599 Works

Research Revisited: Cognitive Effects of Greek Affiliation in College: Additional Evidence

Ernest T. Pascarella, Lamont Flowers & Elizabeth J. Whitt

Data from: Phylogenomics clarifies repeated evolutionary origins of inbreeding and fungus farming in bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae)

Andrew Johnson, McKenna, Bjarte H. Jordal, Anthony I. Cognato, Sarah M. Smith, Alan R. Lemmon, Emily L. Moriarty Lemmon & Jiri Hulcr
Bark and ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae) display a conspicuous diversity of unusual genetic and ecological attributes and behaviors. Reconstructing the evolution of Scolytinae, particularly the large and ecologically significant tribe Cryphalini (pygmy borers), has long been problematic. These challenges have not adequately been addressed using morphological characters, and previous research has used only DNA sequence data from small numbers of genes. Through a combination of anchored hybrid enrichment, low-coverage draft genomes, and transcriptomes, we addressed...

Data from Divergent, age-associated fungal communities of Pinus flexilis and Pinus longaeva

Joseph D. Birch, James Lutz, Benjamin Turner & Justine Karst
The long-lived five-needle pines, Pinus flexilis (limber pine) and Pinus longaeva (Great Basin bristlecone pine) can co-occur and may form symbiotic partnerships with the same species of ectomycorrhizal fungi. These shared symbiotic relationships may facilitate the persistence of these pine species. Throughout their lives, P. flexilis and P. longaeva may also assemble unique elowground fungal communities, adding to the conservation value of ancient trees. We used MiSeq sequencing of fungal rDNA to compare fungal community...

Data from: Species and phylogenetic nomenclature

Nico Cellinese, David A. Baum, Mishler D. Brent & Brent D. Mishler
The motivation for the development of phylogenetic nomenclature (originally called “phylogenetic taxonomy”) was to allow biological classification (or “systematization”) to represent phylogenetic relationships, and to embody important principles such as “the untenability of paraphyletic groups” (de Queiroz and Gauthier 1990). From this starting point de Queiroz and Gauthier developed a creative new basis for systematization in which the entities are not ranked taxa but clades (de Queiroz and Gauthier 1990, 1992, 1994; de Queiroz 1992,...

Data from: Altered spring phenology of North American freshwater turtles and the importance of representative populations

Fredric J. Janzen, Luke A. Hoekstra, Ronald J. Brooks, David M. Carroll, J. Whitfield Gibbons, Judith L. Greene, John B. Iverson, Jacqueline D. Litzgus, Edwin D. Michael, Steven G. Parren, Willem M. Roosenburg, Gabriel F. Strain, John K. Tucker & Gordon R. Ultsch
Globally, populations of diverse taxa have altered phenology in response to climate change. However, most research has focused on a single population of a given taxon, which may be unrepresentative for comparative analyses, and few long‐term studies of phenology in ectothermic amniotes have been published. We test for climate‐altered phenology using long‐term studies (10–36 years) of nesting behavior in 14 populations representing six genera of freshwater turtles (Chelydra, Chrysemys, Kinosternon, Malaclemys, Sternotherus, and Trachemys). Nesting...

Data from: Novel host plant leads to the loss of sexual dimorphism in a sexually-selected male weapon

Pablo Allen, Christine W. Miller & Pablo E. Allen
In this time of massive global change, species are now frequently interacting with novel players. Greater insight into the impact of these novel interactions on traits linked to fitness is essential, because effects on these traits can hinder population existence or promote rapid adaptation. Sexually-selected weapons and ornaments frequently influence fitness and often have heightened condition-dependence in response to nutrition. Condition-dependence in response to different ecological conditions, a form of developmental plasticity, may be responsible...

