464 Works

Data from: Increasing synergistic effects of habitat destruction and hunting on mammals over three decades in the Gran Chaco

Alfredo Romero-Muñoz, Ana Benítez-López, Damaris Zurell, Matthias Baumann, Micaela Camino, Julieta Decarre, Hugo Del Castillo, Anthony Giordano, Bibiana Gómez-Valencia, Christian Levers, Andrew Noss, Veronica Quiroga, Jeffrey Thompson, Ricardo Torres, Marianela Velilla, Andrea Weiler & Tobias Kuemmerle
Habitat destruction and overexploitation are the main threats to biodiversity and where they co-occur, their combined impact is often larger than their individual one. Yet, detailed knowledge of the spatial footprints of these threats is lacking, including where they overlap and how they change over time. These knowledge gaps are real barriers for effective conservation planning. Here, we develop a novel approach to reconstruct the individual and combined footprints of both threats over time. We...

Bat community response to intensification of biomass production for bioenergy across the southeastern United States

Holly Ober, Gavin Jones, Isabel Gottlieb, Shelly Johnson, Lora Smith, Berry Brosi & Robert Fletcher
Human demand for food, fiber, and space is accelerating the rate of change of land cover and land use. Much of the world now consists of a matrix of natural forests, managed forests, agricultural cropland, and urbanized plots. Expansion of domestic energy production efforts in the United States is one driver predicted to influence future land-use and land management practices across large spatial scales. Favorable growing conditions make the southeastern United States an ideal location...

Data from: Clonal integration enhances performance of an invasive grass

Chris Wilson, James Estrada & Stephen Flory
While many clonal plants are highly successful invaders, not all clonal plants share resources, often making the contribution of clonal integration (i.e., the translocation of resources among ramets) to invasion unclear. To determine if photosynthate translocation augments performance of emerging daughter ramets for a globally invasive grass (Imperata cylindrica), we combined a 13CO2 pulse-chase experiment with a greenhouse experiment manipulating light levels and rhizome attachment. Model simulations were also used to determine if clonal integration...

Data from: Testing support for the northern and southern dispersal routes out of Africa: an analysis of Levantine and southern Arabian populations

Deven N. Vyas, Ali Al-Meeri & Connie J. Mulligan
Objectives: The Northern Dispersal Route (NDR) and Southern Dispersal Route (SDR) are hypothesized to have been used by modern humans in the dispersal out of Africa. The NDR follows the Nile into Northeast Africa and crosses the Red Sea into the Levant. The SDR emerges from the Horn of Africa and crosses the Bab el-Mandeb into southern Arabia. In this study, we analyze genetic data from populations living along the NDR and SDR to test...

Data from: Patterns of divergence across the geographic and genomic landscape of a butterfly hybrid zone associated with a climatic gradient

Sean F. Ryan, Michaël C. Fontaine, J. Mark Scriber, Michael E. Pfrender, Shawn T. O'Neil & Jessica J. Hellmann
Hybrid zones are a valuable tool for studying the process of speciation and for identifying the genomic regions undergoing divergence and the ecological (extrinsic) and non-ecological (intrinsic) factors involved. Here, we explored the genomic and geographic landscape of divergence in a hybrid zone between Papilio glaucus and Papilio canadensis. Using a genome scan of 28,417 ddRAD SNPs, we identified genomic regions under possible selection and examined their distribution in the context of previously identified candidate...

Data from: Experimental evolution with Caenorhabditis nematodes

Henrique Teotónio, Suzanne Estes, Patrick C. Phillips & Charles F. Baer
The hermaphroditic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been one of the primary model systems in biology since the 1970s, but only within the last two decades has this nematode also become a useful model for experimental evolution. Here, we outline the goals and major foci of experimental evolution with C. elegans and related species, such as C. briggsae and C. remanei, by discussing the principles of experimental design, and highlighting the strengths and limitations of Caenorhabditis...

Data from: Non-random patterns of invasion and extinction reduce phylogenetic diversity in island bird assemblages

Benjamin Baiser, Dennis Valle, Zoe Zelazny & J. Gordon Burleigh
Anthropogenically driven changes in bird communities on oceanic islands exemplify the biotic upheaval experienced by island floras and faunas. While the influence of invasions and extinctions on species richness and beta-diversity of island bird assemblages have been explored, little is known about the impact of these invasions and extinctions on phylogenetic diversity. Here we quantify phylogenetic diversity of island bird assemblages resulting from extinctions alone, invasions alone, and the combination of extinctions and invasions in...

