62 Works

Tropical riparian forests in danger from large savanna wildfires

Bernardo Flores, Michele Dechoum, Isabel Schmidt, Marina Hirota, Anna Abrahão, Larissa Verona, Luísa Pecoral, Márcio Cure, André Giles, Patrícia Costa, Matheus Pamplona, Guilherme Mazzochini, Peter Groenendijk, Géssica Minski, Gabriel Wolfsdorf, Alexandre Sampaio, Fernanda Piccolo, Lorena Melo, Renato Fiacador & Rafael Oliveira
1. Tropical savannas are known for the fire-prone ecosystems, yet, riparian evergreen forests are another important landscape feature. These forests usually remain safe from wildfires in the wet riparian zones. With global changes, large wildfires are now more frequent in savanna landscapes, exposing riparian forests to unprecedented impact. 2. In 2017, a large wildfire spread across the Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park, an iconic UNESCO site in central Brazil, raising concerns about its impact on...

Quantitative genetics of extreme insular dwarfing: the case of red deer (Cervus elaphus) on Jersey

José Alexandre Felizola Diniz-Filho, Ana Santos, Elisa Barreto, Felipe Naves, Wanderson Santos, Kelly Souza, Rejane Santos-Silva, Ricardo Dobrovolski, Thannya Soares, Rosana Tidon, Zander Spigoloni, Thiago Rangel, Pasquale Raia, Joaquín Hortal & Lucas Jardim
Aim: The Island Rule – i.e. the tendency for body size to decrease in large mammals and increase in small mammals on islands has been commonly evaluated through macroecological or macroevolutionary, pattern-orientated approaches, which generally fail to model the microevolutionary processes driving either dwarfing or gigantism. Here, we seek to identify which microevolutionary process could have driven extreme insular dwarfism in the extinct dwarf red deer population on the island of Jersey. Location: Jersey, UK...

Data from: DNA barcoding survey of anurans across the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia and the impact of the Andes on cryptic diversity

Carlos E. Guarnizo, Andrea Paz, Astrid Muñoz-Ortiz, Sandra V. Flechas, Javier Mendez-Narváez & Andrew J. Crawford
Colombia hosts the second highest amphibian species diversity on Earth, yet its fauna remains poorly studied, especially using molecular genetic techniques. We present the results of the first wide-scale DNA barcoding survey of anurans of Colombia, focusing on a transect across the Eastern Cordillera. We surveyed 10 sites between the Magdalena Valley to the west and the eastern foothills of the Eastern Cordillera, sequencing portions of the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit...

Data from: Long term impacts of selective logging on two Amazonian tree species with contrasting ecological and reproductive characteristics: inferences from Eco-gene model simulations

Christina C. Vinson, Milton Kanashiro, Alexandre M. Sebbenn, Thomas C. R. Williams, Stephen A. Harris & David H. Boshier
The impact of logging and subsequent recovery after logging is predicted to vary depending on specific life history traits of the logged species. The Eco-gene simulation model was used to evaluate the long-term impacts of selective logging over 300 years on two contrasting Brazilian Amazon tree species, Dipteryx odorata and Jacaranda copaia. D. odorata (Leguminosae), a slow growing climax tree, occurs at very low densities, whereas J. copaia (Bignoniaceae) is a fast growing pioneer tree...

Leaf litter quality drives the feeding by invertebrate shredders in tropical streams

Guilherme Sena, José Francisco Gonçalves Júnior, Renato Martins, Neusa Hamada & Renan Rezende Rezende
Amazon and Cerrado forested streams show natural fluctuations in leaf-litter quantity along the time and space, suggesting a change on litter quality input. These natural fluctuations of leaf-litter have repercussion on the organic matter cycling and consequentlyeffects on leaf decomposition in forested streams. The effects of the quantity of leaf litter with contrasting traits on consumption by larvae of shredder insects from biomes with different organic matter dynamics have still been an understudied question. The...

Data from: To recycle or steal? Nutrient resorption in Australian and Brazilian mistletoes from three low-phosphorus sites

Marina Corrêa Scalon, Ian J. Wright & Augusto Cesar Franco
Resorption is the process by which nutrients are withdrawn from leaves prior to leaf fall. Mistletoes are generally thought not to rely on nutrient resorption; being xylem-tapping parasites, they instead derive the nutrients required for new growth from their host plant, at little or no cost. We measured nutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) resorption in 18 parasitic mistletoe–host species pairs distributed across three sites with notably low-P soil, also quantifying relationships with leaf lifespan...

