29 Works

Data from: A cross-cultural investigation of young children’s spontaneous invention of tool use behaviors

Karri Neldner, Eva Reindl, Claudio Tennie, Julie Grant, Keyan Tomaselli & Mark Nielsen
Through the mechanisms of observation, imitation and teaching, young children readily pick up the tool using behaviors of their culture. However, little is known about the baseline abilities of children’s tool use: what they might be capable of inventing on their own in the absence of socially provided information. It has been shown that children can spontaneously invent 11 of 12 candidate tool using behaviors observed within the foraging behaviors of wild non-human apes (Reindl,...

Data from: Assessing spatial patterns of soil erosion in a high‐latitude rangeland

Richard T. Streeter & Nick A. Cutler
High‐latitude areas are experiencing rapid change: we therefore need a better understanding of the processes controlling soil erosion in these environments. We used a spatiotemporal approach to investigate soil erosion in Svalbarðstunga, Iceland (66° N, 15° W), a degraded rangeland. We used three complementary datasets: 1) high‐resolution UAV imagery collected from 12 sites (total area ~0.75 km2); 2) historical imagery of the same sites; and 3) a simple, spatially‐explicit cellular automata model. Sites were located...

Genetic diversity and connectivity of southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) found in the Brazil and Chile–Peru wintering grounds and the South Georgia (Islas Georgias del Sur) feeding ground

Emma L Carroll, Paulo Ott, Louise McMillan, Bárbara Galletti Vernazzani, Petra Neveceralova, Els Vermeulen, Oscar Gaggiotti, Artur Andriolo, C. Scott Baker, Connor Bamford, Peter Best, Elsa Cabrera, Susannah Calderan, Andrea Chirife, Rachel M. Fewster, Paulo A. C. Flores, Timothy Frasier, Thales R. O. Freitas, Karina Groch, Pavel Hulva, Amy Kennedy, Russell Leaper, Mathew S. Leslie, Michael Moore, Larissa Oliviera … & Jennifer A Jackson
As species recover from exploitation, continued assessments of connectivity and population structure are warranted to provide information for conservation and management. This is particularly true in species with high dispersal capacity, such as migratory whales, where patterns of connectivity could change rapidly. Here we build on a previous long-term, large-scale collaboration on southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) to combine new (nnew) and published (npub) mitochondrial (mtDNA) and microsatellite genetic data from all major wintering grounds...

The fast and the curious II: performance, personality and metabolism in Karoo bush rats

Paul Agnani, Jennifer Thomson, Carsten Schradin & Vincent Careau
Personality traits (e.g., activity, exploration, boldness) are frequently correlated with each other and with various other traits of biological importance. According to the performance, allocation, and independent models of energy management, the relationship between personality traits and resting metabolic rate (RMR) is predicted to be either positive, negative, or nil. As for the relationship between personality traits and locomotor performance, the trait compensation and co-specialisation hypotheses respectively predict a positive and negative relationship. To test...

Data from: It’s not all about temperature: breeding success also affects nest design

Sophie Edwards, Tanya Shoot, Robert Martin, David Sherry & Susan Healy
There are numerous observational studies on intra-specific variation in avian nest building and a single experimental manipulation. The general consensus is that birds build nests in response to environmental conditions, but it is not clear whether such flexibility in nest building is reproductively advantageous. To test the relationship between building flexibility and reproductive success, we allowed captive zebra finches to build their first nest, using string, and to breed in temperature-controlled rooms held at 14oC...

Regional wind patterns likely shape a seasonal migration detour

Robert Patchett & Will Cresswell
Migrating animals should optimise time and energy use when migrating, travelling directly to their destination. Detours from the most direct route may arise however because of barriers and weather conditions. Identifying how such situations arise from variable weather conditions is crucial to understand population response in the light of increased anthropogenic climate change. Here we used light-level geolocators to follow Cyprus wheatears for their full annual cycle in two separate years migrating between Cyprus, over...

