31 Works

Data from: Distance sampling with camera traps

Eric J. Howe, Steven T. Buckland, Marie-Lyne Després-Einspenner, Hjalmar S. Kühl & Stephen T. Buckland
Reliable estimates of animal density and abundance are essential for effective wildlife conservation and management. Camera trapping has proven efficient for sampling multiple species, but statistical estimators of density from camera trapping data for species that cannot be individually identified are still in development. We extend point-transect methods for estimating animal density to accommodate data from camera traps, allowing researchers to exploit existing distance sampling theory and software for designing studies and analysing data. We...

Data from: Responses of bottlenose dolphins and harbor porpoises to impact and vibration piling noise during harbor construction

Isla M. Graham, Enrico Pirotta, Nathan D. Merchant, Adrian Farcas, Tim R. Barton, Barbara Cheney, Gordon D. Hastie & Paul M. Thompson
The development of risk assessments for the exposure of protected populations to noise from coastal construction is constrained by uncertainty over the nature and extent of marine mammal responses to man-made noise. Stakeholder concern often focuses on the potential for local displacement caused by impact piling, where piles are hammered into the seabed. To mitigate this threat, use of vibration piling, where piles are shaken into place with a vibratory hammer, is often encouraged due...

Data from: Impact of wild prey availability on livestock predation by snow leopards

Kulbhushansingh R. Suryawanshi, Stephen M. Redpath, Yash Veer Bhatnagar, Uma Ramakrishnan, Vaibhav Chaturvedi, Sophie C. Smout & Charudutt Mishra
An increasing proportion of the world's poor is rearing livestock today, and the global livestock population is growing. Livestock predation by large carnivores and their retaliatory killing is becoming an economic and conservation concern. A common recommendation for carnivore conservation and for reducing predation on livestock is to increase wild prey populations based on the assumption that the carnivores will consume this alternative food. Livestock predation, however, could either reduce or intensify with increases in...

Data from: Indirect genetic effects and sexual conflicts: Partner genotype influences multiple morphological and behavioural reproductive traits in a flatworm

Lucas Marie-Orleach, Nadja Vogt-Burri, Pierick Mouginot, Aline Schlatter, Dita B. Vizoso, Nathan W. Bailey & Lukas Schärer
The expression of an individual's phenotypic traits can be influenced by genes expressed in its social partners. Theoretical models predict that such indirect genetic effects (IGEs) on reproductive traits should play an important role in determining the evolutionary outcome of sexual conflict. However, empirical tests of (i) whether reproductive IGEs exist, (ii) how they vary among genotypes, and (iii) whether they are uniform for different types of reproductive traits are largely lacking. We addressed this...

Data from: Sperm blocking is not a male adaptation to sperm competition in a parasitoid wasp

Rebecca A. Boulton, Nicola Cook, Jade Green, Elisabeth V. Greenway & David M. Shuker
The extent to which sperm or ejaculate-derived products from different males interact during sperm competition – from kamikaze sperm to sperm incapacitation – remains controversial. Repeated matings in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis lead to a short-term reduction of efficient sperm use by females, which is crucial for a haplodiploid organism when needing to allocate sex adaptively (i.e. by fertilizing eggs to produce daughters). Repeated matings by females in this species therefore constrain sex allocation...

Data from: SIDER: an R package for predicting trophic discrimination factors of consumers based on their ecology and phylogenetic relatedness

Kevin Healy, Thomas Guillerme, Seán B. A. Kelly, Richard Inger, Stuart Bearhop & Andrew L. Jackson
Stable isotope mixing models (SIMMs) are an important tool used to study species’ trophic ecology. These models are dependent on, and sensitive to, the choice of trophic discrimination factors (TDF) representing the offset in stable isotope delta values between a consumer and their food source when they are at equilibrium. Ideally, controlled feeding trials should be conducted to determine the appropriate TDF for each consumer, tissue type, food source, and isotope combination used in a...