Data from: Effects of a non-native grass invasion decline over time

S. Luke Flory, Jonathan Bauer, Richard P. Phillips & Keith Clay
Most research on dynamics and impacts of plant invasions has evaluated patterns and effects over brief time periods (i.e. <4 years). As such, little is known about the persistence of invasions and their long-term impacts on native species. To experimentally evaluate longer-term effects of invasions, we established field plots with native tree and herbaceous species and then invaded half of the plots with the most widespread invasive grass in the eastern United States (Microstegium vimineum)....

Data from: Novel host plant leads to the loss of sexual dimorphism in a sexually-selected male weapon

Pablo Allen, Christine W. Miller & Pablo E. Allen
In this time of massive global change, species are now frequently interacting with novel players. Greater insight into the impact of these novel interactions on traits linked to fitness is essential, because effects on these traits can hinder population existence or promote rapid adaptation. Sexually-selected weapons and ornaments frequently influence fitness and often have heightened condition-dependence in response to nutrition. Condition-dependence in response to different ecological conditions, a form of developmental plasticity, may be responsible...

Data from: Compensatory mutations improve general permissiveness to antibiotic resistance plasmids

Wesley Loftie-Eaton, Kelsie Bashford, Hannah Quinn, Kieran Dong, Jack Millstein, Samuel Hunter, Maureen K. Thomason, Houra Merrikh, Jose M. Ponciano & Eva M. Top
Horizontal gene transfer mediated by broad-host-range plasmids is an important mechanism of antibiotic resistance spread. While not all bacteria maintain plasmids equally well, plasmid persistence can improve over time, yet no general evolutionary mechanisms have emerged. Our goal was to identify these mechanisms, and to assess if adaptation to one plasmid affects the permissiveness to others. We experimentally evolved Pseudomonas sp. H2 containing multi-drug resistance plasmid RP4, determined plasmid persistence and cost using a joint...

Data from: Nitrogen-fixing tree abundance in higher-latitude North America is not constrained by diversity

Duncan N. L. Menge, Sarah A. Batterman, Wenying Liao, Benton N. Taylor, Jeremy W. Lichstein & Gregorio Ángeles-Pérez
The rarity of nitrogen (N)-fixing trees in frequently N-limited higher-latitude (here, > 35°) forests is a central biogeochemical paradox. One hypothesis for their rarity is that evolutionary constraints limit N-fixing tree diversity, preventing N-fixing species from filling available niches in higher-latitude forests. Here, we test this hypothesis using data from the USA and Mexico. N-fixing trees comprise only a slightly smaller fraction of taxa at higher vs. lower latitudes (8% vs. 11% of genera), despite...

Data from: Application of genomic estimation methods of inbreeding and population structure in an Arabian horse herd

Mohammed A. Al Abri, Uta Koenig Von Borstel, Veronique Strecker & Samantha A. Brooks
Horse breeders rely heavily on pedigrees for identification of ancestry in breeding stock. Inaccurate pedigrees may erroneously assign individuals to false lineages or breed memberships resulting in wrong estimates of inbreeding and coancestry. Moreover, discrepancies in pedigree records can lead breeders seeking to limit inbreeding into making misguided breeding decisions. Genome-wide SNPs provide a quantitative tool to aid in the resolution of lineage assignments and the calculation of genomic measures of relatedness. The aim of...

Data from: Agonistic character displacement in social cognition of advertisement signals

Bret Pasch, Rachel Sanford & Steven M. Phelps
Interspecific aggression between sibling species may enhance discrimination of competitors when recognition errors are costly, but proximate mechanisms mediating increased discriminative ability are unclear. We studied behavioral and neural mechanisms underlying responses to conspecific and heterospecific vocalizations in Alston’s singing mouse (Scotinomys teguina), a species in which males sing to repel rivals. We performed playback experiments using males in allopatry and sympatry with a dominant heterospecific (Scotinomys xerampelinus) and examined song-evoked induction of egr-1 in...

