128 Works

Data from: Continuous corn and corn–soybean profits over a 45-year tillage and fertilizer experiment

Andrew Trlica, Maninder K. Walia, Ron Krausz, Silvia Secchi & Rachel L. Cook
Studies comparing profitability of tillage systems often examine narrow historic windows or exclude annual price fluctuations. This study uses a continuous corn (Zea mays L.) (CC; 1970–1990) and corn–soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] (CS; 1991–2014) Tillage × Fertilizer study in somewhat poorly drained soils in southern Illinois to reconstruct partial annual budgets with historical prices for crops, fertilizers, lime, herbicides, fuel, labor, and machinery. Combinations of tillage (moldboard plow [MP], chisel tillage [ChT], alternate tillage...

Data from: A segmentation algorithm for characterizing Rise and Fall segments in seasonal cycles: an application to XCO2 to estimate benchmarks and assess model bias

Leonardo Calle, Benjamin Poulter & Prabir K. Patra
There is more useful information in the time series of satellite-derived column-averaged carbon dioxide (XCO2) than is typically characterized. Often, the entire time series is treated at once without considering detailed features at shorter timescales, such as nonstationary changes in signal characteristics – amplitude, period and phase. In many instances, signals are visually and analytically differentiable from other portions in a time series. Each rise (increasing) and fall (decreasing) segment in the seasonal cycle is...

Data from: Fire-regime complacency and sensitivity to centennial- through millennial-scale climate change in Rocky Mountain subalpine forests, Colorado, U.S.A.

Philip E. Higuera, Christy E. Briles & Cathy Whitlock
1. Key uncertainties in anticipating future fire regimes are their sensitivity to climate change, and the degree to which climate will impact fire regimes directly, through increasing the probability of fire, versus indirectly, through changes in vegetation and landscape flammability. 2. We studied the sensitivity of subalpine forest fire regimes (i.e., fire frequency, fire severity) to previously documented climate variability over the past 6000 years, utilizing pollen and macroscopic charcoal from high-resolution lake-sediment records in...

Data from: Spatial and temporal patterns of neutral and adaptive genetic variation in the endangered African wild dog (Lycaon pictus)

Clare D. Marsden, Rosie Woodroffe, Michael G. L. Mills, J. Weldon McNutt, Scott Creel, Rosemary Groom, Masenga Emmanuel, Sarah Cleaveland, Pieter Kat, Gregory S. A. Rasmussen, Joshua Ginsberg, Robin Lines, Jean-Marc André, Colleen Begg, Robert K. Wayne & Barbara K. Mable
Deciphering patterns of genetic variation within a species is essential for understanding population structure, local adaptation and differences in diversity between populations. Whilst neutrally evolving genetic markers can be used to elucidate demographic processes and genetic structure, they are not subject to selection and therefore are not informative about patterns of adaptive variation. As such, assessments of pertinent adaptive loci, such as the immunity genes of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC), are increasingly being incorporated...

Data from: Gut microbiome composition and metabolomic profiles of wild western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) reflect host ecology

Andres Gomez, Klara Petrzelkova, Carl J. Yeoman, Klara Vlckova, Jakub Mrázek, Ingrid Koppova, Franck Carbonero, Alexander Ulanov, David Modry, Angelique Todd, Manolito Torralba, Karen Nelson, H. Rex Gaskins, Brenda Wilson, Rebecca M. Stumpf, Bryan A. White, Steven R. Leigh & Karen E. Nelson
The metabolic activities of gut microbes significantly influence host physiology; thus, characterizing the forces that modulate this micro-ecosystem is key to understanding mammalian biology and fitness. To investigate the gut microbiome of wild primates and determine how these microbial communities respond to the host's external environment, we characterized faecal bacterial communities and, for the first time, gut metabolomes of four wild lowland gorilla groups in the Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic. Results show that...

Data from: Convergence of soil nitrogen isotopes across global climate gradients

Joseph M. Craine, Andrew J. Elmore, Lixin Wang, Laurent Augusto, W. Troy Baisden, E. N. J. Brookshire, Michael D. Cramer, Niles J. Hasselquist, Erik A. Hobbie, Ansgar Kahmen, Keisuke Koba, J. Marty Kranabetter, Michelle C. Mack, Erika Marin-Spiotta, Jordan R. Mayor, Kendra K. McLauchlan, Anders Michelsen, Gabriela B. Nardoto, Rafael S. Oliveira, Steven S. Perakis, Pablo L. Peri, Carlos A. Quesada, Andreas Richter, Louis A. Schipper, Bryan A. Stevenson … & Bernd Zeller
Quantifying global patterns of terrestrial nitrogen (N) cycling is central to predicting future patterns of primary productivity, carbon sequestration, nutrient fluxes to aquatic systems, and climate forcing. With limited direct measures of soil N cycling at the global scale, syntheses of the 15N:14N ratio of soil organic matter across climate gradients provide key insights into understanding global patterns of N cycling. In synthesizing data from over 6000 soil samples, we show strong global relationships among...