Data from: Convergence of soil nitrogen isotopes across global climate gradients

Joseph M. Craine, Andrew J. Elmore, Lixin Wang, Laurent Augusto, W. Troy Baisden, E. N. J. Brookshire, Michael D. Cramer, Niles J. Hasselquist, Erik A. Hobbie, Ansgar Kahmen, Keisuke Koba, J. Marty Kranabetter, Michelle C. Mack, Erika Marin-Spiotta, Jordan R. Mayor, Kendra K. McLauchlan, Anders Michelsen, Gabriela B. Nardoto, Rafael S. Oliveira, Steven S. Perakis, Pablo L. Peri, Carlos A. Quesada, Andreas Richter, Louis A. Schipper, Bryan A. Stevenson … & Bernd Zeller
Quantifying global patterns of terrestrial nitrogen (N) cycling is central to predicting future patterns of primary productivity, carbon sequestration, nutrient fluxes to aquatic systems, and climate forcing. With limited direct measures of soil N cycling at the global scale, syntheses of the 15N:14N ratio of soil organic matter across climate gradients provide key insights into understanding global patterns of N cycling. In synthesizing data from over 6000 soil samples, we show strong global relationships among...

ESRC Newton Healthy Urban Mobility

Tim Jones, H Günther, Sue Brownill, Ramin Keivani, I Neto, E D'Orsi, Ben Spencer, J Vargas & G Butina-Watson
The Healthy Urban Mobility (HUM) project was a study to understand the impact of everyday (im)mobility on health and wellbeing with a variety of social groups living in different neighbourhoods in Brazil and the UK, and also to explore the potential for participatory mobilities planning with local communities to support and develop solutions for healthy urban mobility.

Data from: The global distribution of diet breadth in insect herbivores

Matthew L. Forister, Vojtech Novotny, Anna K. Panorska, Leontine Baje, Yves Basset, Philip T. Butterill, Lukas Cizek, Phyllis D. Coley, Francesca Dem, Ivone R. Diniz, Pavel Drozd, Mark Fox, Andrea E. Glassmire, Rebecca Hazen, Jan Hrcek, Joshua P. Jahner, Ondrej Kaman, Tomasz J. Kozubowski, Thomas Kursar, Owen T. Lewis, John Lill, Robert J. Marquis, Scott E. Miller, Helena C. Morais, Masashi Murakami … & Lee A. Dyer
Understanding variation in resource specialization is important for progress on issues that include coevolution, community assembly, ecosystem processes, and the latitudinal gradient of species richness. Herbivorous insects are useful models for studying resource specialization, and the interaction between plants and herbivorous insects is one of the most common and consequential ecological associations on the planet. However, uncertainty persists regarding fundamental features of herbivore diet breadth, including its relationship to latitude and plant species richness. Here...

Data from: Lizards on newly created islands independently and rapidly adapt in morphology and diet

Mariana Eloy De Amorim, Thomas W. Schoener, Guilherme Ramalho Chagas Cataldi Santoro, Anna Carolina Ramalho Lins, Jonah Piovia-Scott & Reuber Albuquerque Brandão
Rapid adaptive changes can result from the drastic alterations humans impose on ecosystems. For example, flooding large areas for hydroelectric dams converts mountaintops into islands and leaves surviving populations in a new environment. We report differences in morphology and diet of the termite-eating gecko Gymnodactylus amarali between five such newly created islands and five nearby mainland sites located in the Brazilian Cerrado, a biodiversity hotspot. Mean prey size and dietary prey-size breadth were larger on...

Data from: Fire management in the Brazilian Savanna: first steps and the way forward

Isabel B. Schmidt, Livia C. Moura, Maxmiller C. Ferreira, Ludivine Eloy, Alexandre B. Sampaio, Paulo A. Dias & Christian N. Berlinck
1. Several decades of frustrated attempts to prevent fires in the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) have led to deleterious ecological and management consequences. In 2014, the first Integrated Fire Management (IFM) program was launched in three protected areas (PA). 2. The IFM program considers local practices, ecological information, management options, and aims to create landscape mosaics of different fire histories to conserve biodiversity, reduce the prevalence of late-dry season (LDS) wildfires, protect fire-sensitive vegetation, and reduce...

Data from: DNA barcoding meets molecular scatology: short mtDNA sequences for standardized species assignment of carnivore noninvasive samples

Paulo B. Chaves, Vanessa G. Graeff, Marília B. Lion, Larissa R. Oliveira & Eduardo Eizirik
Although species assignment of scats is important to study carnivoran biology, there is still no standardized assay for the identification of carnivores worldwide, which would allow large-scale routine assessments and reliable cross-comparison of results. Here we evaluate the potential of two short mtDNA fragments (ATP6 [126 bp] and COI [187 bp]) to serve as standard markers for the Carnivora. Samples of 66 species were sequenced for one or both of these segments. Alignments were complemented...

