23 Works

Data from: Germination performance of native and non-native Ulmus pumila populations

Heidi Hirsch, Catherina Wypior, Henrik Von Wehrden, Karsten Wesche, Daniel Renison & Isabell Hensen
Germination is a crucial step for invasive plants to extend their distribution under different environmental conditions in a new range. Therefore, information on germination characteristics of invasive plant species provides invaluable knowledge about the factors which might contribute to the invasion success. Moreover, intra-specific comparisons under controlled conditions will show if different responses between non-native and native populations are caused by evolutionary changes or by phenotypic plasticity towards different environmental influences. This paper focuses on...

Data from: Incorporating anthropogenic effects into trophic ecology: predator-prey interactions in a human-dominated landscape

Ine Dorresteijn, Jannik Schultner, Dale G. Nimmo, Joern Fischer, Jan Hanspach, Tobias Kuemmerle, Laura Kehoe & Euan G. Ritchie
Apex predators perform important functions that regulate ecosystems worldwide. However, little is known about how ecosystem regulation by predators is influenced by human activities. In particular, how important are top-down effects of predators relative to direct and indirect human-mediated bottom-up and top-down processes? Combining data on species' occurrence from camera traps and hunting records, we aimed to quantify the relative effects of top-down and bottom-up processes in shaping predator and prey distributions in a human-dominated...

Data from: Intraspecific trait variation increases species diversity in a trait-based grassland model

Michael Crawford, Florian Jeltsch, Felix May, Volker Grimm & Ulrike E. Schlägel
Intraspecific trait variation (ITV) is thought to play a significant role in community assembly, but the magnitude and direction of its influence are not well understood. Although it may be critical to better explain population persistence, species interactions, and therefore biodiversity patterns, manipulating ITV in experiments is challenging. We therefore incorporated ITV into a trait- and individual-based model of grassland community assembly by adding variation to the plants’ functional traits, which then drive life-history trade-offs....

„Kulturtechnik Digitalität“. Über den sich auflösenden Zusammenhang von Buch und Bibliothek und die Arbeit von Bibliotheken unter den Bedingungen digitaler Vernetzung

Sybille Krämer
Ausgangspunkt ist die Diagnose, dass die „Lesbarkeit der Welt“ (Blumenberg) sich transformiert in die „Maschinenlesbarkeit des Datenuniversums“. Der enge Zusammenhang von Buch und Bibliothek löst sich auf. Was bedeutet dies für die Arbeit der Bibliotheken? Die Bibliotheken werden Teil eines epistemologischen wie kulturtechnischen Umbruches; sie sind nicht einfach Dienstleister, sondern werden zu Akteuren, welche die Bedingungen der Möglichkeit einer Mündigkeit und Souveränität im Umgang mit Daten zu schaffen haben. Was das bedeutet, zeigt sich an...

FragSAD: A database of diversity and species abundance distributions from habitat fragments

Jonathan M. Chase, Mario Liebergesell, Alban Sagouis, Felix May, Shane A. Blowes, Åke Berg, Enrico Bernard, Berry J. Brosi, Marc W. Cadotte, Luis Cayuela, Adriano G. Chiarello, Jean-François Cosson, Will Cresswell, Filibus Danjuma Dami, Jens Dauber, Christopher R. Dickman, Raphael K. Didham, David P. Edwards, Fabio Z. Farneda, Yoni Gavish, Thiago Gonçalves-Souza, Demetrio Luis Guadagnin, Mickaël Henry, Adrià López-Baucells, Heike Kappes … & Yaron Ziv
Habitat destruction is the single greatest anthropogenic threat to biodiversity. Decades of research on this issue have led to the accumulation of hundreds of data sets comparing species assemblages in larger, intact, habitats to smaller, more fragmented, habitats. Despite this, little synthesis or consensus has been achieved, primarily because of non‐standardized sampling methodology and analyses of notoriously scale‐dependent response variables (i.e., species richness). To be able to compare and contrast the results of habitat fragmentation...