Data from: Surrogate taxa and fossils as reliable proxies of spatial biodiversity patterns in marine benthic communities

Carrie L. Tyler & Michał Kowalewski
Rigorous documentation of spatial heterogeneity (β-diversity) in present-day and preindustrial ecosystems is required to assess how marine communities respond to environmental and anthropogenic drivers. However, the overwhelming majority of contemporary and palaeontological assessments have centred on single higher taxa. To evaluate the validity of single taxa as community surrogates and palaeontological proxies, we compared macrobenthic communities and sympatric death assemblages at 52 localities in Onslow Bay (NC, USA). Compositional heterogeneity did not differ significantly across...

Data from: Multiple stressors and the potential for synergistic loss of New England salt marshes

Sinead M. Crotty, Christine Angelini & Mark D. Bertness
Climate change and other anthropogenic stressors are converging on coastal ecosystems worldwide. Understanding how these stressors interact to affect ecosystem structure and function has immediate implications for coastal planning, however few studies quantify stressor interactions. We examined past and potential future interactions between two leading stressors on New England salt marshes: sea-level rise and marsh crab (Sesarma reticulatum) grazing driven low marsh die-off. Geospatial analyses reveal that crab-driven die-off has led to an order of...

Data from: Tropical ancient DNA reveals relationships of the extinct Bahamian giant tortoise Chelonoidis alburyorum

Christian Kehlmaier, Axel Barlow, Alexander K. Hastings, Melita Vamberger, Johanna L. A. Paijmans, David W. Steadman, Nancy A. Albury, Richard Franz, Michael Hofreiter & Uwe Fritz
Ancient DNA of extinct species from the Pleistocene and Holocene has provided valuable evolutionary insights. However, these are largely restricted to mammals and high latitudes because DNA preservation in warm climates is typically poor. In the tropics and subtropics, non-avian reptiles constitute a significant part of the fauna and little is known about the genetics of the many extinct reptiles from tropical islands. We have reconstructed the near-complete mitochondrial genome of an extinct giant tortoise...

Data from: Priority effects can persist across floral generations in nectar microbial metacommunities

Hirokazu Toju, Rachel L. Vannette, Marie-Pierre L. Gauthier, Manpreet K. Dhami & Tadashi Fukami
The order of species arrival can influence how species interact with one another and, consequently, which species may coexist in local communities. This phenomenon, called priority effects, has been observed in various types of communities, but it remains unclear whether priority effects persist over the long term spanning multiple generations of local communities in metacommunities. Focusing on bacteria and yeasts that colonize floral nectar of the sticky monkey flower, Mimulus aurantiacus, via hummingbirds and other...

Data from: Reconstructing ecological niche evolution when niches are incompletely characterized

Erin E. Saupe, Narayani Barve, Hannah L. Owens, Jacob C. Cooper, Peter A. Hosner, A. Townsend Peterson, Jacob C Cooper, Erin E Saupe, Peter A Hosner, Hannah L Owens & A Townsend Peterson
Evolutionary dynamics of abiotic ecological niches across phylogenetic history can shed light on large-scale biogeographic patterns, macroevolutionary rate shifts, and the relative ability of lineages to respond to global change. An unresolved question is how best to represent and reconstruct evolution of these complex traits at coarse spatial scales through time. Studies have approached this question by integrating phylogenetic comparative methods with niche estimates inferred from correlative and other models. However, methods for estimating niches...

Data from: Character evolution and missing (morphological) data across Asteridae

Gregory W. Stull, Melanie Schori, Douglas E. Soltis & Pamela S. Soltis
Premise of the study: Our current understanding of flowering plant phylogeny provides an excellent framework for exploring various aspects of character evolution through comparative analyses. However, attempts to synthesize this phylogenetic framework with extensive morphological datasets have been surprisingly rare. Here, we explore character evolution in Asteridae (asterids), a major angiosperm clade, using an extensive morphological data set and a well-resolved phylogeny. Methods: We scored 15 phenotypic characters (spanning chemistry, vegetative anatomy, and floral, fruit,...

Data from: Altered spring phenology of North American freshwater turtles and the importance of representative populations

Fredric J. Janzen, Luke A. Hoekstra, Ronald J. Brooks, David M. Carroll, J. Whitfield Gibbons, Judith L. Greene, John B. Iverson, Jacqueline D. Litzgus, Edwin D. Michael, Steven G. Parren, Willem M. Roosenburg, Gabriel F. Strain, John K. Tucker & Gordon R. Ultsch
Globally, populations of diverse taxa have altered phenology in response to climate change. However, most research has focused on a single population of a given taxon, which may be unrepresentative for comparative analyses, and few long‐term studies of phenology in ectothermic amniotes have been published. We test for climate‐altered phenology using long‐term studies (10–36 years) of nesting behavior in 14 populations representing six genera of freshwater turtles (Chelydra, Chrysemys, Kinosternon, Malaclemys, Sternotherus, and Trachemys). Nesting...