Synergistic impacts of co-occurring invasive grasses cause persistent effects in the soil-plant system after selective removal

Rafael Zenni, Wanderson Da Cunha, Carolina Musso, Jocemara De Souza, Gabriela Nardoto & Heloisa Miranda
1. Human influence on the environment is so extensive that virtually all ecosystems on the planet are now affected by biological invasions. And, often, ecosystems are invaded by multiple co-occurring non-native species. Hence, it is important to understand the impacts these invasions are producing on biodiversity and ecosystem processes. 2. Here, we present results of a two-year long field experiment where we tested the effects of co-occurring invasive C4 African grasses in a Cerrado area...

Data and scripts from: Phylogenomic analysis points to a South American origin of Manihot and illuminates the primary gene pool of cassava

Marcelo F. Simon, J. Moises Mendoza F., Márcio Lacerda Lopes Martins, Sergei V. Drovetski, Natalia A. S. Przelomska, Hope Loiselle, Taciana B. Cavalcanti, Peter W. Inglis, Natalie G. Mueller, Robin G. Allaby, Fábio De Oliveira Freitas & Logan Kistler
The genus Manihot, with around 120 known species, is native to a wide range of habitats and regions in the tropical and subtropical Americas. Its high species richness and recent diversification only ~6Mya have significantly complicated previous phylogenetic analyses. Several basic elements of Manihot evolutionary history therefore remain unresolved. Here, we conduct a comprehensive phylogenomic analysis of Manihot, focusing on exhaustive sampling of South American taxa. We find that two recently described species from northeast...

Precipitation, water level and descriptive statistics

Marcelo Medeiros, Marcelo Simon, Washington Oliveira & Pamela Moser
Extreme weather events and the presence of mega-hydroelectric dams, when combined, present an emerging threat to natural habitats in the Amazon region. To understand the magnitude of these impacts, we used remote sensing data to assess forest loss in areas affected by the extreme 2014 flood in the entire Madeira River basin, the location of two mega-dams. In addition, forest plots (26 ha) were monitored between 2011 and 2015 (14,328 trees) in order to evaluate...

The combined role of dispersal and niche evolution in the diversification of Neotropical lizards

Fernanda P. Werneck, Yumi Sheu, Juan P. Zurano, Marco A. Ribeiro-Junior, Teresa C. Ávila-Pires, Miguel T. Rodrigues & Guarino R. Colli
Ecological requirements and environmental conditions can influence diversification across temporal and spatial scales. Understanding the role of ecological niche evolution under phylogenetic contexts provides insights on speciation mechanisms and possible responses to future climatic change. Large-scale phyloclimatic studies on the megadiverse Neotropics, where biomes with contrasting vegetation types occur in narrow contact, are rare. We integrate ecological and biogeographic data with phylogenetic comparative methods, to investigate the relative roles of biogeographic events and niche divergence...

Data from: Hidden leks in a migratory songbird: mating advantages for earlier and more attractive males

Lilian Manica, Jeff Graves, Jeffrey Podos & Regina Macedo
In some socially monogamous birds, territories sometimes occur in aggregations. The “hidden lek” hypothesis suggests that territorial aggregations might be explained by males establishing territories near successful males (“hotshot” model), or by females preferring to mate in large clusters (“female preference” model). In both scenarios, clusters would provide more opportunities for finding mates and achieving extra-pair copulations. Our study tests predictions of these two models in the blue-black grassquit (Volatinia jacarina). Males of this species...

Pedagogia do cinema no coração do Brasil: o documentário vai à educação básica rural

Gisele Ferreira

Data from: Evolutionary constraints on tree size and aboveground biomass in tropical dry forests

Natalia De Aguiar-Campos, Fernanda Coelho De Souza, Vinícius Maia, Vanessa Rezende, Cléber Souza, Gabriela Paula, Paola Santos, Gisele Menino, Wilder Silva & Rubens Santos
1. The extent (or lack) of phylogenetic signal for key ecological traits reveals the role of evolutionary processes on present-day ecosystem function and hints on future ecological trends under climate change scenarios. This approach has been applied to South American tropical moist forests, but not to the highly threatened seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTF), despite acknowledgement of their unique evolutionary history. To fill this knowledge gap, we investigated the legacy of evolutionary processes on vital...