Data from: Impacts of drought and nitrogen addition on Calluna-heathlands differ with plant life-history stage

Maren Meyer-Grünefeldt, Leonor Calvo Galván, Elena Marcos Porras, Goddert Von Oheimb & Werner Härdtle
1. Climate change and atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) affect the biodiversity patterns and functions of ecosystems worldwide. While many single-factor studies have quantified ecosystem responses to single global change drivers, less is known about the interaction effects of these drivers on ecosystem functions. 2. Here, we present the results of a three-year field and a two-year greenhouse experiment, in which we assessed responses of Calluna vulgaris-heathlands to the single and combined effects of drought...

Data from: Impacts of species richness on productivity in a large-scale subtropical forest experiment

Yuanyuan Huang, Yuxin Chen, Nadia Castro-Izaguirre, Martin Baruffol, Matteo Brezzi, Anne Lang, Ying Li, Werner Härdtle, Werner Von Oheimb, Xuefeu Yang, Xiaojuan Liu, Kequan Pei, Sabine Both, Bo Yang, David Eichenberg, Thorsten Assmann, Jürgen Bauhus, Thorsten Behrens, François Buscot, Xiao-Yong Chen, Douglas Chester, Bing-Yang Ding, Walter Durka, Alexandra Erfmeier, Jingyun Fang … & Bernhard Schmid
Biodiversity experiments have shown that species loss reduces ecosystem functioning in grassland. To test whether this result can be extrapolated to forests, the main contributors to terrestrial primary productivity, requires large-scale experiments. We manipulated tree species richness by planting more than 150,000 trees in plots with 1 to 16 species. Simulating multiple extinction scenarios, we found that richness strongly increased stand-level productivity. After 8 years, 16-species mixtures had accumulated over twice the amount of carbon...

Data from: Natural habitat does not mediate vertebrate seed predation as an ecosystem dis-service to agriculture

Jessica Schäckermann, Yael Mandelik, Noam Weiss, Henrik Von Wehrden & Alexandra-Maria Klein
1. Spillover of beneficial organisms from natural habitats to croplands can improve agro-ecosystem services, but wildlife can also negatively influence agricultural production. When managing agricultural landscapes to conserve biodiversity, we need to understand if the availability of natural habitats increases ecosystem dis-services such as vertebrate seed predation to avoid risking higher costs than benefits. 2. We studied whether vertebrates and their impact in crop seed predation are related to the percentage of natural (Chaparral) and...

Pflanzengesellschaft des Jahres 2021: Hartholz-Auenwald (Ficario-Ulmetum)

Werner Härdtle, Erwin Bergmeier, Andreas Fichtner, Thilo Heinken, Norbert Hölzel, Dominique Remy, Simone Schneider, Angelika Schwabe, Sabine Tischew & Hartmut Dierschke
Hardwood floodplain forests (Ficario-Ulmetum, Syn.: Querco-Ulmetum), being amongst the most endangered plant communities in Germany, have been selected as ‘Plant community of the year 2021’ by the Floristisch-soziologische Arbeitsgemeinschaft. Hardwood floodplain forests are temperate low-land broad-leaved forest ecosystems typical of extensive river valleys. In Central Europe, stands represent biodiversity hotspots for woody species (as habitats for rare tree species such as Ulmus laevis and Populus nigra), but also host numerous fungi and animal species typical...

Data from: Land use legacy effects on woody vegetation in agricultural landscapes of southwestern Ethiopia

Girma Shumi, Jannik Schultner, Ine Dorresteijn, Patrícia Rodrigues, Jan Hanspach, Kristoffer Hylander, Feyera Senbeta & Joern Fischer
Aim: Past land use legacy effects – extinction debts and immigration credits – might be particularly pronounced in regions characterized by complex and dynamic landscape change. The aim of this study was to evaluate how current woody plant species distribution, composition and richness related to historical and present land uses. Location: A smallholder farming landscape in southwestern Ethiopia. Methods: We surveyed woody plants in 72 randomly selected 1 ha sites in farmland, and grouped them...

