10 Works

Data from: Ungulate distributions in a rangeland with competitors, predators, and pastoralists

Paul Schuette, Scott Creel & Dave Christianson
African rangelands support diverse ungulate communities whose member species exhibit unique combinations of body morphology and behaviour that have evolved over millions of years to limit the effects of competition and predation on fitness, and more recently, to cope with people and livestock. The mechanisms by which native ungulates cope with the combined effects of competition, predation and human disturbance are poorly understood. Addressing this knowledge gap will help guide management and conservation plans for...

Data from: Observed forest sensitivity to climate implies large changes in 21st century North American forest growth

Noah D. Charney, Flurin Babst, Benjamin Poulter, Sydne Record, Valerie M. Trouet, David Frank, Brian J. Enquist & Margaret E. K. Evans
Predicting long-term trends in forest growth requires accurate characterisation of how the relationship between forest productivity and climatic stress varies across climatic regimes. Using a network of over two million tree-ring observations spanning North America and a space-for-time substitution methodology, we forecast climate impacts on future forest growth. We explored differing scenarios of increased water-use efficiency (WUE) due to CO2-fertilisation, which we simulated as increased effective precipitation. In our forecasts: (1) climate change negatively impacted...

Data from: A new Late Cretaceous iguanomorph from North America and the origin of New World Pleurodonta (Squamata, Iguania)

David G. DeMar, Jack L. Conrad, Jason J. Head, David J. Varricchio & Gregory P. Wilson
Iguanomorpha (stem + crown Iguania) is a diverse squamate clade with members that predominate many modern American lizard ecosystems. However, the temporal and palaeobiogeographic origins of its constituent crown clades (e.g. Pleurodonta (basilisks, iguanas, and their relatives)) are poorly constrained, mainly due to a meagre Mesozoic-age fossil record. Here, we report on two nearly complete skeletons from the Late Cretaceous (Campanian) of North America that represent a new and relatively large-bodied and possibly herbivorous iguanomorph...

Data from: Seasonal change in trophic niche of adfluvial arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) and coexisting fishes in a high-elevation lake system

Kyle A. Cutting, Wyatt F. Cross, Michelle L. Anderson & Elizabeth G. Reese
Introduction of non-native species is a leading threat to global aquatic biodiversity. Competition between native and non-native species is often influenced by changes in food availability or suitable habitat conditions. We investigated diet breadth and degree of trophic niche overlap for a fish assemblage of native and non-native species inhabiting a shallow, high elevation lake system. This assemblage includes one of the last remaining post-glacial endemic populations of adfluvial Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) in the...

Data from: Entomopathogenic Nematodes Combined with Adjuvants Presents a New Potential Biological Control Method for Managing the Wheat Stem Sawfly, Cephus cinctus (Hymenoptera: Cephidae)

Scott L. Portman, Sindhu M. Krishnankutty, Gadi V.P. Reddy & Gadi V. P. Reddy
The wheat stem sawfly, (Cephus cinctus Norton) Hymenoptera: Cephidae, has been a major pest of winter wheat and barley in the northern Great Plains for more than 100 years. The insect's cryptic nature and lack of safe chemical control options make the wheat stem sawfly (WSS) difficult to manage; thus, biological control offers the best hope for sustainable management of WSS. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) have been used successfully against other above-ground insect pests and adding...

Data from: Patterns of age-related change in reproductive effort differ in the pre-natal and post-natal periods in a long-lived mammal

John T. Paterson, Jay J. Rotella, Jennifer M. Mannas & Robert A. Garrott
Age-related changes in maternal reproductive allocation for long-lived species are a key prediction from life-history theory. Theoretical and empirical work suggests that allocation may increase with age due to constraint (increases with experience) or restraint (increases with age in the face of declining residual reproductive value), and may decrease among the oldest aged animals due to senescence in reproductive function. Here, we use a hierarchical modelling approach to investigate the age-related patterns of change in...

Data from: Detecting and quantifying introgression in hybridized populations: simplifying assumptions yield overconfidence and uncertainty

Patrick Della Croce, Geoffrey C. Poole & Gordon Luikart
A growing threat to the conservation of many native species worldwide is genetic introgression from non-native species. Although improved molecular genetic techniques are increasing the availability of species diagnostic markers for many species, efficient field sampling design and reliable data interpretation require accurate estimates of uncertainty associated with the detection of non-native alleles and the quantification of introgression in native populations. Using fish populations as examples, we developed a simulation model of an age-structured population...

Data from: Birth dates vary with fixed and dynamic maternal features, offspring sex, and extreme climatic events in a high-latitude marine mammal

Jay J. Rotella, J. Terrill Paterson & Robert A. Garrott
Reproductive synchrony tends to be widespread in diverse species of plants and animals, especially at higher latitudes. However, for long-lived mammals, birth dates for different individuals can vary by weeks within a population. A mother's birth timing can reveal useful information about her reproductive abilities and have important implications for the characteristics and survival of her offspring. Despite this, our current knowledge of factors associated with variation in birth dates is modest. We used long-term...

Data from: Assessing the sustainability of African lion trophy hunting, with recommendations for policy

Scott Creel, Jassiel M'soka, Egil Dröge, Elias Rosenblatt, Matthew S. Becker, Wigganson Matandiko, Twakundine Simpamba & Eli Rosenblatt
While trophy hunting provides revenue for conservation, it must be carefully managed to avoid negative population impacts, particularly for long-lived species with low natural mortality rates. Trophy hunting has had negative effects on lion populations throughout Africa, and the species serves as an important case study to consider the balance of costs and benefits, and to consider the effectiveness of alternative strategies to conserve exploited species. Age-restricted harvesting is widely recommended to mitigate negative effects...

Data from: Continuous corn and corn–soybean profits over a 45-year tillage and fertilizer experiment

Andrew Trlica, Maninder K. Walia, Ron Krausz, Silvia Secchi & Rachel L. Cook
Studies comparing profitability of tillage systems often examine narrow historic windows or exclude annual price fluctuations. This study uses a continuous corn (Zea mays L.) (CC; 1970–1990) and corn–soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] (CS; 1991–2014) Tillage × Fertilizer study in somewhat poorly drained soils in southern Illinois to reconstruct partial annual budgets with historical prices for crops, fertilizers, lime, herbicides, fuel, labor, and machinery. Combinations of tillage (moldboard plow [MP], chisel tillage [ChT], alternate tillage...

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