Data from: Concussion Biomarkers Assessed in Collegiate Student-Athletes (BASICS) I: normative study

Breton Michael Asken, Russell M. Bauer, Steven Trent DeKosky, Zachary Morgan Houck, Charles C. Moreno, Michael S. Jaffee, Arthur G. Weber & James R. Clugston
Objective: To describe variability in concussion biomarker concentrations collected from serum in a sample of healthy collegiate athletes, as well as report reliability metrics in a subsample of female athletes. Methods: Observational cohort study - Aβ42, total tau, S100B, UCH-L1, GFAP, MAP2, and CNPase serum concentrations were measured in 415 (61% male, 40% white, age 19.0±1.2 years) non-concussed collegiate athletes without recent exposure to head impacts. Standardized normative distributions are reported for each biomarker. We...

Data from: Stratigraphic signatures of mass extinctions: ecological and sedimentary determinants

Rafał Nawrot, Daniele Scarponi, Michele Azzarone, Troy A. Dexter, Kristopher M. Kusnerik, Jacalyn M. Wittmer, Alessandro Amorosi & Michal Kowalewski
Stratigraphic patterns of last occurrences of fossil taxa (LOs) potentially fingerprint mass extinctions and delineate rates and geometries of those events. Although empirical studies of mass extinctions recognize that random sampling causes LOs to occur earlier than the time of extinction (Signor–Lipps effect), sequence-stratigraphic controls on the position of LOs are rarely considered. By tracing stratigraphic ranges of extant mollusc species preserved in the Holocene succession of the Po coastal plain (Italy), we demonstrated that,...

Data from: Competition alters seasonal resource selection and promotes use of invasive shrubs by an imperiled native cottontail

Amanda E. Cheeseman, Sadie J. Ryan, Christopher M. Whipps & Jonathan B. Cohen
1. Many ecosystems face multiple invaders, and interactions among invasive and native species may complicate conservation efforts for imperiled species. Examination of fine-scale resource selection can be used to detect patterns in habitat selection resulting from species interactions and assess the value of specific resources, including invasive plants, to wildlife. 2. We used animal location data with mixed-effects resource selection models to examine seasonal competitive interactions and species-specific selection for forage and cover resources by...

Data from: Effects of grain size and niche breadth on species distribution modeling

Thomas Connor, Vanessa Hull, Andres Vina, Ashton Shortridge, Ying Tang, Jindong Zhang, Fang Wang & Jianguo Liu
Scale is a vital component to consider in ecological research, and spatial resolution or grain size is one of its key facets. Species distribution models (SDMs) are prime examples of ecological research in which grain size is an important component. Despite this, SDMs rarely explicitly examine the effects of varying the grain size of the predictors for species with different niche breadths. To investigate the effect of grain size and niche breadth on SDMs, we...

Data from: Genomic differentiation during speciation-with-gene-flow: comparing geographic and host-related variation in divergent life history adaptation in Rhagoletis pomonella

Meredith M. Doellman, Gregory J. Ragland, Glen R. Hood, Peter J. Meyers, Scott P. Egan, Thomas H.Q. Powell, Peter Lazorchak, Mary M. Glover, Cheyenne Tait, Hannes Schuler, Daniel A. Hahn, Stewart H. Berlocher, James J. Smith, Patrik Nosil, Jeffrey L. Feder, Daniel Hahn, Stewart Berlocher, James Smith, Meredith Doellman, Peter Meyers, Scott Egan, Mary Glover, Jeffrey Feder, Glen Hood, Thomas Powell … & Gregory Ragland
A major goal of evolutionary biology is to understand how variation within populations gets partitioned into differences between reproductively isolated species. Here, we examine the degree to which diapause life history timing, a critical adaptation promoting population divergence, explains geographic and host-related genetic variation in ancestral hawthorn and recently derived apple-infesting races of Rhagoletis pomonella. Our strategy involved combining experiments on two different aspects of diapause (initial diapause intensity and adult eclosion time) with a...

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