1,126 Works

Data from: On the widespread capacity for and functional significance of extreme inbreeding in ferns

Emily B. Sessa, Weston L. Testo, & James E. Watkins
Homosporous vascular plants utilize three different mating systems, one of which, gametophytic selfing, is an extreme form of inbreeding only possible in homosporous groups. This mating system results in complete homozygosity in all progeny and has important evolutionary and ecological implications. Ferns are the largest group of homosporous land plants, and the significance of extreme inbreeding for fern evolution has been the subject of debate for decades. We cultured gametophytes in the laboratory and quantified...

Data from: Raccoon contact networks predict seasonal susceptibility to rabies outbreaks and limitations of vaccination

Jennifer J. H. Reynolds, Ben T. Hirsch, Stanley D. Gehrt & Meggan E. Craft
1. Infectious disease transmission often depends on the contact structure of host populations. Although it is often challenging to capture the contact structure in wild animals, new technology has enabled biologists to obtain detailed temporal information on wildlife social contacts. In this study, we investigated the effects of raccoon contact patterns on rabies spread using network modelling. 2. Raccoons (Procyon lotor) play an important role in the maintenance of rabies in the United States. It...

Data from: Tropical ancient DNA reveals relationships of the extinct Bahamian giant tortoise Chelonoidis alburyorum

Christian Kehlmaier, Axel Barlow, Alexander K. Hastings, Melita Vamberger, Johanna L. A. Paijmans, David W. Steadman, Nancy A. Albury, Richard Franz, Michael Hofreiter & Uwe Fritz
Ancient DNA of extinct species from the Pleistocene and Holocene has provided valuable evolutionary insights. However, these are largely restricted to mammals and high latitudes because DNA preservation in warm climates is typically poor. In the tropics and subtropics, non-avian reptiles constitute a significant part of the fauna and little is known about the genetics of the many extinct reptiles from tropical islands. We have reconstructed the near-complete mitochondrial genome of an extinct giant tortoise...

Data from: Agonistic character displacement in social cognition of advertisement signals

Bret Pasch, Rachel Sanford & Steven M. Phelps
Interspecific aggression between sibling species may enhance discrimination of competitors when recognition errors are costly, but proximate mechanisms mediating increased discriminative ability are unclear. We studied behavioral and neural mechanisms underlying responses to conspecific and heterospecific vocalizations in Alston’s singing mouse (Scotinomys teguina), a species in which males sing to repel rivals. We performed playback experiments using males in allopatry and sympatry with a dominant heterospecific (Scotinomys xerampelinus) and examined song-evoked induction of egr-1 in...

Data from: Biological factors contributing to bark and ambrosia beetle species diversification

Jostein Gohli, Lawrence R. Kirkendall, Sarah M. Smith, Anthony I. Cognato, Jiri Hulcr & Bjarte H. Jordal
The study of species diversification can identify the processes that shape patterns of species richness across the tree of life. Here we perform comparative analyses of species diversification using a large dataset of bark beetles. Three examined covariates – permanent inbreeding (sibling mating), fungus farming, and major host type – represent a range of factors that may be important for speciation. We studied the association of these covariates with species diversification while controlling for evolutionary...

Data from: Compensatory mutations improve general permissiveness to antibiotic resistance plasmids

Wesley Loftie-Eaton, Kelsie Bashford, Hannah Quinn, Kieran Dong, Jack Millstein, Samuel Hunter, Maureen K. Thomason, Houra Merrikh, Jose M. Ponciano & Eva M. Top
Horizontal gene transfer mediated by broad-host-range plasmids is an important mechanism of antibiotic resistance spread. While not all bacteria maintain plasmids equally well, plasmid persistence can improve over time, yet no general evolutionary mechanisms have emerged. Our goal was to identify these mechanisms, and to assess if adaptation to one plasmid affects the permissiveness to others. We experimentally evolved Pseudomonas sp. H2 containing multi-drug resistance plasmid RP4, determined plasmid persistence and cost using a joint...