Data from: Birth dates vary with fixed and dynamic maternal features, offspring sex, and extreme climatic events in a high-latitude marine mammal

Jay J. Rotella, J. Terrill Paterson & Robert A. Garrott
Reproductive synchrony tends to be widespread in diverse species of plants and animals, especially at higher latitudes. However, for long-lived mammals, birth dates for different individuals can vary by weeks within a population. A mother's birth timing can reveal useful information about her reproductive abilities and have important implications for the characteristics and survival of her offspring. Despite this, our current knowledge of factors associated with variation in birth dates is modest. We used long-term...

Data from: Effects of apical meristem mining on plant fitness, architecture and flowering phenology in Cirsium altissimum (Asteracaeae)

Subodh Adhikari & F. Leland Russell
Premise of the study: Interactions that limit lifetime seed production have the potential to limit plant population sizes and drive adaptation through natural selection. Effects of insect herbivory to apical meristems (apical meristem mining) on lifetime seed production rarely have been quantified experimentally. We studied Cirsium altissimum (tall thistle), whose meristems are mined by Platyptilia carduidactyla (artichoke plume moth), to determine how apical damage affects plant maternal fitness and evaluate both direct and indirect mechanisms...

RAMP data subset, January 1 through May 31, 2019

Jonathan Wheeler, Kenning Arlitsch, Minh Pham, Nikolaus Parulian, Patrick OBrien & Jeff Mixter
The data are a subset of data from RAMP, the Repository Analytics and Metrics Portal (http://ramp.montana.edu/), consisting of data from 35 (out of 50) participating institutional repositories (IR) from the period of January 1 through May 31, 2019. This subset represents data analyzed for a pending publication. For a description of the data collection, processing, and output methods, please see the "methods" section below. The 'RAMP Primer,' a Jupyter Notebook consisting of Python code for...

Macroimmunology: the drivers and consequences of spatial patterns in wildlife immune defense

Daniel Becker, Gregory Albery, Maureen Kessler, Tamika Lunn, Caylee Falvo, Gábor Czirják, Lynn Martin & Raina Plowright
1. Spatial variation in parasite pressure, abiotic and biotic conditions, and anthropogenic factors can all shape immune phenotypes across spatial scales. Identifying the most important spatial drivers of immunity could help preempt infectious disease risks, especially in the context of how large-scale factors such as urbanization affect defense by changing environmental conditions. 2. We provide a synthesis of how to apply macroecological approaches to the study of ecoimmunology (i.e., macroimmunology). We first review spatial factors...

Change in terrestrial human footprint drives continued loss of intact ecosystems

Brooke Williams, Oscar Venter, James Allan, Scott Atkinson, Jose Rehbein, Michelle Ward, Moreno Di Marco, Hedley Grantham, Jamison Ervin, Scott Goetz, Andrew Hansen, Patrick Jantz, Rajeev Pillay, Susana Rodríguez-Buriticá, Christina Supples, Anne Virnig & James Watson
Human pressure mapping is important for understanding humanity's role in shaping Earth’s patterns and processes. Our ability to map this influence has evolved, thanks to powerful computing, earth observing satellites, and new bottom-up census and crowd-sourced data. Here, we provide the latest temporally inter-comparable maps of the terrestrial human footprint, and assessment of change in human pressure at global, biome, and ecoregional scales. In 2013, 42% of terrestrial Earth could be considered relatively free of...

Gunshots recorded in an open field using iPod Touch devices

Seth Cooper & Steven Shaw
Seven different firearms, including four pistols and three rifles, were fired at least three times each, in order, at a target located at a distance of 45 meters from the shooter, in an open field in Gallatin County, Montana. Sound was recorded from four different iPod Touch devices.