Data from: Two-phase increase in the maximum size of life over 3.5 billion years reflects biological innovation and environmental opportunity

Jonathan L. Payne, Alison G. Boyer, James H. Brown, Seth Finnegan, Michal Kowaleski, , S. Kathleen Lyons, Craig R. McClain, Daniel W. McShea, Phillip M. Novack-Gottshall, Felisa A. Smith, Jennifer A. Stempien, Steve C. Wang, M. Kowalewski & R. A. Krause
NOTE: See also http://bodysize.nescent.org. ABSTRACT: The maximum size of organisms has increased enormously since the initial appearance of life >3.5 billion years ago (Gya), but the pattern and timing of this size increase is poorly known. Consequently, controls underlying the size spectrum of the global biota have been difficult to evaluate. Our period-level compilation of the largest known fossil organisms demonstrates that maximum size increased by 16 orders of magnitude since life first appeared in...

Data from: Effects of grain size and niche breadth on species distribution modeling

Thomas Connor, Vanessa Hull, Andres Vina, Ashton Shortridge, Ying Tang, Jindong Zhang, Fang Wang & Jianguo Liu
Scale is a vital component to consider in ecological research, and spatial resolution or grain size is one of its key facets. Species distribution models (SDMs) are prime examples of ecological research in which grain size is an important component. Despite this, SDMs rarely explicitly examine the effects of varying the grain size of the predictors for species with different niche breadths. To investigate the effect of grain size and niche breadth on SDMs, we...

Data from: Agonistic character displacement in social cognition of advertisement signals

Bret Pasch, Rachel Sanford & Steven M. Phelps
Interspecific aggression between sibling species may enhance discrimination of competitors when recognition errors are costly, but proximate mechanisms mediating increased discriminative ability are unclear. We studied behavioral and neural mechanisms underlying responses to conspecific and heterospecific vocalizations in Alston’s singing mouse (Scotinomys teguina), a species in which males sing to repel rivals. We performed playback experiments using males in allopatry and sympatry with a dominant heterospecific (Scotinomys xerampelinus) and examined song-evoked induction of egr-1 in...

Data from: Comparing process-based and constraint-based approaches for modeling macroecological patterns

Xiao Xiao, James P. O'Dwyer & Ethan P. White
Ecological patterns arise from the interplay of many different processes, and yet the emergence of consistent phenomena across a diverse range of ecological systems suggests that many patterns may in part be determined by statistical or numerical constraints. Differentiating the extent to which patterns in a given system are determined statistically, and where it requires explicit ecological processes, has been difficult. We tackled this challenge by directly comparing models from a constraint-based theory, the Maximum...

Data from: Effects of a non-native grass invasion decline over time

S. Luke Flory, Jonathan Bauer, Richard P. Phillips & Keith Clay
Most research on dynamics and impacts of plant invasions has evaluated patterns and effects over brief time periods (i.e. <4 years). As such, little is known about the persistence of invasions and their long-term impacts on native species. To experimentally evaluate longer-term effects of invasions, we established field plots with native tree and herbaceous species and then invaded half of the plots with the most widespread invasive grass in the eastern United States (Microstegium vimineum)....

Data from: On the widespread capacity for and functional significance of extreme inbreeding in ferns

Emily B. Sessa, Weston L. Testo, & James E. Watkins
Homosporous vascular plants utilize three different mating systems, one of which, gametophytic selfing, is an extreme form of inbreeding only possible in homosporous groups. This mating system results in complete homozygosity in all progeny and has important evolutionary and ecological implications. Ferns are the largest group of homosporous land plants, and the significance of extreme inbreeding for fern evolution has been the subject of debate for decades. We cultured gametophytes in the laboratory and quantified...

Data from: A newly identified left–right asymmetry in larval sea urchins

Jason Hodin, Keegan Lutek & Andreas Heyland
Directional asymmetry (DA) in body form is a widespread phenomenon in animals and plants alike, and a functional understanding of such asymmetries can offer insights into the ways in which ecology and development interface to drive evolution. Echinoids (sea urchins, sand dollars and their kin) with planktotrophic development have a bilaterally symmetrical feeding pluteus larva that undergoes a dramatic metamorphosis into a pentameral juvenile that enters the benthos at settlement. The earliest stage of this...