The smell of cooperation: rats increase helpful behaviour when receiving odour cues of a conspecific performing a cooperative task

Nina Gerber, Manon Schweinfurth & Michael Taborsky
Reciprocity can explain cooperative behaviour among non-kin, where individuals help others depending on their experience in previous interactions. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) cooperate reciprocally according to direct and generalized reciprocity. In a sequence of four consecutive experiments, we show that odour cues from a cooperating conspecific are sufficient to induce altruistic help of rats in a food-exchange task. When rats were enabled to help a non-cooperative partner while receiving olfactory information from a rat helping...

Toolbox for: Teaching lab for large cohorts of undergraduates: private and social information in fish

Jost Borcherding, Mike M Webster & Katja Heubel
A challenge in the Bachelor's studies in Biology, is to strive for a balance between reducing the teaching of practical scientific experiments to what is feasible in a short time, and teaching "real" science in undergraduate labs for high numbers of participants. We describe a lab in behavioural biology, with the primary focus on the student learning. However, also the underlying scientific question and the results of the experiment, namely the behaviour of the three-spined...

Data from: Assessing cetacean populations using integrated population models: an example with Cook Inlet beluga whales

Eiren Jacobson, Charlotte Boyd, Tamara McGuire, Kim Shelden, Gina Himes Boor & André Punt
Effective conservation and management of animal populations requires knowledge of abundance and trends. For many species, these quantities are estimated using systematic visual surveys. Additional individual-level data are available for some species. Integrated population modelling (IPM) offers a mechanism for leveraging these datasets into a single estimation framework. IPMs that incorporate both population- and individual-level data have previously been developed for birds, but have rarely been applied to cetaceans. Here, we explore how IPMs can...

Listening and watching: do camera traps or acoustic sensors more efficiently detect wild chimpanzees in an open habitat?

Anne-Sophie Crunchant, David Borchers, Hjalmar Kuehl & Alex K. Piel
1. With one million animal species at risk of extinction, there is an urgent need to regularly monitor threatened species. However, in practice this is challenging, especially with wide-ranging, elusive and cryptic species or those that occur at low density. 2. Here we compare two non-invasive methods, passive acoustic monitoring (n=12) and camera trapping (n=53), to detect chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in a savanna-woodland mosaic habitat at the Issa Valley, Tanzania. With occupancy modelling we evaluate...

Perturbation drives changing metapopulation dynamics in a top marine predator

Emma L Carroll, Ailsa Hall, Morten Tange Olsen, Aubrie Booth, Aubrie B. Onoufriou, Oscar E. Gaggiotti & Debbie JF Russell
Metapopulation theory assumes a balance between local decays/extinctions and local growth/new colonisations. Here we investigate whether recent population declines across part of the UK harbour seal range represent normal metapopulation dynamics or are indicative of perturbations potentially threatening the metapopulation viability, using 20 years of population trends, location tracking data ( n = 380), and UK-wide, multi-generational population genetic data ( n = 269). First, we use microsatellite data to show that two genetic groups...

Camera trap survey of jaguars from Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary in Belize

Greg Distiller, David Borchers, Rebecca Foster & Bart Harmsen
These data are from a camera trap survey of jaguars in Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary in Belize that ran for a 6 month period from August 2013 until February 2014. The associated manuscript contains analyses of these data using continuous-time spatial capture-recapture models, and demonstrates how one can make inference about animal activity patterns. The data include 287 detections of 19 individual male jaguars, and 44 detections of 8 individual female jaguars.

Energetic limits: Defining the bounds and trade-offs of successful energy management in a capital breeder

Courtney Shuert, Lewis Halsey, Patrick Pomeroy & Sean Twiss
1. Judicious management of energy can be invaluable for animal survival and reproductive success. Capital breeding mammals typically transfer energy to their young at extremely high rates while undergoing prolonged fasting, making lactation a tremendously energy demanding period. Effective management of the competing demands of the mother’s energy needs and those of her offspring is presumably fundamental to maximising lifetime reproductive success. 2. How does the mother maximise her chances of successfully rearing her pup,...