Analytic dataset informing modeling of winter species distributions of North American bat species

Sarah Olson, Meredith McClure, Catherine Haase, Carter Hranac, David Hayman, Brett Dickson, Liam McGuire, Daniel Crowley, Nathan Fuller, Cori Lausen & Raina Plowright
The fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans and resultant white-nose syndrome (WNS) continues to advance across North America, infecting new bat populations, species, and hibernacula. Western North America hosts the highest bat diversity in the U.S. and Canada, yet little is known about hibernacula and hibernation behavior in this region. An improved understanding of where bats hibernate and the conditions that create suitable hibernacula is critical if land managers are to anticipate and address the conservation needs...

Montana codling moth trap-based biofix compared to two fixed biofix models, 2018-2020

Rachel Leisso, Katrina Mendrey, Tracy Novak, Chase Anderson, Sandy Perrin, Ashley Kapus, Amy Darling & Zach Miller
Codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is the primary insect pest of apple and pear trees in Montana and can destroy an entire crop if uncontrolled. Understanding the moth's life cycle is important for determining management methods and timing of treatments. The purpose of this study was to compare trap-based biofix (first consistent moth capture in the spring) to two temperature based trap-free models for fixed biofix developed in other apple producing regions. Trap-free models determine a...

Negative trait-based association between abundance of nitrogen fixing trees and long-term tropical forest biomass accumulation

Jack Brookshire, Bryce Currey & Michael Oatham
1. Plant functional traits are thought to drive biomass production and biogeochemical cycling in tropical forests, but it remains unclear how nitrogen (N)-fixing legumes influence the functional traits of neighboring trees and forest-wide biomass dynamics. Further, the degree to which effects of N-fixers are density-dependent and may depend on stem size and spatial scale remain largely unknown. 2. Here, we examine 30-years of stem demography data for ~20,000 trees in a lowland tropical forest in...

Data from: Microstructural description of the maniraptoran egg Protoceratopsidovum

Seung Choi, Daniel Barta, Miguel Moreno-Azanza, Noe-Heon Kim, Colin Shaw & David Varricchio
Since their discovery in the 1920s, the affinity of asymmetric, elongated dinosaur eggs from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolian has been controversial, with previous hypotheses supporting either a ceratopsian or maniraptoran affinity. Recent technical advancements in palaeontology provide a novel approach to diagnose maniraptoran eggs, and the discovery of soft ceratopsian eggs makes the controversy a timely issue worth revisiting. Here, we analysed Protoceratopsidovum eggshell from southern Mongolia with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and the...

Repository Analytics and Metrics Portal (RAMP) 2018 data

Jonathan Wheeler & Kenning Arlitsch
The Repository Analytics and Metrics Portal (RAMP) is a web service that aggregates use and performance use data of institutional repositories. The data are a subset of data from RAMP, the Repository Analytics and Metrics Portal (http://rampanalytics.org), consisting of data from all participating repositories for the calendar year 2018. For a description of the data collection, processing, and output methods, please see the "methods" section below. Note that the RAMP data model changed in August,...

Dietary composition and fatty acid content of giant salmonflies (Pteronarcys californica) in two Rocky Mountain rivers

Michelle Briggs, Lindsey Albertson, Zach Maguire, Sophia Swart, Wyatt Cross, Cornelia Twining, Jeff Wesner, Colden Baxter & David Walters
Many aquatic invertebrates are declining or facing extinction from stressors that compromise physiology, resource consumption, reproduction, and phenology. However, the influence of these common stressors specifically on consumer-resource interactions for aquatic invertebrate consumers is only beginning to be understood. We conducted a field study to investigate Pteronarcys californica (i.e., the ‘giant salmonfly’), a large-bodied insect that is ecologically and culturally significant to rivers throughout the western U.S. We sampled gut contents and polyunsaturated fatty acid...

Data from: Sources of variation in maternal allocation in a long-lived mammal

Kaitlin R. Macdonald, Jay J. Rotella, Robert A. Garrott & William A. Link
Life history theory predicts allocation of energy to reproduction varies with maternal age but additional maternal features may be important to the allocation of energy to reproduction. We aimed to characterize age-specific variation in maternal allocation and assess the relationship between maternal allocation and other static and dynamic maternal features. Mass measurements of 531 mothers and pups were used with Bayesian hierarchical models to explain the relationship between diverse maternal attributes and both the proportion...