Data from: Nitrogen-fixing tree abundance in higher-latitude North America is not constrained by diversity

Duncan N. L. Menge, Sarah A. Batterman, Wenying Liao, Benton N. Taylor, Jeremy W. Lichstein & Gregorio Ángeles-Pérez
The rarity of nitrogen (N)-fixing trees in frequently N-limited higher-latitude (here, > 35°) forests is a central biogeochemical paradox. One hypothesis for their rarity is that evolutionary constraints limit N-fixing tree diversity, preventing N-fixing species from filling available niches in higher-latitude forests. Here, we test this hypothesis using data from the USA and Mexico. N-fixing trees comprise only a slightly smaller fraction of taxa at higher vs. lower latitudes (8% vs. 11% of genera), despite...

Data from: Effects of a non-native grass invasion decline over time

S. Luke Flory, Jonathan Bauer, Richard P. Phillips & Keith Clay
Most research on dynamics and impacts of plant invasions has evaluated patterns and effects over brief time periods (i.e. <4 years). As such, little is known about the persistence of invasions and their long-term impacts on native species. To experimentally evaluate longer-term effects of invasions, we established field plots with native tree and herbaceous species and then invaded half of the plots with the most widespread invasive grass in the eastern United States (Microstegium vimineum)....

Data from: Reconstructing ecological niche evolution when niches are incompletely characterized

Erin E. Saupe, Narayani Barve, Hannah L. Owens, Jacob C. Cooper, Peter A. Hosner & A. Townsend Peterson
Evolutionary dynamics of abiotic ecological niches across phylogenetic history can shed light on large-scale biogeographic patterns, macroevolutionary rate shifts, and the relative ability of lineages to respond to global change. An unresolved question is how best to represent and reconstruct evolution of these complex traits at coarse spatial scales through time. Studies have approached this question by integrating phylogenetic comparative methods with niche estimates inferred from correlative and other models. However, methods for estimating niches...

Data from: Surrogate taxa and fossils as reliable proxies of spatial biodiversity patterns in marine benthic communities

Carrie L. Tyler & Michał Kowalewski
Rigorous documentation of spatial heterogeneity (β-diversity) in present-day and preindustrial ecosystems is required to assess how marine communities respond to environmental and anthropogenic drivers. However, the overwhelming majority of contemporary and palaeontological assessments have centred on single higher taxa. To evaluate the validity of single taxa as community surrogates and palaeontological proxies, we compared macrobenthic communities and sympatric death assemblages at 52 localities in Onslow Bay (NC, USA). Compositional heterogeneity did not differ significantly across...

Data from: Multiple stressors and the potential for synergistic loss of New England salt marshes

Sinead M. Crotty, Christine Angelini & Mark D. Bertness
Climate change and other anthropogenic stressors are converging on coastal ecosystems worldwide. Understanding how these stressors interact to affect ecosystem structure and function has immediate implications for coastal planning, however few studies quantify stressor interactions. We examined past and potential future interactions between two leading stressors on New England salt marshes: sea-level rise and marsh crab (Sesarma reticulatum) grazing driven low marsh die-off. Geospatial analyses reveal that crab-driven die-off has led to an order of...

Data from: Experimental evolution with Caenorhabditis nematodes

Henrique Teotónio, Suzanne Estes, Patrick C. Phillips & Charles F. Baer
The hermaphroditic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been one of the primary model systems in biology since the 1970s, but only within the last two decades has this nematode also become a useful model for experimental evolution. Here, we outline the goals and major foci of experimental evolution with C. elegans and related species, such as C. briggsae and C. remanei, by discussing the principles of experimental design, and highlighting the strengths and limitations of Caenorhabditis...

Data from: Non-random patterns of invasion and extinction reduce phylogenetic diversity in island bird assemblages

Benjamin Baiser, Dennis Valle, Zoe Zelazny & J. Gordon Burleigh
Anthropogenically driven changes in bird communities on oceanic islands exemplify the biotic upheaval experienced by island floras and faunas. While the influence of invasions and extinctions on species richness and beta-diversity of island bird assemblages have been explored, little is known about the impact of these invasions and extinctions on phylogenetic diversity. Here we quantify phylogenetic diversity of island bird assemblages resulting from extinctions alone, invasions alone, and the combination of extinctions and invasions in...