Can behaviour impede evolution? persistence of singing effort after morphological song loss in crickets

Jack Rayner, Will Schneider & Nathan Bailey
Evolutionary loss of sexual signals is widespread. Examining the consequences for behaviours associated with such signals can provide insight into factors promoting or inhibiting trait loss. We tested whether a behavioural component of a sexual trait, male calling effort, has been evolutionary reduced in silent populations of Hawaiian field crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus). Cricket song requires energetically costly wing movements, but ‘flatwing’ males have feminised wings that preclude song and protect against a lethal, eavesdropping parasitoid....

Data from: Numerical ordinality in a wild nectarivore

Maria Cristina Tello-Ramos, Tas I. F. Vámos, T. Andrew Hurly & Susan D. Healy
Ordinality is a numerical property that nectarivores may use to remember the specific order in which to visit a sequence of flowers, a foraging strategy also known as traplining. In this experiment, we tested whether wild, free-living rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus) could use ordinality to visit a rewarded flower. Birds were presented with a series of linear arrays of 10 artificial flowers; only one flower in each array was rewarded with sucrose solution. During training,...

Data from: Hidden leks in a migratory songbird: mating advantages for earlier and more attractive males

Lilian Manica, Jeff Graves, Jeffrey Podos & Regina Macedo
In some socially monogamous birds, territories sometimes occur in aggregations. The “hidden lek” hypothesis suggests that territorial aggregations might be explained by males establishing territories near successful males (“hotshot” model), or by females preferring to mate in large clusters (“female preference” model). In both scenarios, clusters would provide more opportunities for finding mates and achieving extra-pair copulations. Our study tests predictions of these two models in the blue-black grassquit (Volatinia jacarina). Males of this species...

Li@C₆₀, the molecular maraca : exploring the properties of lithium endohedral fullerenes on transition metal surfaces for potential use in molecular electronics

Henry Chandler
The following thesis describes the exploration of lithium endohedral fullerenes (Li@C₆₀) on Au(111) and Cu(110)-(2×1)O utilising an ultra-high vacuum low temperature scanning tunnelling microscope (UHV LT-STM). In collaboration with researchers from the University of Edinburgh and the University of Liège, the effect of Li-encapsulation on the electronic structure of C₆₀ has been experimentally identified on single molecules for the first time, with particular attention to the superatom molecular orbitals (SAMOs). It was hypothesised these would...

Dry bulk density, loss on ignition and organic carbon content of surficial soils from Scottish salt marshes, 2018-2019

P. Ruranska, L.C. Miller, C. Hindle, C.J.T. Ladd, C. Smeaton, M.W. Skov & W.E.N. Austin
The dataset comprises of biogeochemical measurements of saltmarsh soil collected from 46 salt marshes across Scotland. Sites were chosen to represent contrasting habitats across Scotland, in particular sediment types, vegetation and sea level history. The data provide a quantitative measure of the dry bulk density, soil texture, organic matter content (LOI) and organic carbon present within surface soils (up to a depth of 10 cm). A total of 471 samples were collected, 157 of the...

A single pleiotropic locus influences the rate of hybridisation between two sibling species of Lygaeus bugs

Vicki Balfour, Daniella Black & David Shuker
The evolution of reproductive isolation lies at the heart of understanding the process of speciation. Of particular interest is the relationship between pre- and post-zygotic reproductive isolation, and the genetic architecture of traits that contribute to one or both forms of reproductive isolation. The sibling species of seed bug Lygaeus equestris and L. simulans show a classic pattern of asymmetric pre-zygotic reproductive isolation, with female L. equestris hybridising with male L. simulans, but with no...