Data from: Identifying consistent allele frequency differences in studies of stratified populations

R. Axel W. Wiberg, Oscar E. Gaggiotti, Michael B. Morrissey, Mike G. Ritchie & Michael G. Ritchie
1. With increasing application of pooled-sequencing approaches to population genomics robust methods are needed to accurately quantify allele frequency differences between populations. Identifying consistent differences across stratified populations can allow us to detect genomic regions under selection and that differ between populations with different histories or attributes. Current popular statistical tests are easily implemented in widely available software tools which make them simple for researchers to apply. However, there are potential problems with the way...

Data from: Attributing changes in the distribution of species abundance to weather variables using the example of British breeding birds

Cornelia S. Oedekoven, David A. Elston, Philip J. Harrison, Mark J. Brewer, Steve T. Buckland, Alison Johnston, Simon Foster, James W. Pearce-Higgins & Stephen T. Buckland
1. Modelling spatio-temporal changes in species abundance and attributing those changes to potential drivers such as climate, is an important but difficult problem. The standard approach for incorporating climatic variables into such models is to include each weather variable as a single covariate whose effect is expressed through a low-order polynomial or smoother in an additive model. This, however, confounds the spatial and temporal effects of the covariates. 2. We developed a novel approach to...

Data from: High suckling rates and acoustic crypsis of humpback whale neonates maximise potential for mother–calf energy transfer

Simone K. A. Videsen, Lars Bejder, Mark Johnson & Peter T. Madsen
1. The migration of humpback whales to and from their breeding grounds results in a short, critical time period during which neonatal calves must acquire sufficient energy via suckling from their fasting mothers to survive the long return journey. 2. Understanding neonate suckling behaviour is critical for understanding the energetics and evolution of humpback whale migratory behaviour and for informing conservation efforts, but despite its importance, very little is known about the details, rate and...

Data from: Bigger testes increase paternity in a simultaneous hermaphrodite, independently of the sperm competition level

Nikolas Vellnow, Lucas Marie-Orleach, Kira S. Zadesenets & Lukas Schärer
Hermaphroditic animals face the fundamental evolutionary optimization problem of allocating their resources to their male versus female reproductive function (e.g., testes and sperm versus ovaries and eggs) and this optimal sex allocation can be affected by both pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection. For example, local sperm competition (LSC)—the competition between related sperm for the fertilization of a partner’s ova—occurs in small mating groups and can favor a female-biased sex allocation, because, under LSC, investment into...

Data from: Risso' s dolphins plan foraging dives

Patricia Arranz, Kelly J. Benoit-Bird, Brandon L. Southall, John Calambokidis, Ari S. Friedlaender & Peter L. Tyack
Humans remember the past and use that information to plan future actions. Lab experiments that test memory for the location of food show that animals have a similar capability to act in anticipation of future needs, but less work has been done on animals foraging in the wild. We hypothesized that planning abilities are critical and common in breath-hold divers who adjust each dive to forage on prey varying in quality, location, and predictability within...

Data from: Harbour seals avoid tidal turbine noise: implications for collision risk

Gordon D. Hastie, Debbie J. F. Russell, Paul Lepper, Jim Elliott, Ben Wilson, Steven Benjamins & Dave Thompson
1. Tidal stream energy converters (turbines) are currently being installed in tidally energetic coastal sites. However, there is currently a high level of uncertainty surrounding the potential environmental impacts on marine mammals. This is a key consenting risk to commercial introduction of tidal energy technology. Concerns derive primarily from the potential for injury to marine mammals through collisions with moving components of turbines. To understand the nature of this risk, information on how animals respond...

Data from: Precipitation drives global variation in natural selection

Adam Siepielski, Michael B. Morrissey, Mathieu Buoro, Stephanie M. Carlson, Christina M. Caruso, Sonya M. Clegg, Tim Coulson, Joseph DiBattista, Kiyoko M. Gotanda, Clinton D. Francis, Joe Hereford, Joel G. Kingsolver, Kate E. Augustine, Loeske E. B. Kruuk, Ryan A. Martin, Ben C. Sheldon, Nina Sletvold, Erik I. Svensson, Michael J. Wade & Andrew D. C. MacColl
Climate change has the potential to affect the ecology and evolution of every species on Earth. Although the ecological consequences of climate change are increasingly well documented, the effects of climate on the key evolutionary process driving adaptation—natural selection—are largely unknown. We report that aspects of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration, along with the North Atlantic Oscillation, predicted variation in selection across plant and animal populations throughout many terrestrial biomes, whereas temperature explained little variation. By...

