17 Works

Data from: Varying selection differential throughout the climatic range of Norway spruce in Central Europe

Stefan Kapeller, Ulf Dieckmann & Silvio Schueler
Predicting species distribution changes in global warming requires an understanding of how climatic constraints shape the genetic variation of adaptive traits and force local adaptations. To understand the genetic capacity of Norway spruce populations in Central Europe, we analyzed variation of tree heights at the juvenile stage in common-garden experiments established from the species’ warm-dry to cold-moist distribution limits. We report the following findings: first, 47 % of the total tree-height variation at trial sites...

Effective strategies for multi-sectoral research using large-scale models

Paul Kishimoto

Data from: Moth assemblages in Costa Rica rain forest mirror small‐scale topographic heterogeneity

Dominik Rabl, Brigitte Gottsberger, Gunnar Brehm, Florian Hofhansl & Konrad Fiedler
In many tropical lowland rainforests, topographic variation increases environmental heterogeneity thus contributing to the extraordinary biodiversity of tropical lowland forests. While a growing number of studies have addressed effects of topographic differences on tropical insect communities at regional scales (e.g., along extensive elevational gradients), surprisingly little is known about topographic effects at smaller spatial scales. The present study investigates moth assemblages in a topographically heterogeneous lowland rainforest landscape, at distances of less than a few...

Atmospheric transport is a major pathway of microplastics to remote regions

Nikolaos Evangeliou, Henrik Grythe, Zbigniew Klimont, Chris Heyes, Sabine Eckhardt, Susana Lopez-Aparicio & Andreas Stohl
In the recent years, a large attention has been given to pollution from plastic products as a major environmental problem. Plastics degrade into smaller particles in the environment via photodegradation, physical abrasion, hydrolysis and biodegradation. Microplastics (1 um to 5 mm size particles) have been reported to affect coral reefs, marine and terrestrial animals, as well as humans. It has been reported that about 30% of microplastics in freshwater and oceanic ecosystems are tire wear...

Data from: Mutant invasions and adaptive dynamics in variable environments

Jörgen Ripa & Ulf Dieckmann
The evolution of natural organisms is ultimately driven by the invasion and possible fixation of mutant alleles. The invasion process is highly stochastic, however, and the probability of success is generally low, even for advantageous alleles. Additionally, all organisms live in a stochastic environment, which may have a large influence on what alleles are favorable, but also contributes to the uncertainty of the invasion process. We calculate the invasion probability of a beneficial, mutant allele...

Data from: Increasing dependence of lowland populations on mountain water resources

Daniel Viviroli, Matti Kummu, Michel Meybeck, Marko Kallio & Yoshihide Wada
Mountain areas provide disproportionally high runoff in many parts of the world, and here we quantify for the first time their importance for water resources and food production from the viewpoint of the lowland areas downstream. The dataset maps the degree to which lowland areas potentially depend on runoff contributions from mountain areas (39% of land mass) between the 1960s and the 2040s.

Nitrogen budget data

Tan Zou, Xin Zhang, Luis Lassaletta, Nathaniel Mueller, Francesco Tubiello, Matthew Lisk, Chaoqun Lu, Richard Conant, Christopher Dorich, James Gerber, Hanqin Tian, Tom Bruulsema, Tai Maaz, Kazuya Nishina, Benjamin Bodirsky, Alexander Popp, Lex Bouwman, Arthur Beusen, Jinfeng Chang, Petr Havlík, David Leclère, Josep Canadell, Robert Jackson, Patrick Heffer, Nathan Wanner … & Eric Davidson
Input-output estimates of nitrogen (N) on cropland are essential for improving N management and better understanding the global N cycle. Here, we compare 13 N budget datasets covering 115 countries and regions over 1961-2015. Though most datasets showed similar spatiotemporal patterns, some annual estimates varied widely among them, resulting in large ranges and uncertainty. In 2010, global medians (in Tg N yr-1) and associated min-max ranges were 73 (64-84) for global harvested crop N; 161...

Data from: Density regulation in Northeast Atlantic fish populations: density dependence is stronger in recruitment than in somatic growth

Fabian Zimmermann, Daniel Ricard & Mikko Heino
1. Population regulation is a central concept in ecology, yet in many cases its presence and the underlying mechanisms are difficult to demonstrate. The current paradigm maintains that marine fish populations are predominantly regulated by density-dependent recruitment. 2. While it is known that density-dependent somatic growth can be present too, its general importance is unknown and most practical applications neglect it. This study aimed to close this gap by for the first time quantifying and...