Within-population sperm competition intensity does not predict asymmetry in conpopulation sperm precedence

Martin Garlovsky, Leeban Yusuf, Mike Ritchie Ritchie, Rhonda Snook, Martin D. Garlovsky, Leeban H. Yusuf, Michael G. Ritchie & Rhonda R. Snook
Postcopulatory sexual selection can generate evolutionary arms races between the sexes resulting in the rapid coevolution of reproductive phenotypes. As traits affecting fertilization success diverge between populations, postmating prezygotic (PMPZ) barriers to gene flow may evolve. Conspecific sperm precedence is a form of PMPZ isolation thought to evolve early during speciation yet has mostly been studied between species. Here , we show conpopulation sperm precedence (CpSP) between Drosophila montana populations. Using Pool-seq genomic data we...

Duet codes do not enhance neighbour recognition in two closely related species of neotropical wrens

Esmeralda Quiros-Guerrero & Esmeralda Quiros-Guerrero
Numerous studies have shown that territorial animals exhibit less aggression in response to neighbours than to strangers, a phenomenon known as dear enemy effect. The influence of acoustic features, such as song type sharing and repertoire sizes, in neighbour recognition has been widely documented in male songbirds. However, few studies have focused on duetting species, and particularly on those where pairs have pair-specific duet codes (consistent associations of their individual phrase types). Given that each...

Evidence of repertoire sharing and stability despite a high turnover rate in a duetting neotropical wren

Esmeralda Quirós-Guerrero, Maria Joao Janeiro, Will Cresswell & Christopher Templeton
In songbirds, the spatial pattern of song sharing among individuals is influenced by the song learning and dispersal strategies within each species. In birds where females and males sing and create joint acoustic displays (duets), the processes defining the patterns of song sharing become more complex as there might be different selection pressures shaping the behaviour of each sex. To provide further insight into the vocal development and the dispersal strategy of duetting tropical species,...

Data from: Sexual selection and population divergence III. Interspecific and intraspecific variation in mating signals

Peter A. Moran, John Hunt, Christopher Mitchell, Michael G. Ritchie & Nathan W. Bailey
A major challenge for studying the role of sexual selection in divergence and speciation is understanding the relative influence of different sexually-selected signals on those processes in both intra and interspecific contexts. Different signals may be more or less susceptible to co-option for species identification depending on the balance of sexual and ecological selection acting upon them. To examine this, we tested three predictions to explain geographic variation in long- vs. short-range sexual signals across...

From pup to predator; generalized hidden Markov models reveal rapid development of movement strategies in a naïve long‐lived vertebrate

Matt I. D. Carter, Brett T. McClintock, Clare B. Embling, Kimberley A. Bennett, Dave Thompson & Debbie J. F. Russell
Rapid development of a successful foraging strategy is critical for juvenile survival, especially for naïve animals that receive no parental guidance. However, this process is poorly understood for many species. Although observation of early-life movements is increasingly possible with miniaturisation of animalborne telemetry devices, analytical limitations remain. Here, we tracked 29 recently-weaned, grey seal Halichoerus grypus pups from colonies in two geographically distinct regions of the United Kingdom. We analysed at-sea movements of pups throughout...

Learning-induced switching costs in a parasitoid can maintain diversity of host aphid phenotypes although biocontrol is destabilised under abiotic stress

Katharine Preedy, Mark Chaplain, Daniel Leybourne, Glenn Marion & Alison Karley
1. Aphid populations frequently include phenotypes that are resistant to parasitism by hymenopterous parasitoid wasps, which is often attributed to the presence of ‘protective’ facultative endosymbionts residing in aphid tissues, particularly Hamiltonella defensa. In field conditions, under parasitoid pressure, the observed coexistence of aphids with and without protective symbionts cannot be explained by their difference in fitness alone. 2. Using the cereal aphid Rhopalosiphum padi as a model, we propose an alternative mechanism whereby parasitoids...

Registration Year

  • 2020
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Resource Types

  • Dataset
    28
  • Text
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Affiliations

  • University of St Andrews
    29
  • University of Auckland
    3
  • Aarhus University
    2
  • Victoria University of Wellington
    1
  • Bangor University
    1
  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
    1
  • Plymouth University
    1
  • University of Washington
    1
  • University of Pretoria
    1
  • University of Strasbourg
    1