Data from: Application of genomic estimation methods of inbreeding and population structure in an Arabian horse herd

Mohammed A. Al Abri, Uta Koenig Von Borstel, Veronique Strecker & Samantha A. Brooks
Horse breeders rely heavily on pedigrees for identification of ancestry in breeding stock. Inaccurate pedigrees may erroneously assign individuals to false lineages or breed memberships resulting in wrong estimates of inbreeding and coancestry. Moreover, discrepancies in pedigree records can lead breeders seeking to limit inbreeding into making misguided breeding decisions. Genome-wide SNPs provide a quantitative tool to aid in the resolution of lineage assignments and the calculation of genomic measures of relatedness. The aim of...

Data from: Priority effects can persist across floral generations in nectar microbial metacommunities

Hirokazu Toju, Rachel L. Vannette, Marie-Pierre L. Gauthier, Manpreet K. Dhami & Tadashi Fukami
The order of species arrival can influence how species interact with one another and, consequently, which species may coexist in local communities. This phenomenon, called priority effects, has been observed in various types of communities, but it remains unclear whether priority effects persist over the long term spanning multiple generations of local communities in metacommunities. Focusing on bacteria and yeasts that colonize floral nectar of the sticky monkey flower, Mimulus aurantiacus, via hummingbirds and other...

Data from: Testing support for the northern and southern dispersal routes out of Africa: an analysis of Levantine and southern Arabian populations

Deven N. Vyas, Ali Al-Meeri & Connie J. Mulligan
Objectives: The Northern Dispersal Route (NDR) and Southern Dispersal Route (SDR) are hypothesized to have been used by modern humans in the dispersal out of Africa. The NDR follows the Nile into Northeast Africa and crosses the Red Sea into the Levant. The SDR emerges from the Horn of Africa and crosses the Bab el-Mandeb into southern Arabia. In this study, we analyze genetic data from populations living along the NDR and SDR to test...

Data from: Patterns of divergence across the geographic and genomic landscape of a butterfly hybrid zone associated with a climatic gradient

Sean F. Ryan, Michaël C. Fontaine, J. Mark Scriber, Michael E. Pfrender, Shawn T. O'Neil & Jessica J. Hellmann
Hybrid zones are a valuable tool for studying the process of speciation and for identifying the genomic regions undergoing divergence and the ecological (extrinsic) and non-ecological (intrinsic) factors involved. Here, we explored the genomic and geographic landscape of divergence in a hybrid zone between Papilio glaucus and Papilio canadensis. Using a genome scan of 28,417 ddRAD SNPs, we identified genomic regions under possible selection and examined their distribution in the context of previously identified candidate...

Data from: Novel host plant leads to the loss of sexual dimorphism in a sexually-selected male weapon

Pablo Allen, Christine W. Miller & Pablo E. Allen
In this time of massive global change, species are now frequently interacting with novel players. Greater insight into the impact of these novel interactions on traits linked to fitness is essential, because effects on these traits can hinder population existence or promote rapid adaptation. Sexually-selected weapons and ornaments frequently influence fitness and often have heightened condition-dependence in response to nutrition. Condition-dependence in response to different ecological conditions, a form of developmental plasticity, may be responsible...

Data from: Effects of grain size and niche breadth on species distribution modeling

Thomas Connor, Vanessa Hull, Andres Vina, Ashton Shortridge, Ying Tang, Jindong Zhang, Fang Wang & Jianguo Liu
Scale is a vital component to consider in ecological research, and spatial resolution or grain size is one of its key facets. Species distribution models (SDMs) are prime examples of ecological research in which grain size is an important component. Despite this, SDMs rarely explicitly examine the effects of varying the grain size of the predictors for species with different niche breadths. To investigate the effect of grain size and niche breadth on SDMs, we...