Data from: Tree phenology responses to winter chilling, spring warming, at north and south range limits

James S. Clarke, Carl Salk, Jerry M. Melillo, Jacqueline Mohan & James S. Clark
Increases in primary production may occur if plants respond to climate warming with prolonged growing seasons, but not if local adaptation, cued by photoperiod, limits phenological advance. It has been hypothesized that trees with diffuse porous xylem anatomy and early successional species may respond most to warming. Within species, northern populations may respond most due to the fact that growing seasons are relatively short. Species most sensitive to spring temperature may show little overall response...

Effort Sharing among EU Member States

Karl Steininger, Lukas Meyer, Stefan Schleicher, Keywan Riahi, Keith Williges & Florian Maczek

Cultural Evolution of Sustainable Behaviours: Landscape of Affordances Model

Roope Oskari Kaaronen & Nikita Strelkovskii
This NetLogo model illustrates the cultural evolution of pro-environmental behaviour patterns. It illustrates how collective behaviour patterns evolve from interactions between agents and agents (in a social network) as well as agents and the affordances (action opportunities provided by the environment) within a niche. More specifically, the cultural evolution of behaviour patterns is understood in this model as a product of: The landscape of affordances provided by the material environment, Individual learning and habituation, Social...

The percentage of total agricultural area under maize, rice, wheat, vegetables, pulses and fruit production, by country, subject to water scarcity in 2050 as estimated from a multi-model ensemble

N. Fitton, P. Alexander, N. Arnell, B. Bajzelj, K. Calvin, J. Doelman, J.S. Gerber, P. Havlik, T. Hasegawa, M. Herrero, T. Krisztin, H. Van Meijl, T. Powell, R. Sands, E. Stehfest, P.C. West & P. Smith
Projections of global changes in water scarcity with the current extent of maize, rice, wheat, vegetables, pulses and fruit production commodities were combined to identify the potential country level vulnerabilities of cropland land to water scarcity in 2050. The data relate to an analysis of the impact changes in water availability will have on maize, rice, wheat, vegetables, pulses and fruit production commodities availability in 2050.

Data from: Size-dependent mortality and competition interactively shape community diversity

Barbara Taborsky, Mikko Heino & Ulf Dieckmann
Body size is recognized as a major factor in evolutionary processes mediating sympatric diversification and community structuring. Life-history types with distinct body sizes can result from two fundamental mechanisms, size-dependent competition and size-dependent mortality. While previous theoretical studies investigated these two processes in separation, the model analyzed here allows both selective forces to affect body-size evolution interactively. Here we show for the first time that in the presence of size-dependent competition, size-dependent mortality can give...

Data from: Heterogeneity in local density allows a positive evolutionary relationship between self-fertilisation and dispersal

James Rodger, Pietro Landi, Cang Hui & James G. Rodger
Despite empirical evidence for a positive relationship between dispersal and self-fertilisation (selfing), theoretical work predicts that these traits should always be negatively correlated, and the Good Coloniser Syndrome of high dispersal and selfing (Cf. Baker’s Law) should not evolve. Critically, previous work assumes that adult density is spatiotemporally homogeneous, so selfing results in identical offspring production for all patches, eliminating the benefit of dispersal for escaping from local resource competition. We investigate the joint evolution...

Quantitative assessment of agricultural sustainability reveals divergent priorities among nations

Guolin Yao, Xin Zhang, Srishti Vishwakarma, Carole Dalin, Adam Komarek, David Kanter, Kyle Davis, Kimberly Pfeifer, Jing Zhao, Tan Zou, Paolo D'Odorico, Christian Folberth, Fernando Galeana Rodriguez, Jessica Fanzo, Lorenzo Rosa, William Dennison, Mark Musumba, Amy Heyman & Eric Davidson
Agriculture is fundamental to all three pillars of sustainability, environment, society, and economy. However, the definition of sustainable agriculture and capacities to measure it remain elusive. Independent and transparent measurements of national sustainability are needed to gauge progress, encourage accountability, and inform policy. Here, we developed a Sustainable Agriculture Matrix (SAM) to quantify national performance indicators in agriculture and to investigate the tradeoffs and synergies based on historical data for most countries of the world....

Tree water uptake enhances nitrogen acquisition in a fertilized boreal forest – but not under nitrogen poor conditions

Nils Henriksson, Hyungwoo Lim, John Marchall, Oskar Franklin, Ross McMurtrie, Reimo Lutter, Ruth Magh, Tomas Lundmark & Torgny Näsholm
Understanding how plant water uptake interacts with acquisition of soil nitrogen (N) and other nutrients is fundamental for predicting plant responses to a changing environment, but it is an area where models disagree. We present a novel isotopic labelling approach which reveals spatial patterns of water and N uptake, and their interaction, by trees. The stable isotopes 15N and 2H were applied to a small area of the forest floor in stands with high and...

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  • International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis
  • University of Minnesota
  • University of Vienna
  • Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
  • Institute of Hydrobiology
  • Stanford University
  • New Mexico State University
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
  • Duke University
  • Norwegian Institute for Air Research