Data from: Social information use and social learning in non-grouping fishes

Mike M. Webster & Kevin N. Laland
Although it is natural to expect that group-living animals will utilize social learning, the expectation for non-grouping species is less clear. Only a few studies have explored the relationship between sociality and social learning. Here we presented 4 non-grouping fish species, fifteenspine sticklebacks (Spinachia spinachia), bullhead sculpins (Cottus gobio), stone loach (Barbatula barbatula) and juvenile European flounders (Platichthys flesus) with social information provided by groups of a shoal-forming heterospecific, the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Using...

Data from: From the track to the ocean: using flow control to improve marine bio-logging tags for cetaceans

Giovani Fiore, Erik Anderson, C. Spencer Garborg, Mark Murray, Mark Johnson, Michael J. Moore, Laurens Howle & K. Alex Shorter
Bio-logging tags are an important tool for the study of cetaceans, but superficial tags inevitably increase hydrodynamic loading. Substantial forces can be generated by tags on fast-swimming animals, potentially affecting behavior and energetics or promoting early tag removal. Streamlined forms have been used to reduce loading, but these designs can accelerate flow over the top of the tag. This non-axisymmetric flow results in large lift forces (normal to the animal) that become the dominant force...

Data from: Paternity analysis of wild-caught females shows that sperm package size and placement influence fertilization success in the bushcricket Pholidoptera griseoaptera

Darren James Parker, Julia Zaborowska, Michael Gordon Ritchie & Karim Vahed
In species where females store sperm, males may try to influence paternity by the strategic placement of sperm within the female's sperm storage organ. Sperm may be mixed or layered in storage organs, and this can influence sperm use beyond a ‘fair raffle’. In some insects, sperm from different matings is packaged into discrete packets (spermatodoses), which retain their integrity in the female's sperm storage organ (spermatheca), but little is known about how these may...

Data from: The evolutionary dynamics of adaptive virginity, sex-allocation and altruistic helping in haplodiploid animals

Petri Rautiala, Heikki Helantera & Mikael Puurtinen
In haplodiploids, females can produce sons from unfertilized eggs without mating. However, virgin reproduction is usually considered to be a result of a failure to mate, rather than an adaptation. Here we build an analytical model for evolution of virgin reproduction, sex-allocation, and altruistic female helping in haplodiploid taxa. We show that when mating is costly (e.g. when mating increases predation risk), virginity can evolve as an adaptive female reproductive strategy. Furthermore, adaptive virginity results...

Data from: The relationship between plumage colouration, problem-solving and learning performance in great tits Parus major

Laure Cauchard, Stéphanie M. Doucet, Neeltje J. Boogert, Bernard Angers & Blandine Doligez
Recent studies suggest that individuals with better problem-solving and/or learning performance have greater reproductive success, and that individuals may thus benefit from choosing mates based on these performances. However, directly assessing these performances in candidate mates could be difficult. Instead, the use of indirect cues related to problem-solving and/or learning performance, such as condition-dependent phenotypic traits, might be favored. We investigated whether problem-solving and learning performance on a novel non-foraging task correlated with sexually selected...

Data from: Sexual selection and population divergence II. divergence in different sexual traits and signal modalities in field crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus)

Sonia Pascoal, Magdalena Mendrok, Alastair J. Wilson, John Hunt & Nathan W. Bailey
Sexual selection can target many different types of traits. However, the relative influence of different sexually-selected traits during evolutionary divergence is poorly understood. We used the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus to quantify and compare how five traits from each of three sexual signal modalities and components diverge among allopatric populations: male advertisement song, cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles and forewing morphology. Population divergence was unexpectedly consistent: we estimated the among-population (genetic) variance-covariance matrix, D, for all...