Data from: Cryptotermes colombianus a new drywood termite and distribution record of Cryptotermes in Colombia

Robin Casalla, Rudolf H. Scheffrahn, Judith Korb & Rudolf Scheffrahn
A new species of drywood termite (Kalotermitidae), Cryptotermes colombianus, is described and new records for Cryptotermes cylindroceps and Cryptotermes mangoldi are presented from the Caribbean coast of Colombia. C. colombianus is described from two soldiers and genetic sequences. This unusual species differs noticeably from other regional Cryptotermes species for its weak and inconspicuous definition of the frontal and genal horns and its acute angle of the frons with respect to the vertex. C. colombianus clustered...

Data from: Phylogenetic comparative analysis supports aposematic colouration–body size association in millipede assassins (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Ectrichodiinae)

Michael Forthman & Christiane Weirauch
The diversity of colour patterns and its importance in interactions with the environment make colouration in animals an intriguing research focus. Aposematic colouration is positively correlated with body size in certain groups of animals, suggesting that warning colours are more effective or that crypsis is harder to achieve in larger animals. Surprisingly, this relationship has not been recovered in studies investigating insects, which may have been confounded by a focus on aposematic taxa that are...

Data from: Altered spring phenology of North American freshwater turtles and the importance of representative populations

Fredric J. Janzen, Luke A. Hoekstra, Ronald J. Brooks, David M. Carroll, J. Whitfield Gibbons, Judith L. Greene, John B. Iverson, Jacqueline D. Litzgus, Edwin D. Michael, Steven G. Parren, Willem M. Roosenburg, Gabriel F. Strain, John K. Tucker & Gordon R. Ultsch
Globally, populations of diverse taxa have altered phenology in response to climate change. However, most research has focused on a single population of a given taxon, which may be unrepresentative for comparative analyses, and few long‐term studies of phenology in ectothermic amniotes have been published. We test for climate‐altered phenology using long‐term studies (10–36 years) of nesting behavior in 14 populations representing six genera of freshwater turtles (Chelydra, Chrysemys, Kinosternon, Malaclemys, Sternotherus, and Trachemys). Nesting...

Data from: Stream flow alone does not predict population structure of diving beetles across complex tropical landscapes

Athena Lam, Emmanuel F. A. Toussaint, Carolin Kindler, Matthew H. Van Dam, Rawati Panjaitan, George K. Roderick & Michael Balke
Recent theoretical advances have hypothesized a central role of habitat persistence on population genetic structure and resulting biodiversity patterns of freshwater organisms. Here, we address the hypothesis that lotic species, or lineages adapted to comparably geologically stable running water habitats (streams and their marginal habitats), have high levels of endemicity and phylogeographic structure due to the persistent nature of their habitat. We use a nextRAD sequencing approach to investigate the population structure and phylogeography of...

Data from: Competition alters seasonal resource selection and promotes use of invasive shrubs by an imperiled native cottontail

Amanda E. Cheeseman, Sadie J. Ryan, Christopher M. Whipps & Jonathan B. Cohen
1. Many ecosystems face multiple invaders, and interactions among invasive and native species may complicate conservation efforts for imperiled species. Examination of fine-scale resource selection can be used to detect patterns in habitat selection resulting from species interactions and assess the value of specific resources, including invasive plants, to wildlife. 2. We used animal location data with mixed-effects resource selection models to examine seasonal competitive interactions and species-specific selection for forage and cover resources by...

Data from: Phylotocol: promoting transparency and overcoming bias in phylogenetics

Melissa B. DeBiasse & Joseph F. Ryan
The integrity of science requires that the process be based on sound experimental design and objective methodology. Strategies that increase reproducibility and transparency in science protect this integrity by reducing conscious and unconscious biases. Given the large number of analysis options and the constant development of new methodologies in phylogenetics, this field is one that would particularly benefit from more transparent research design. Here, we introduce phylotocol (fī·lō·´tə·kôl), an a priori protocol-driven approach in which...

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  • University of Florida
  • Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College
  • Shanghai Jiao Tong University
  • Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  • Sichuan University
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences
  • Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs
  • Nantong University
  • Zhejiang University
  • Fudan University