283 Works

Data from: Genome sequence of dwarf birch (Betula nana) and cross-species RAD markers

Nian Wang, Marian Thomson, William J. A. Bodles, Robert M. M. Crawford, Harriet V. Hunt, Alan Watson Featherstone, Jaume Pellicer & Richard J. A. Buggs
New sequencing technologies allow development of genome-wide markers for any genus of ecological interest, including plant genera such as Betula (birch) that have previously proved difficult to study due to widespread polyploidy and hybridisation. We present a de novo reference genome sequence assembly, from 67X short read coverage, of Betula nana (dwarf birch) – a diploid that is the keystone woody species of sub-arctic scrub communities but of conservation concern in Britain. We also present...

Data from: Multiple quantitative trait loci influence intra-specific variation in genital morphology between phylogenetically distinct lines of Drosophila montana

Martin A Schäfer, Jarkko Routtu, Jorge Vieira, Anneli Hoikkala, Mike G Ritchie & Christian Schlötterer
The evolution of animal genitalia has gained renewed interest, because of their potential roles during sexual selection and early stages of species formation. Although central to understanding the evolutionary process, knowledge of the genetic basis of natural variation in genital morphology is limited to a very few species. Using an out-bred cross between phylogenetically distinct lines of Drosophila montana, we characterized quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting the size and shape of the distiphallus, a prominent...

Data from: Tracking marine mammals in 3D using electronic tag data

Christophe Laplanche, Tiago A. Marques & Len Thomas
1. Information about at-depth behaviour of marine mammals is fundamental yet very hard to obtain from direct visual observation. Animal-borne multisensor electronic tags provide a unique window of observation into such behaviours. 2. Electronic tag sensors allow the estimation of the animal's 3-dimensional (3D) orientation, depth and speed. Using tag flow noise level to provide an estimate of animal speed, we extend existing approaches of 3D track reconstruction by allowing the direction of movement to...

Data from: Range-dependent flexibility in the acoustic field of view of echolocating porpoises (Phocoena phocoena)

Danuta M. Wisniewska, John M. Ratcliffe, Kristian Beedholm, Christian B. Christensen, Mark Johnson, Jens C. Koblitz, Magnus Wahlberg & Peter M. Madsen
Toothed whales use sonar to detect, locate, and track prey. They adjust emitted sound intensity, auditory sensitivity and click rate to target range, and terminate prey pursuits with high-repetition-rate, low-intensity buzzes. However, their narrow acoustic field of view (FOV) is considered stable throughout target approach, which could facilitate prey escape at close-range. Here, we show that, like some bats, harbour porpoises can broaden their biosonar beam during the terminal phase of attack but, unlike bats,...

Data from: Sound exposure in harbour seals during the installation of an offshore wind farm: predictions of auditory damage

Gordon D. Hastie, Deborah J. F. Russell, Bernie McConnell, Simon Moss, Dave Thompson, Vincent M. Janik & Deborah J.F. Russell
1. With ambitious renewable energy targets, pile driving associated with offshore wind farm construction will become widespread in the marine environment. Many proposed wind farms overlap with the distribution of seals, and sound from pile driving has the potential to cause auditory damage. 2. We report on a behavioural study during the construction of a wind farm using data from GPS/GSM tags on 24 harbour seals Phoca vitulina L. Pile driving data and acoustic propagation...

Data from: Titi monkey call sequences vary with predator location and type

Cristiane Cäsar, Klaus Zuberbuhler, Robert J. Young & Richard W. Byrne
Animal alarm calls can encode information about a predator’s category, size, distance or threat level. In non-human primates, alarm calls typically refer to broad classes of disturbances, in some instances to specific predators. Here, we present the results of a field experiment with a New World primate, the black-fronted titi monkey, designed to explore the information conveyed by their alarm call system. Adults produced sequences consisting of two main alarm call types that conveyed, in...