Data from: Multiple stressors and the potential for synergistic loss of New England salt marshes

Sinead M. Crotty, Christine Angelini & Mark D. Bertness
Climate change and other anthropogenic stressors are converging on coastal ecosystems worldwide. Understanding how these stressors interact to affect ecosystem structure and function has immediate implications for coastal planning, however few studies quantify stressor interactions. We examined past and potential future interactions between two leading stressors on New England salt marshes: sea-level rise and marsh crab (Sesarma reticulatum) grazing driven low marsh die-off. Geospatial analyses reveal that crab-driven die-off has led to an order of...

Data from: Compensatory mutations improve general permissiveness to antibiotic resistance plasmids

Wesley Loftie-Eaton, Kelsie Bashford, Hannah Quinn, Kieran Dong, Jack Millstein, Samuel Hunter, Maureen K. Thomason, Houra Merrikh, Jose M. Ponciano & Eva M. Top
Horizontal gene transfer mediated by broad-host-range plasmids is an important mechanism of antibiotic resistance spread. While not all bacteria maintain plasmids equally well, plasmid persistence can improve over time, yet no general evolutionary mechanisms have emerged. Our goal was to identify these mechanisms, and to assess if adaptation to one plasmid affects the permissiveness to others. We experimentally evolved Pseudomonas sp. H2 containing multi-drug resistance plasmid RP4, determined plasmid persistence and cost using a joint...

Data from: Biotic-drivers of seedling establishment in Neotropical savannas: selective granivory and seedling herbivory by leaf-cutter ants as an ecological filter

Alan N. Costa, Heraldo L. Vasconcelos & Emilio M. Bruna
Herbivory has been shown to have prominent top-down effects on vegetation in Paleotropical savannas, where consumers of early stages of life history act as demographic bottlenecks. Such impact has been largely ignored in Neotropical savannas, however, despite insect consumption being linked to reduced recruitment of woody species. We hypothesize that Atta leaf-cutter ants – the prevalent herbivores in the Neotropics – alter the establishment of woody plant seedlings in the Brazilian Cerrado by reducing seed...

Data from: Concussion Biomarkers Assessed in Collegiate Student-Athletes (BASICS) I: normative study

Breton Michael Asken, Russell M. Bauer, Steven Trent DeKosky, Zachary Morgan Houck, Charles C. Moreno, Michael S. Jaffee, Arthur G. Weber & James R. Clugston
Objective: To describe variability in concussion biomarker concentrations collected from serum in a sample of healthy collegiate athletes, as well as report reliability metrics in a subsample of female athletes. Methods: Observational cohort study - Aβ42, total tau, S100B, UCH-L1, GFAP, MAP2, and CNPase serum concentrations were measured in 415 (61% male, 40% white, age 19.0±1.2 years) non-concussed collegiate athletes without recent exposure to head impacts. Standardized normative distributions are reported for each biomarker. We...

Data from: Cryptotermes colombianus a new drywood termite and distribution record of Cryptotermes in Colombia

Robin Casalla, Rudolf H. Scheffrahn, Judith Korb & Rudolf Scheffrahn
A new species of drywood termite (Kalotermitidae), Cryptotermes colombianus, is described and new records for Cryptotermes cylindroceps and Cryptotermes mangoldi are presented from the Caribbean coast of Colombia. C. colombianus is described from two soldiers and genetic sequences. This unusual species differs noticeably from other regional Cryptotermes species for its weak and inconspicuous definition of the frontal and genal horns and its acute angle of the frons with respect to the vertex. C. colombianus clustered...

