochar is a promising, sustainable alternative to petroleum-based carbon powders (e.g., carbon black) for electrode and energy storage applications. Prior studies of these biochars demonstrate that high electrical conductivity and good capacitive behavior are achievable. These studies also show high variability in electrical conductivity between biochars (~10^-2-10^2 S/cm). The underlying mechanisms that lead to desirable electrical properties in these lignin-derived biochars are poorly understood. In this work, we examine the causes of the variation...

Data from: Age-specific infectious period shapes dynamics of pneumonia in bighorn sheep

Raina K. Plowright, Kezia R. Manlove, Thomas E. Besser, David J. Páez, Kimberly R. Andrews, Patrick E. Matthews, Lisette P. Waits, Peter J. Hudson & E. Frances Cassirer
Superspreading, the phenomenon where a small proportion of individuals contribute disproportionately to new infections, has profound effects on disease dynamics. Superspreading can arise through variation in contacts, infectiousness or infectious periods. The latter has received little attention, yet it drives the dynamics of many diseases of critical public health, livestock health and conservation concern. Here, we present rare evidence of variation in infectious periods underlying a superspreading phenomenon in a free-ranging wildlife system. We detected...

Data from: Forest structure provides the income for reproductive success in a southern population of Canada lynx

Megan K. Kosterman, John R. Squires, Joseph D. Holbrook, Daniel H. Pletscher & Mark Hebblewhite
Understanding intrinsic and extrinsic drivers of reproductive success is central to advancing animal ecology and characterizing critical habitat. Unfortunately, much of the work examining drivers of reproductive success is biased toward particular groups of organisms (e.g., colonial birds, large herbivores, capital breeders). Long-lived mammalian carnivores that are of conservation concern, solitary, and territorial present an excellent situation to examine intrinsic and extrinsic drivers of reproductive success, yet they have received little attention. Here, we used...

Data from: A new Late Cretaceous iguanomorph from North America and the origin of New World Pleurodonta (Squamata, Iguania)

David G. DeMar, Jack L. Conrad, Jason J. Head, David J. Varricchio & Gregory P. Wilson
Iguanomorpha (stem + crown Iguania) is a diverse squamate clade with members that predominate many modern American lizard ecosystems. However, the temporal and palaeobiogeographic origins of its constituent crown clades (e.g. Pleurodonta (basilisks, iguanas, and their relatives)) are poorly constrained, mainly due to a meagre Mesozoic-age fossil record. Here, we report on two nearly complete skeletons from the Late Cretaceous (Campanian) of North America that represent a new and relatively large-bodied and possibly herbivorous iguanomorph...

Data from: Seasonal change in trophic niche of adfluvial arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) and coexisting fishes in a high-elevation lake system

Kyle A. Cutting, Wyatt F. Cross, Michelle L. Anderson & Elizabeth G. Reese
Introduction of non-native species is a leading threat to global aquatic biodiversity. Competition between native and non-native species is often influenced by changes in food availability or suitable habitat conditions. We investigated diet breadth and degree of trophic niche overlap for a fish assemblage of native and non-native species inhabiting a shallow, high elevation lake system. This assemblage includes one of the last remaining post-glacial endemic populations of adfluvial Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) in the...

Data from: Estimating the phenology of elk brucellosis transmission with hierarchical models of cause-specific and baseline hazards

Paul C. Cross, Eric J. Maichak, Jared D. Rogerson, Kathryn M. Irvine, Jennifer D. Jones, Dennis M. Heisey, William H. Edwards & Brandon M. Scurlock
Understanding the seasonal timing of disease transmission can lead to more effective control strategies, but the seasonality of transmission is often unknown for pathogens transmitted directly. We inserted vaginal implant transmitters (VITs) in 575 elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) from 2006 to 2014 to assess when reproductive failures (i.e., abortions or still births) occur, which is the primary transmission route of Brucella abortus, the causative agent of brucellosis in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Using a survival...

Locations of GPS-collared moose and geographic correlates, as well as for random points within study area

Richard Harris, Braden Burkholder, Nicholas DeCesare, Vanna Boccardori & Robert Garrott
Moose are among the many species that are vulnerable to both direcdt and indirect effects of climate change. Habitat selection is one framework to assist investigators in disentangling the various factors (including weather) that ultimately dictate how animals respond to their environment. We investigated patterns of winter habitat selecdtion by adult female moose in southerwestern MOntana, USA, during 2007-2010, and how that selection was affected by snow (quantified by snow water equivalent) and winter temperatures....