Data from: Familiarity affects social network structure and discovery of prey patch locations in foraging stickleback shoals

Nicola Atton, Bennett J. Galef, William Hoppitt, Mike M. Webster & Kevin N. Laland
Numerous factors affect the fine-scale social structure of animal groups, but it is unclear how important such factors are in determining how individuals encounter resources. Familiarity affects shoal choice and structure in many social fishes. Here, we show that familiarity between shoal members of sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) affects both fine-scale social organization and the discovery of resources. Social network analysis revealed that sticklebacks remained closer to familiar than to unfamiliar individuals within the same shoal....

Data from: Evidence of land-sea transfer of the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter to a wildlife marine sentinel species

Johanna L. Baily, Guillaume Méric, Sion Bayliss, Geoffrey Foster, Simon E. Moss, Eleanor Watson, Ben Pascoe, Jane Mikhail, Robert J. Goldstone, Romain Pizzi, David G. E. Smith, Kim Willoughby, Alisa J. Hall, Mark P. Dagleish, Samuel K. Sheppard & Ailsa J. Hall
Environmental pollution often accompanies the expansion and urbanization of human populations where sewage and wastewaters commonly have an impact on the marine environments. Here, we explored the potential for faecal bacterial pathogens, of anthropic origin, to spread to marine wildlife in coastal areas. The common zoonotic bacterium Campylobacter was isolated from grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), an important sentinel species for environmental pollution, and compared to isolates from wild birds, agricultural sources and clinical samples to...

Data from: Detecting cryptic indirect genetic effects

Nathan W. Bailey & Jessica L. Hoskins
Indirect genetic effects (IGEs) occur when genes expressed in one individual alter the phenotype of an interacting partner. IGEs can dramatically affect the expression and evolution of social traits. However, the interacting phenotype(s) through which they are transmitted are often unknown, or cryptic, and their detection would enhance our ability to accurately predict evolutionary change. To illustrate this challenge and possible solutions to it, we assayed male leg tapping behaviour using inbred lines of Drosophila...

Coastal Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Sustainability (CBESS) greenhouse gas fluxes in saltmarsh and mudflat habitats

C. Golléty, I. Davidson & D.M. Paterson
The dataset details greenhouse gas fluxes as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) across six intertidal sites in the winter and summer of 2013. Three of the sites were in Morecambe Bay, North West England and three of the sites were in Essex, South East England, each of these sites consisted of a saltmarsh area and adjacent mudflat area, twenty two sampling quadrats were placed on each area. Light and dark incubations...

Coastal Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Sustainability (CBESS) surface sediment chlorophyll concentrations in saltmarsh and mudflat habitats

J. Maunder & D.M. Paterson
The dataset details surface sediment chlorophyll concentrations across six intertidal sites in the winter and summer of 2013. Chlorophyll concentrations in surface sediments (<2mm) provide a quantitative measure of the microphytobenthos (MPB) community present. Three of the sites were in Morecambe Bay, North West England and three of the sites were in Essex, South East England, each of these sites consisted of a saltmarsh area and adjacent mudflat area, twenty two sampling quadrats were placed...

Data from: Sperm whales reduce foraging effort during exposure to 1-2 kHz sonar and killer whale sounds

Saana Isojunno, Charlotte Curé, Petter Helgevold Kvadsheim, Frans-Peter Alexander Lam, Peter Llyod Tyack, Paul Jacobus Wensveen, Patrick James O' Malley Miller, Peter Lloyd Tyack & Patrick James O'Malley Miller
The time and energetic costs of behavioral responses to incidental and experimental sonar exposures, as well as control stimuli, were quantified using hidden state analysis of time series of acoustic and movement data recorded by tags (DTAG) attached to 12 sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) using suction cups. Behavioral state transition modeling showed that tagged whales switched to a non-foraging, non-resting state during both experimental transmissions of low-frequency active sonar from an approaching vessel (LFAS; 1–2...

Data from: Sexual selection and population divergence I: the influence of socially flexible cuticular hydrocarbon expression in male field crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus)

Sonia Pascoal, Magdalena Mendrok, Christopher Mitchell, Alastair J. Wilson, John Hunt & Nathan W. Bailey
Debates about how coevolution of sexual traits and preferences might promote evolutionary diversification have permeated speciation research for over a century. Recent work demonstrates that the expression of such traits can be sensitive to variation in the social environment. Here we examined social flexibility in a sexually selected male trait – cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles – in the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus and tested whether population genetic divergence predicts the extent or direction of social...