Data from: Low-intensity agricultural landscapes in Transylvania support high butterfly diversity: implications for conservation

Jacqueline Loos, Ine Dorresteijn, Jan Hanspach, Pascal Fust, László Rakosy & Joern Fischer
European farmland biodiversity is declining due to land use changes towards agricultural intensification or abandonment. Some Eastern European farming systems have sustained traditional forms of use, resulting in high levels of biodiversity. However, global markets and international policies now imply rapid and major changes to these systems. To effectively protect farmland biodiversity, understanding landscape features which underpin species diversity is crucial. Focusing on butterflies, we addressed this question for a cultural-historic landscape in Southern Transylvania,...

Data from: Introduction bias affects relationships between the characteristics of ornamental alien plants and their naturalization success

Noëlie Maurel, Jan Hanspach, Ingolf Kühn, Petr Pyšek & Mark Van Kleunen
Aim: Alien plants with certain characteristics may have been introduced earlier and more frequently than others. Such introduction bias may cause spurious associations between plant characteristics and naturalization (the establishment of self-sustaining populations in the wild). We aimed to disentangle direct and indirect (i.e. mediated by introduction history) effects of species characteristics on the naturalization success of alien plants introduced for horticulture. Location: Germany (non-native range); rest of the world (native range). Methods: We compiled...

Data from: Mediterranean marine protected areas have higher biodiversity via increased evenness, not abundance

Shane Blowes, Jonathan Chase, Antonio Di Franco, Ori Frid, Nicholas Gotelli, Paolo Guidetti, Tiffany Knight, Felix May, Daniel McGlinn, Fiorenza Micheli, Enric Sala & Jonathan Belmaker
1. Protected areas are central to biodiversity conservation. For marine fish, marine protected areas (MPAs) often harbour more individuals, especially of species targeted by fisheries. But precise pathways of biodiversity change remain unclear. For example, how local-scale responses combine to affect regional biodiversity, important for managing spatial networks of MPAs, is not well known. Protection potentially influences three components of fish assemblages that determine how species accumulate with sampling effort and spatial scale: the total...

Data from: Biocultural approaches to sustainability: a systematic review of the scientific literature

Jan Hanspach, L. Jamila Haider, Elisa Oteris-Rozas, Anton Stahl Olafsson, Natalie Gulsrud, Chris Raymond, Mario Torralba, Berta Martín-López, Claudia Bieling, María García Martín, Christian Albert, Thomas Beery, Nora Fagerholm, Isabel Díaz-Reviriego, Annika Drews-Shambroom & Tobias Plieninger
Current sustainability challenges demand approaches that acknowledge a plurality of human-nature interactions and worldviews, for which biocultural approaches are considered appropriate and timely. This systematic review analyses the application of biocultural approaches to sustainability in scientific journal articles published between 1990 and 2018 through a mixed methods approach combining qualitative content analysis and quantitative multivariate methods. The study identifies seven distinct biocultural lenses, i.e. different ways of understanding and applying biocultural approaches, which to different...

Data from: A tale of scale: plot but not neighbourhood tree diversity increases leaf litter ant diversity

Michael Staab, Merle Noack, Helge Bruelheide, Werner Härdtle, Goddert Von Oheimb, Thomas Scholten, Steffen Seitz & Carl Skarbek
1. Diversity of producers (e.g. plants) usually increases the diversity of associated organisms, but the scale (i.e. the spatial area of plant diversity considered) at which plant diversity acts on other taxa has rarely been studied. Most evidence for cross-taxon diversity relations come from aboveground consumers that directly interact with plants. 2. Experimental tests of plant diversity effects on elusive organisms inhabiting the leaf litter layer, which are important for nutrient cycling and decomposition, are...

Data from: Neighbour species richness and local structural variability modulate aboveground allocation patterns and crown morphology of individual trees

Matthias Kunz, Andreas Fichtner, Werner Härdtle, Pasi Raumonen, Helge Bruelheide & Goddert Von Oheimb
Local neighbourhood interactions are considered a main driver for biodiversity–productivity relationships in forests. Yet, the structural responses of individual trees in species mixtures and their relation to crown complementarity remain poorly understood. Using a large‐scale forest experiment, we studied the impact of local tree species richness and structural variability on above‐ground wood volume allocation patterns and crown morphology. We applied terrestrial laser scanning to capture the three‐dimensional structure of trees and their temporal dynamics. We...