Plant size and leaf traits for epiphyte species found in flooded gallery forests and non-flooded gallery forests in Central Brazil

Rodolfo Oliveira, Gerhard Zotz, Wolfgang Wanek & Augusto Franco
Despite their unique adaptations to thrive in canopy environments without access to soil resources, epiphytes are underrepresented in studies of functional traits and of functional composition of tropical plant communities. We investigated functional traits of spermatophytic (seed-bearing) C3 and CAM epihyte communities in flooded and non-flooded gallery forests in Central Brazil. The two forest types differ in floristic, structure, microclimate and edaphic conditions. We studied plant size, leaf thickness, leaf dry matter content, leaf area,...

Mixed ancestry from wild and domestic lineages contributes to the rapid expansion of invasive feral swine

Timothy Smyser, Michael Tabak, Chris Slootmaker, Michael Robeson, Ryan Miller, Mirte Bosse, Hendrik-Jan Megens, Martien Groenen, Samuel Paiva, Danielle Assis De Faria, Harvey Blackburn, Brandon Schmit & Antoinette Piaggio
Invasive alien species are a significant threat to both economic and ecological systems. Identifying processes that give rise to invasive populations is essential for implementing effective control strategies. We conducted an ancestry analysis of invasive feral swine (Sus scrofa, Linnaeus, 1758), a highly destructive ungulate that is widely distributed throughout the contiguous United States, to describe introduction pathways, sources of newly-emergent populations, and processes contributing to an ongoing invasion. Comparisons of high-density single nucleotide polymorphism...

Where are the bats? An environmental complementarity analysis in a megadiverse country

Ludmilla Aguiar, Maria João Ramos Pereira, Marlon Zortea, Ricardo Machado, Ludmilla M. S. Aguiar, Maria João R. Pereira, Marlon Zortéa & Ricardo B. Machado
Aim: Field surveys are necessary to overcome Wallacean shortfalls. The task is even more important when human pressure on tropical – megadiverse – ecosystems is considered. However, due to financial constraints, spatial and temporal prioritization is required. Here we used the concept of environmental complementarity to identify non-surveyed regions for bats that are environmentally different from other already surveyed regions. We highlighted regions in Brazil where field inventories could be conducted to locate new occurrences...

Data from: Partners coordinate territorial defense against simulated intruders in a duetting ovenbird

Pedro Diniz, Gianlucca Rech, Pedro Ribeiro, Michael Webster & Regina Macedo
Duets in breeding pairs may reflect a situation of conflict, whereby an individual answers its partner’s song as a form of unilateral acoustic mate guarding or, alternatively, it may reflect cooperation, when individuals share in territory defense or safeguard the partnership. The degree of coordination between the sexes when responding to solo versus paired intruders may elucidate the function of songs in duets. We examined this issue in a study with rufous horneros (Furnarius rufus),...

Data from: Evolutionary diversity in tropical tree communities peaks at intermediate precipitation

Danilo M. Neves, Kyle G. Dexter, Timothy R. Baker, Fernanda Coelho De Souza, Ary T. Oliveira-Filho, Luciano P. Queiroz, Haroldo C. Lima, Marcelo F. Simon, Gwilym P. Lewis, Ricardo A. Segovia, Luzmila Arroyo, Carlos Reynel, José L. Marcelo-Peña, Isau Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Daniel Villarroel, G. Alexander Parada, Aniceto Daza, Reynaldo Linares-Palomino, Leandro V. Ferreira, Rafael P. Salomão, Geovane S. Siqueira, Marcelo T. Nascimento, Claudio N. Fraga & R. Toby Pennington
Global patterns of species and evolutionary diversity in plants are primarily determined by a temperature gradient, but precipitation gradients may be more important within the tropics, where plant species richness is positively associated with the amount of rainfall. The impact of precipitation on the distribution of evolutionary diversity, however, is largely unexplored. Here we detail how evolutionary diversity varies along precipitation gradients by bringing together a comprehensive database on the composition of angiosperm tree communities...

Risk factors for mild depression in older women with overactive bladder syndrome: a cross sectional study

Raquel Jacomo, Aline Alves, Marianne Silva, Liana Matheus, Patricia Garcia, Dayanne Lorena & João De Sousa
Background: Studies demonstrate an association between severe depression and overactive bladder syndrome (OAB). However, mild depression is constantly overlooked. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and sociodemographic factors associated with mild depression in women with OAB. Methods: Cross-sectional study involving 241 women over 60 years old in Brasilia, Brazil. All patients were subjected to an interview followed by questionnaires and physical examination. The clinical and sociodemographic variables analyzed were age, body...

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