Data from: Sex-specific and individual preferences for hunting strategies in white sharks

Alison V. Towner, Vianey Leos-Barajas, Roland Langrock, Robert S. Schick, Malcolm J. Smale, Tami Kaschke, Oliver J.D. Jewell, Yannis P. Papastamatiou & Oliver J. D. Jewell
Fine-scale predator movements may be driven by many factors including sex, habitat, and distribution of resources. There may also be individual preferences for certain movement strategies within a population which can be hard to quantify. Within top predators, movements are also going to be directly related to the mode of hunting; for example sit-and-wait or actively searching for prey. Although there is mounting evidence that different hunting modes can cause opposing trophic cascades, there has...

Data from: Quantifying episodes of sexual selection: insights from a transparent worm with fluorescent sperm

Lucas Marie-Orleach, Tim Janicke, Dita Brigida Vizoso, Patrice David & Lukas Schärer
Sexual selection operates through consecutive episodes of selection that ultimately contribute to the observed variance in reproductive success between individuals. Understanding the relative importance of these episodes is challenging, particularly because the relevant post-copulatory fitness components are often difficult to assess. Here we investigate different episodes of sexual selection on the male sex function, by assessing how (pre-copulatory) mating success, and (post-copulatory) sperm-transfer efficiency and sperm-fertilising efficiency contribute to male reproductive success. Specifically, we used...

Data from: Age-dependent social learning in a lizard

Daniel W. A. Noble, Richard W. Byrne & Martin J. Whiting
Evidence of social learning, whereby the actions of an animal facilitate the acquisition of new information by another, is taxonomically biased towards mammals, especially primates, and birds. However, social learning need not be limited to group-living animals because species with less interaction can still benefit from learning about potential predators, food sources, rivals and mates. We trained male skinks (Eulamprus quoyii), a mostly solitary lizard from eastern Australia, in a two-step foraging task. Lizards belonging...

Coastal Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Sustainability (CBESS) meteorological data from Cartmel Sands, Morecambe

T.C. Hill & M. Chocholek
The meteorological data describes the air and soil temperatures, net radiation balance, down-welling photosynthetically active radiation, wind speed, wind direction and the vapour pressure deficit. Data collection was carried out at Cartmel Sands marsh from the 31st of May 2013 till the 26th of January 2015. The Cartmel Sands site is in Morecambe, North West England, and the meteorological tower was situated in the middle of the marsh. This data was collected as part of...

Data from: Effects of spring temperatures on the strength of selection on timing of reproduction in a long-distance migratory bird

Marcel E. Visser, Phillip Gienapp, Arild Husby, Michael Morrisey, Iván De La Hera, Francisco Pulido & Christiaan Both
Climate change has differentially affected the timing of seasonal events for interacting trophic levels, and this has often led to increased selection on seasonal timing. Yet, the environmental variables driving this selection have rarely been identified, limiting our ability to predict future ecological impacts of climate change. Using a dataset spanning 31 years from a natural population of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca), we show that directional selection on timing of reproduction intensified in the first...

Data from: First indications that northern bottlenose whales are sensitive to behavioural disturbance from anthropogenic noise

P. J. O. Miller, P. H. Kvadsheim, F. P. A. Lam, P. L. Tyack, C. Curé, S. L. DeRuiter, L. Kleivane, L. D. Sivle, S. P. Van IJsselmuide, F. Visser, P. J. Wensveen, A. M. Von Benda-Beckmann, L. M. Martín López, T. Narazaki & S. K. Hooker
Although northern bottlenose whales were the most heavily hunted beaked whale, we have little information about this species in its remote habitat of the North Atlantic Ocean. Underwater anthropogenic noise and disruption of their natural habitat may be major threats, given the sensitivity of other beaked whales to such noise disturbance. We attached dataloggers to 13 northern bottlenose whales and compared their natural sounds and movements to those of one individual exposed to escalating levels...