Data from: Surrogate taxa and fossils as reliable proxies of spatial biodiversity patterns in marine benthic communities

Carrie L. Tyler & Michał Kowalewski
Rigorous documentation of spatial heterogeneity (β-diversity) in present-day and preindustrial ecosystems is required to assess how marine communities respond to environmental and anthropogenic drivers. However, the overwhelming majority of contemporary and palaeontological assessments have centred on single higher taxa. To evaluate the validity of single taxa as community surrogates and palaeontological proxies, we compared macrobenthic communities and sympatric death assemblages at 52 localities in Onslow Bay (NC, USA). Compositional heterogeneity did not differ significantly across...

Data from: Primer development for the plastid region ycf1 in Annonaceae and other magnoliids

Kurt M. Neubig & J. Richard Abbott
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Primers were developed for a portion of the ycf1 plastid gene in magnoliid taxa to investigate the utility of ycf1 in phylogenetic analyses. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-six species across six families within the magnoliid group (Canellales, Piperales, Laurales, and Magnoliales) were sampled to examine the ability to amplify ycf1. Additionally, 29 accessions of Asimina and Deeringothamnus (Annonaceae) were sequenced to assess levels of variation in ycf1 compared to matK and trnL-F....

Data from: Experimental evolution with Caenorhabditis nematodes

Henrique Teotónio, Suzanne Estes, Patrick C. Phillips & Charles F. Baer
The hermaphroditic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been one of the primary model systems in biology since the 1970s, but only within the last two decades has this nematode also become a useful model for experimental evolution. Here, we outline the goals and major foci of experimental evolution with C. elegans and related species, such as C. briggsae and C. remanei, by discussing the principles of experimental design, and highlighting the strengths and limitations of Caenorhabditis...

Data from: Raccoon contact networks predict seasonal susceptibility to rabies outbreaks and limitations of vaccination

Jennifer J. H. Reynolds, Ben T. Hirsch, Stanley D. Gehrt & Meggan E. Craft
1. Infectious disease transmission often depends on the contact structure of host populations. Although it is often challenging to capture the contact structure in wild animals, new technology has enabled biologists to obtain detailed temporal information on wildlife social contacts. In this study, we investigated the effects of raccoon contact patterns on rabies spread using network modelling. 2. Raccoons (Procyon lotor) play an important role in the maintenance of rabies in the United States. It...

Data from: Resilient networks of ant-plant mutualists in Amazonian forest fragments

Heather A. Passmore, Emilio M. Bruna, Sylvia M. Heredia & Heraldo L. Vasconcelos
BACKGROUND: The organization of networks of interacting species, such as plants and animals engaged in mutualisms, strongly influences the ecology and evolution of partner communities. Habitat fragmentation is a globally pervasive form of spatial heterogeneity that could profoundly impact the structure of mutualist networks. This is particularly true for biodiversity-rich tropical ecosystems, where the majority of plant species depend on mutualisms with animals and it is thought that changes in the structure of mutualist networks...

Data from: Shifting baselines on a tropical forest frontier: extirpations drive declines in local ecological knowledge

Zhong Kai, Teoh Shu Woan, Li Jie, Eben Goodale, Kaoru Kitajima, Robert Bagchi, Rhett D. Harrison & Zhang Kai
The value of local ecological knowledge (LEK) to conservation is increasingly recognised, but LEK is being rapidly lost as indigenous livelihoods change. Biodiversity loss is also a driver of the loss of LEK, but quantitative study is lacking. In our study landscape in SW China, a large proportion of species have been extirpated. Hence, we were interested to understand whether species extirpation might have led to an erosion of LEK and the implications this might...

Data from: Assessing reproductive behavior important to fisheries management: a case study with red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus

Susan K. Lowerre-Barbieri, Sarah Lyle Walters Burnsed & Joel William Bickford
Spawning site selection and reproductive timing affect stock productivity and structure in marine fishes but are poorly understood. Traditionally, stock assessments measure reproductive potential as spawning stock biomass or egg production and do not include other aspects of reproductive behavior. Red drum make an excellent case study to assess these other aspects, as (1) they are highly fecund, pelagic spawners, like most exploited marine fishes; (2) their life cycle is delineated between nursery (estuarine) and...

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