The expected strong directional selection for traits that increase a male's mating ability conflicts with the frequent observation that within species, males may show extreme variation in sexual traits. These male reproductive polymorphisms are usually attributed to direct male-male competition. It is currently unclear, however, how directional selection for sexually selected traits may convert into disruptive selection, and if female preference for elaborate traits may be an alternative mechanism driving the evolution of male polymorphism....
Data from: Characterization of the placoderm (Gnathostomata) assemblage from the tetrapod-bearing locality of Strud (Belgium, Upper Famennian)Sébastien Olive, Gaël Clément, Edward B. Daeschler & Vincent Dupret
The placoderm fauna of the late Famennian tetrapod-bearing locality of Strud, Belgium, is studied on the basis of historical and newly collected material. It includes the previously described antiarch Grossilepis rikiki, the groenlandaspidid Turrisaspis strudensis sp. nov. and the actinolepidoideid Phyllolepis undulata. P. undulata is thoroughly described and joins the list of the valid Phyllolepis species confidently diagnosed. A morphometrical analysis performed on the centronuchal and anterior ventrolateral plates of the Phyllolepis material demonstrates that...
Data from: No deep diving: evidence of predation on epipelagic fish for a stem beaked whale from the late Miocene of PeruOlivier Lambert, Alberto Collareta, Walter Landini, Klaas Post, Benjamin Ramassamy, Claudio Di Celma, Mario Urbina-Schmitt & Giovanni Bianucci
Although modern beaked whales (Ziphiidae) are known to be highly specialized toothed whales that predominantly feed at great depths upon benthic and benthopelagic prey, only limited palaeontological data document this major ecological shift. We report on a ziphiid–fish assemblage from the Late Miocene of Peru that we interpret as the first direct evidence of a predator–prey relationship between a ziphiid and epipelagic fish. Preserved in a dolomite concretion, a skeleton of the stem ziphiid Messapicetus...
Many studies have focused on the impacts of climate change on biological assemblages, yet little is known about how climate interacts with other major anthropogenic influences on biodiversity, such as habitat disturbance. Using a unique global database of 1128 local ant assemblages, we examined whether climate mediates the effects of habitat disturbance on assemblage structure at a global scale. Species richness and evenness were associated positively with temperature, and negatively with disturbance. However, the interaction...
Data from: New fossil Hyaenodonta (Mammalia, Placentalia) from the Ypresian and Lutetian of France and the evolution of the Proviverrinae in southern EuropeFloréal Solé, Jocelyn Falconnet & Dominique Vidalenc
The proviverrines from the Ypresian (MP7–MP10) and Lutetian (MP11–MP14) are represented mainly by species recorded in the northern and central parts of Europe (Paris Basin, Belgian Basin, Germany, Switzerland). Here, we describe fossils from southern France: Saint-Papoul (MP8 + 9; Aude) and Aigues-Vives 2 (?MP13; Aude). One dentary with secant molars from Saint-Papoul represents a new genus and species, Preregidens langebadrae. This taxon is possibly present in Avenay (France), the MP8 + 9 reference locality....
Data from: Persistent inter- and intraspecific gene exchange within a parallel radiation of caterpillar hunter beetles (Calosoma sp.) from the GalápagosFrederik Hendrickx, Viki Vandomme, Carl Vangestel, Thierry Backeljau, Wouter Dekoninck & Steven M. Van Belleghem
When environmental gradients are repeated on different islands within an archipelago, similar selection pressures may act within each island, resulting in the repeated occurrence of ecologically similar species on each island. The evolution of ecotypes within such radiations may either result from dispersal, that is each ecotype evolved once and dispersed to different islands where it colonized its habitat, or through repeated and parallel speciation within each island. However, it remains poorly understood how gene...
Data from: Genetics, morphology, advertisement calls, and historical records distinguish six new polyploid species of African clawed frog (Xenopus, Pipidae) from West and Central AfricaBen J. Evans, Timothy F. Carter, Eli Greenbaum, Václav Gvoždík, Darcy B. Kelley, Patrick J. McLaughlin, Olivier S. G. Pauwels, Daniel M. Portik, Edward L. Stanley, Richard C. Tinsley, Martha L. Tobias & David C. Blackburn
African clawed frogs, genus Xenopus, are extraordinary among vertebrates in the diversity of their polyploid species and the high number of independent polyploidization events that occurred during their diversification. Here we update current understanding of the evolutionary history of this group and describe six new species from west and central sub-Saharan Africa, including four tetraploids and two dodecaploids. We provide information on molecular variation, morphology, karyotypes, vocalizations, and estimated geographic ranges, which support the distinctiveness...
Data from: Trophic interactions in an ant nest microcosm: a combined experimental and stable isotope (δ13C/δ15N) approachThomas Parmentier, Steven Bouillon, Wouter Dekoninck & Tom Wenseleers
Living in close association with other organisms has proven to be a widespread and successful strategy in nature. Some communities are completely driven by symbiotic associations and therefore, intimate relationships among the partners can be expected. Here, we analyzed in-depth the food web of a particularly rich community of arthropods found in strict association with European red wood ants (Formica rufa group). We studied the trophic links between different ant-associated myrmecophiles and food sources associated...
Data from: Testing for Depéret’s rule (body size increase) in mammals using combined extinct and extant dataFolmer Bokma, Marc Godinot, Olivier Maridet, Sandrine Ladevèze, Loïc Costeur, Floréal Solé, Emmanuel Gheerbrant, Stéphane Peigné, Florian Jacques & Michel Laurin
Whether or not evolutionary lineages in general show a tendency to increase in body size has often been discussed. This tendency has been dubbed “Cope's rule” but because Cope never hypothesized it, we suggest renaming it after Depéret, who formulated it clearly in 1907. Depéret's rule has traditionally been studied using fossil data, but more recently a number of studies have used present-day species. While several paleontological studies of Cenozoic placental mammals have found support...
Data from: Adaptation of a polyphagous herbivore to a novel host plant extensively shapes the transcriptome of herbivore and hostNicky Wybouw, Vladimir Zhurov, Catherine Martel, Kristie A. Bruinsma, Frederik Hendrickx, Vojislava Grbić & Thomas Van Leeuwen
Generalist arthropod herbivores rapidly adapt to a broad range of host plants. However, the extent of transcriptional reprogramming in the herbivore and its hosts associated with adaptation remains poorly understood. Using the spider mite Tetranychus urticae and tomato as models with available genomic resources, we investigated the reciprocal genomewide transcriptional changes in both spider mite and tomato as a consequence of mite's adaptation to tomato. We transferred a genetically diverse mite population from bean to...
Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences10
French National Centre for Scientific Research3
Estación Biológica de Doñana1
National University of San Marcos1
University of Massachusetts Amherst1
University of Antwerp1
Field Museum of Natural History1