Data from: An integrated approach to historical population assessment of the great whales: case of the New Zealand southern right whale

Jennifer A. Jackson, Emma L. Carroll, Tim D. Smith, Alex N. Zerbini, Nathalie J. Patenaude & C. Scott Baker
Accurate estimation of historical abundance provides an essential baseline for judging the recovery of the great whales. This is particularly challenging for whales hunted prior to twentieth century modern whaling, as population-level catch records are often incomplete. Assessments of whale recovery using pre-modern exploitation indices are therefore rare, despite the intensive, global nature of nineteenth century whaling. Right whales (Eubalaena spp.) were particularly exploited: slow swimmers with strong fidelity to sheltered calving bays, the species...

Risk of Phytophthora infection in woodland and larch fragments across Scotland

B.V. Purse, A. Schlenzig, C. Harris & K. Searle
These spatial layers contain risk factors and overall risk scores, representing relative risk of Phytophthora infection (Phytophthora ramorum and P. kernoviae), for Core Native Woodland and known larch fragments across Scotland. Risk factors include climate suitability, proximity to road and river networks and suitability of habitat for key hosts of Phytophthora and were broadly concurrent with the period between 2007 and 2013. This research was funded by the Scottish Government under research contract CR/2008/55, 'Study...

Data from: Multivariate selection and intersexual genetic constraints in a wild bird population

Jocelyn Poissant, Micheal B. Morrissey, Andrew G. Gosler, Jon Slate & Ben C. Sheldon
When traits are genetically correlated between the sexes, the response to selection in one sex can be altered by indirect selection in the other sex, a type of genetic constraint commonly referred to as intralocus sexual conflict (ISC). While potentially common, ISC has rarely been studied in wild populations. In this study, we applied a multivariate framework to quantify the microevolutionary impacts of ISC over a set of morphological traits (wing length, tarsus length, bill...

Data from: Cyprus wheatears Oenanthe cypriaca likely reach sub-Saharan African wintering grounds in a single migratory flight

Marina Xenophontos, Emma Blackburn & Will Cresswell
Long-distance migratory flights with multiple stop-overs, multiple wintering sites, and small-scale connectivity in Afro-Palearctic migrants are likely to increase their vulnerability to environmental change and lead to declining populations. Here we present the migration tracks and wintering locations of the first six Cyprus wheatears to be tracked with geolocators: a species with high survival and a stable population. We therefore predicted a non-stop flight from Cyprus to sub-Saharan wintering grounds, a single wintering area for...

Data from: Indirect genetic effects and sexual conflicts: Partner genotype influences multiple morphological and behavioural reproductive traits in a flatworm

Lucas Marie-Orleach, Nadja Vogt-Burri, Pierick Mouginot, Aline Schlatter, Dita B. Vizoso, Nathan W. Bailey & Lukas Schärer
The expression of an individual's phenotypic traits can be influenced by genes expressed in its social partners. Theoretical models predict that such indirect genetic effects (IGEs) on reproductive traits should play an important role in determining the evolutionary outcome of sexual conflict. However, empirical tests of (i) whether reproductive IGEs exist, (ii) how they vary among genotypes, and (iii) whether they are uniform for different types of reproductive traits are largely lacking. We addressed this...

Data from: Impact of wild prey availability on livestock predation by snow leopards

Kulbhushansingh R. Suryawanshi, Stephen M. Redpath, Yash Veer Bhatnagar, Uma Ramakrishnan, Vaibhav Chaturvedi, Sophie C. Smout & Charudutt Mishra
An increasing proportion of the world's poor is rearing livestock today, and the global livestock population is growing. Livestock predation by large carnivores and their retaliatory killing is becoming an economic and conservation concern. A common recommendation for carnivore conservation and for reducing predation on livestock is to increase wild prey populations based on the assumption that the carnivores will consume this alternative food. Livestock predation, however, could either reduce or intensify with increases in...

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