Ecological conditions predict the intensity of Hendra virus excretion over space and time from bat reservoir hosts

Daniel Becker, Peggy Eby, Wyatt Madden, Alison Peel & Raina Plowright
The ecological conditions experienced by wildlife reservoirs affect infection dynamics and thus the distribution of pathogen excreted into the environment, which have been hypothesized to shape risks of zoonotic spillover. However, few systems have data on both long-term ecological conditions and pathogen excretion to advance mechanistic understanding and test environmental drivers of spillover risk. We here analyze three years of Hendra virus data from nine Australian flying fox roosts with covariates derived from long-term studies...

Data from: Genetic connectivity for two bear species at wildlife crossing structures in Banff National Park

Michael A. Sawaya, Steven T. Kalinowski & Anthony P. Clevenger
Roads can fragment and isolate wildlife populations, which will eventually decrease genetic diversity within populations. Wildlife crossing structures may counteract these impacts, but most crossings are relatively new, and there is little evidence that they facilitate gene flow. We conducted a three-year research project in Banff National Park, Alberta, to evaluate the effectiveness of wildlife crossings to provide genetic connectivity. Our main objective was to determine how the Trans-Canada Highway and crossing structures along it...

Data from: Modern pollen from small hollows reflects Athrotaxis cupressoides density across a wildfire gradient in subalpine forests of the Central Plateau, Tasmania, Australia

Philip E. Higuera, Jesse L. Morris, Simon Haberle & Cathy Whitlock
Pollen assemblages from 50 small hollows were used to resolve fire-caused vegetation patterns in a ~2-km2 subalpine landscape on the Central Plateau of Tasmania, Australia. Sites were characterized by varying abundance of the dominant tree species, Athrotaxis cupressoides, reflecting mortality from a wildfire that occurred 53 years prior to sampling. Sites were classified a priori based on fire-related Athrotaxis mortality as burned (100% standing dead), unburned (<5% standing dead), and mixed (intermediate proportions). Non-parametric analysis...

Data from: Assessing the sustainability of African lion trophy hunting, with recommendations for policy

Scott Creel, Jassiel M'soka, Egil Dröge, Elias Rosenblatt, Matthew S. Becker, Wigganson Matandiko, Twakundine Simpamba & Eli Rosenblatt
While trophy hunting provides revenue for conservation, it must be carefully managed to avoid negative population impacts, particularly for long-lived species with low natural mortality rates. Trophy hunting has had negative effects on lion populations throughout Africa, and the species serves as an important case study to consider the balance of costs and benefits, and to consider the effectiveness of alternative strategies to conserve exploited species. Age-restricted harvesting is widely recommended to mitigate negative effects...

Data from: Birth dates vary with fixed and dynamic maternal features, offspring sex, and extreme climatic events in a high-latitude marine mammal

Jay J. Rotella, J. Terrill Paterson & Robert A. Garrott
Reproductive synchrony tends to be widespread in diverse species of plants and animals, especially at higher latitudes. However, for long-lived mammals, birth dates for different individuals can vary by weeks within a population. A mother's birth timing can reveal useful information about her reproductive abilities and have important implications for the characteristics and survival of her offspring. Despite this, our current knowledge of factors associated with variation in birth dates is modest. We used long-term...

Data from: Intraspecific variability and reaction norms of forest understory plant species traits

Julia I. Burton, Steven S. Perakis, Sean C. McKenzie, Caitlin E. Lawrence & Klaus J. Puettmann
1.Trait-based models of ecological communities typically assume intraspecific variation in functional traits is not important, though such variation can change species trait rankings along gradients in resources and environmental conditions, and thus influence community structure and function. 2. We examined the degree of intraspecific relative to interspecific variation, and reaction norms of 11 functional traits for 57 forest understory plant species, including: intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE), Δ15N, 5 leaf traits, 2 stem traits and 2...

Data from: Effects of apical meristem mining on plant fitness, architecture and flowering phenology in Cirsium altissimum (Asteracaeae)

Subodh Adhikari & F. Leland Russell
Premise of the study: Interactions that limit lifetime seed production have the potential to limit plant population sizes and drive adaptation through natural selection. Effects of insect herbivory to apical meristems (apical meristem mining) on lifetime seed production rarely have been quantified experimentally. We studied Cirsium altissimum (tall thistle), whose meristems are mined by Platyptilia carduidactyla (artichoke plume moth), to determine how apical damage affects plant maternal fitness and evaluate both direct and indirect mechanisms...

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