Data from: Perceived duration of brief visual events is mediated by timing mechanisms at the global stages of visual processing

Lee Beattie, William Curran, Christopher P. Benton, Julie M. Harris & Paul B. Hibbard
There is a growing body of evidence pointing to the existence of modality-specific timing mechanisms for encoding sub-second durations. For example, the duration compression effect describes how prior adaptation to a dynamic visual stimulus results in participants underestimating the duration of a sub-second test stimulus when it is presented at the adapted location. There is substantial evidence for the existence of both cortical and pre-cortical visual timing mechanisms; however, little is known about where in...

Data from: Vocal foragers and silent crowds: context-dependent vocal variation in Northeast Atlantic long-finned pilot whales

Fleur Visser, Annebelle C. M. Kok, M. G. Oudejans, Lindesay A. S. Scott-Hayward, Stacy L. DeRuiter, Ana C. Alves, Ricardo N. Antunes, Saana Isojunno, Graham J. Pierce, Hans Slabbekoorn, Jef Huisman, Patrick J. O. Miller & Annebelle C.M. Kok
Vocalisations form a key component of the social interactions and foraging behaviour of toothed whales. We investigated changes in calling and echolocation behaviour of long-finned pilot whales between foraging and non-foraging periods, by combining acoustic recordings and diving depth data from tagged individuals with concurrent surface observations on social behaviour of their group. The pilot whales showed marked vocal variation, specific to foraging and social context. During periods of foraging, pilot whales showed more vocal...

Data from: A genetic assessment of the human-facilitated colonization history of black swans in Australia and New Zealand

Valeria Montano, Wouter F.D. Van Dongen, Micheal A. Weston, Raoul A. Mulder, Randall W. Robinson, Mary Cowling, Patrick-Jean Guay & Michael A. Weston
Movement of species beyond their indigenous distribution can fundamentally alter the conservation status of the populations involved. If introductions are human-facilitated, introduced species could be considered pests. Characterizing the colonization history of introduced species can, therefore, be critical to formulating the objectives and nature of wildlife management strategies. The black swan (Cygnus atratus) is native to Australia but is considered a reintroduced species in New Zealand, where the endemic population was reported extinct during the...

Data from: Towards robust evolutionary inference with integral projection models

M. J. Janeiro, D. W. Coltman, M. Festa-Bianchet, F. Pelletier & M. B. Morrissey
Integral projection models (IPMs) are extremely flexible tools for ecological and evolutionary inference. IPMs track the distribution of phenotype in populations through time, using functions describing phenotype-dependent development, inheritance, survival and fecundity. For evolutionary inference, two important features of any model are the ability to (i) characterize relationships among traits (including values of the same traits across ages) within individuals, and (ii) characterize similarity between individuals and their descendants. In IPM analyses, the former depends...

Data from: Chasing ghosts: allopolyploid origin of Oxyria sinensis (Polygonaceae) from its only diploid congener and an unknown ancestor

Xin Luo, Quanjun Hu, Pingping Zhou, Dan Zhang, Qian Wang, Richard J. Abbott, Yaling Wang & Jianquan Liu
Reconstructing the origin of a polyploid species is particularly challenging when an ancestor has become extinct. Under such circumstances, the extinct donor of a genome found in the polyploid may be treated as a ‘ghost’ species in that its prior existence is recognized through the presence of its genome in the polyploid. In this study, we aimed to determine the polyploid origin of Oxyria sinensis (2n = 40) for which only one congeneric species is...

Data from: Techniques for estimating the size of low density gopher tortoise populations

Jonathan M. Stober, Rocio Prieto-Gonzalez, Lora L. Smith, Tiago A. Marques & Len Thomas
The gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) is a candidate species for range-wide listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act; hence reliable population estimates are required to aid management and guide policy needed to recover the species. Line transect distance sampling has been adopted as the preferred technique to estimate population size. However, when tortoise density is low, it can be challenging to obtain enough tortoise observations to reliably estimate the probability of detection, a vital component...

Registration Year

  • 2017

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of St Andrews
  • University of Aveiro
  • University of Cambridge
  • University of Aberdeen
  • Lund University
  • Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology
  • University of Basel
  • Jagiellonian University
  • University of Exeter
  • Uppsala University