Public opinion about management strategies for a low-profile Species across multiple jurisdictions: whitebark pine in the northern Rockies

Elizabeth Shanahan, Eric Raile, Helen Naughton, Michael Wallner & Kendall Houghton
1. As public land managers seek to adopt and implement conservation measures aimed at reversing or slowing the negative effects of climate change, they are looking to understand public opinion regarding different management strategies. 2. This study explores drivers of attitudes toward different management strategies (i.e., no management, protection, and restoration) for a low-profile but keystone tree species, the whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Since the whitebark pine species has a...

Ecological and evolutionary drivers of hemoplasma infection and genotype sharing in a Neotropical bat community

Daniel Becker, Kelly Speer, Alexis Brown, Alex Washburne, Brock Fenton, Sonia Altizer, Daniel Streicker, Raina Plowright, Vladimir Chizhikov, Nancy Simmons & Dmitriy Volokhov
Most emerging pathogens can infect multiple species, underscoring the importance of understanding the ecological and evolutionary factors that allow some hosts to harbor greater infection prevalence and share pathogens with other species. However, our understanding of pathogen jumps is primarily based around viruses, despite bacteria accounting for the greatest proportion of zoonoses. Because bacterial pathogens in bats (Order: Chiroptera) can have conservation and human health consequences, studies that examine the ecological and evolutionary drivers of...

Data from: Temporal scale-dependence of plant-pollinator networks

Benjamin Schwarz, Diego Vázquez, Paul CaraDonna, Tiffany Knight, Gita Benadi, Carsten Dormann, Benoit Gauzens, Elena Motivans, Julian Resasco, Nico Blüthgen, Laura Burkle, Qiang Fang, Christopher Kaiser-Bunbury, Ruben Alarcón, Justin Bain, Natacha Chacoff, Shuang-Quan Huang, Gretchen LeBuhn, Molly MacLeod, Theodora Petanidou, Claus Rasmussen, Michael Simanonok, Amibeth Thompson, Daniel Cariveau, Michael Roswell … & Jochen Fründ
The study of mutualistic interaction networks has led to valuable insights into ecological and evolutionary processes. However, our understanding of network structure may depend upon the temporal scale at which we sample and analyze network data. To date, we lack a comprehensive assessment of the temporal scale-dependence of network structure across a wide range of temporal scales and geographic locations. If network structure is temporally scale-dependent, networks constructed over different temporal scales may provide very...

Evolutionary sample size and consilience in phylogenetic comparative analysis

Jacob Gardner & Chris Organ
Phylogenetic comparative methods (PCMs) are commonly used to study evolution and adaptation. However, frequently used PCMs for discrete traits mishandle single evolutionary transitions. They erroneously detect correlated evolution in these situations. For example, hair and mammary glands cannot be said to have evolved in a correlated fashion because each evolved only once in mammals, but a commonly used model (Pagel’s Discrete) statistically supports correlated (dependent) evolution. Using simulations, we find that rate parameter estimation, which...

Modeling management strategies for chronic disease in wildlife: predictions for the control of respiratory disease in bighorn sheep

Kezia Manlove, Emily Almberg, E. Frances Cassirer, Jennifer Ramsey, Keri Carson, Justin Gude & Raina Plowright
1. Controlling persistent infectious disease in wildlife populations is an on-going challenge for wildlife managers and conservationists worldwide. 2. Here, we develop a dynamic pathogen transmission model capturing key features of M. ovipneumoniae infection, a major cause of population declines in North American bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis). We explore the effects of model assumptions and parameter values on disease dynamics, including density versus frequency dependent transmission, the inclusion of a carrier class versus a longer...

Cross-biome synthesis of source versus sink limits to tree growth

Antoine Cabon, Steven A. Kannenberg, Flurin Babst, Dennis Baldocchi, Soumaya Belmecheri, Nicolas Delpierre, Rossella Guerrieri, Justin Maxwell, Shawn McKenzie, Chritoforos Pappas, Adrian Rocha, Paul Szejner, Masahito Ueyama, Danielle Ulrich, Caroline Vincke, Jingshu Wei, David Woodruff, Altaf Arain, Rick Meinzer, David J. P. Moore, Steven L. Voelker, William R. L. Anderegg & Frederick C. Meinzer
Uncertainties surrounding tree carbon allocation to growth are a major limitation to projections of forest carbon sequestration and response to climate change. The prevalence and extent to which carbon assimilation (source) or cambial activity (sink) mediate wood production are fundamentally important and remain elusive. We quantified source-sink relations across biomes by combining eddy-covariance gross primary production with extensive on-site and regional tree ring observations. We found widespread temporal decoupling between carbon assimilation and tree growth,...

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