Data from: Arthropod but not bird predation in Ethiopian homegardens is higher in tree-poor than in tree-rich landscapes

Debissa Lemessa, Peter A. Hambäck & Kristoffer Hylander
Bird and arthropod predation is often associated with natural pest control in agricultural landscapes, but the rates of predation may vary with the amount of tree cover or other environmental factors. We examined bird and arthropod predation in three tree-rich and three tree-poor landscapes across southwestern Ethiopia. Within each landscape we selected three tree-rich and three tree-poor homegardens in which we recorded the number of tree species and tree stems within 100 × 100 m...

Data from: Conservation of pollinators in traditional agricultural landscapes – new challenges in Transylvania (Romania) posed by EU accession and recommendations for future research

Anikó Kovács-Hostyánszki, Rita Földesi, Edina Mózes, Ádám Szirák, Joern Fischer, Jan Hanspach & András Báldi
Farmland biodiversity is strongly declining in most of Western Europe, but still survives in traditional low intensity agricultural landscapes in Central and Eastern Europe. Accession to the EU however intensifies agriculture, which leads to the vanishing of traditional farming. Our aim was to describe the pollinator assemblages of the last remnants of these landscapes, thus set the baseline of sustainable farming for pollination, and to highlight potential measures of conservation. In these traditional farmlands in...

Data from: Resource availability determines the importance of niche-based vs. stochastic community assembly in grasslands

Timo Conradi, Vicky M. Temperton & Johannes Kollmann
Niche-based selection and stochastic processes can operate simultaneously to generate spatial and temporal variation in species composition. Yet, the conditions under which ecological dynamics are dominated by niche-based vs. stochastic processes are poorly understood. Using a field experiment in early-successional temperate grassland and null models of beta diversity, this study investigates the effects of soil nutrient supply on the relative importance of niche-based selection vs. stochastic dynamics for variation in species composition among sites. Nutrient...

Data from: Pollination mitigates cucumber yield gaps more than pesticide and fertilizer use in tropical smallholder gardens

Iris Motzke, Teja Tscharntke, Thomas C. Wanger & Alexandra-Maria Klein
1. Pollination can be an essential but often neglected ecosystem service to mitigate crop yield gaps. Pollination services are usually studied in isolation and their relative role and possible interactions with other factors, such as major management practices, is little understood. 2. We tested how pollination (insect versus wind- and self-pollination) interacts with weed control, fertilization, and insect herbivore control and how these factors as well as flower-visiting bees influence fruit set and yield of...

A(l)gora: The Mindscape

Cheryce von Xylander
This essay for the inaugural issue of Technology and Language articulates how we inhabit public space in the critical tradition of the Enlightenment and in the condition of contemporary cyber-technologies. The fabled agora of the ancients has forfeited its intersubjective relevance and imaginary potency. Community no longer hinges on communing: Algorithmic Gate-Keeping is taking command. This paper sounds the bell for a new approach to envisaging social cohesion based on the notion of an “algora,”...

Bildungsbezogene Herausforderungen für geflüchtete Jugendliche unter den Bedingungen der COVID-19 Pandemie

Michi Fujii, Jana Hüttmann & Nadia Kutscher

Understanding relational values in cultural landscapes in Romania and Germany

Maraja Riechers, Ágnes Balázsi, John-Oliver Engler, Girma Shumi & Joern Fischer
Relational values recently emerged as a concept to comprehensively understand and communicate the many values of nature. Relational values can be defined as preferences and principles about human-nature relationships and focus both on human-nature connections, as well as human-human connections. Here, drawing on 819 face-to-face questionnaires, we analysed relational, intrinsic and instrumental values across a total of six agricultural landscapes in Transylvania (Romania) and Lower Saxony (Germany). The landscapes described a gradient of land use...

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