1,126 Works

Data from: Short-term effects of elevated precipitation and nitrogen on soil fertility and plant growth in a Neotropical savanna

Stella M. Copeland, Emilio M. Bruna, Laura V. Barbosa Silva, Michelle C. Mack & Heraldo L. Vasconcelos
Increasing nitrogen (N) deposition and changing precipitation patterns in Neotropical savannas could alter plant growth, reproduction, and nutrients by altering soil nutrient and water availability. We examined the potential for simulated N deposition and increased dry season precipitation to have interactive effects on reproduction and growth of two abundant native Cerrado (Brazilian savanna) grasses – Loudetiopsis chrysothrix and Tristachya leiostachya – via feedbacks with soil nutrient status. Plant growth and reproduction responses consistently varied by...

Data from: Stimulation of the salicylic acid pathway aboveground recruits entomopathogenic nematodes belowground

Camila Cramer Filgueiras, Denis S. Willett, Alcides Moino, Martin Pareja, Fahiem El Borai, Donald W. Dickson, Lukasz L. Stelinski, Larry W. Duncan & Alcides Moino Junior
Plant defense pathways play a critical role in mediating tritrophic interactions between plants, herbivores, and natural enemies. While the impact of plant defense pathway stimulation on natural enemies has been extensively explored aboveground, belowground ramifications of plant defense pathway stimulation are equally important in regulating subterranean pests and still require more attention. Here we investigate the effect of aboveground stimulation of the salicylic acid pathway through foliar application of the elicitor methyl salicylate on belowground...

Data from: The evolution of reproductive diversity in Afrobatrachia: a phylogenetic comparative analysis of an extensive radiation of African frogs

Daniel M. Portik & David C. Blackburn
The reproductive modes of anurans (frogs and toads) are the most diverse of terrestrial vertebrates, and a major challenge is identifying selective factors that promote the evolution or retention of reproductive modes across clades. Terrestrialized anuran breeding strategies have evolved repeatedly from the plesiomorphic fully aquatic reproductive mode, a process thought to occur through intermediate reproductive stages. Several selective forces have been proposed for the evolution of terrestrialized reproductive traits, but factors such as water...

Data from: Host stress hormones alter vector feeding preferences, success, and productivity

Stephanie S. Gervasi, Nathan Burkett-Cadena, Sarah C. Burgan, Aaron W. Schrey, Hassan K. Hassan, Thomas R. Unnasch & Lynn B. Martin
Stress hormones might represent a key link between individual-level infection outcome, population-level parasite transmission, and zoonotic disease risk. Although the effects of stress on immunity are well known, stress hormones could also affect host–vector interactions via modification of host behaviours or vector-feeding patterns and subsequent reproductive success. Here, we experimentally manipulated songbird stress hormones and examined subsequent feeding preferences, feeding success, and productivity of mosquito vectors in addition to defensive behaviours of hosts. Despite being...

Data from: Cold adaptation increases rates of nutrient flow and metabolic plasticity during cold exposure in Drosophila melanogaster

Caroline M. Williams, Marshall D. McCue, Nishanth E. Sunny, Andre Szejner-Sigal, Theodore J. Morgan, David B. Allison & Daniel A. Hahn
Metabolic flexibility is an important component of adaptation to stressful environments, including thermal stress and latitudinal adaptation. A long history of population genetic studies suggest that selection on core metabolic enzymes may shape life histories by altering metabolic flux. However, the direct relationship between selection on thermal stress hardiness and metabolic flux has not previously been tested. We investigated flexibility of nutrient catabolism during cold stress in Drosophila melanogaster artificially selected for fast or slow...

Data from: Evaluating citizen vs. professional data for modelling distributions of a rare squirrel

Courtney A. Tye, Robert A. McCleery, Robert J. Fletcher, Daniel U. Greene & Ryan S. Butryn
To realize the potential of citizens to contribute to conservation efforts through the acquisition of data for broad-scale species distribution models, scientists need to understand and minimize the influences of commonly observed sample selection bias on model performance. Yet evaluating these data with independent, planned surveys is rare, even though such evaluation is necessary for understanding and applying data to conservation decisions. We used the state-listed fox squirrel Sciurus niger in Florida, USA, to interpret...

Data from: Touch sensation by pectoral fins of the catfish Pimelodus pictus

Adam R. Hardy, Bailey M. Steinworth & Melina E. Hale
Mechanosensation is fundamental to many tetrapod limb functions yet it remains largely uninvestigated in the paired fins of fishes, the limb homologs. Here we examine whether membranous fins may function as passive structures for touch sensation in the absence of extensive fin ray movement. We investigate the pectoral fins of the pictus catfish (Pimelodus pictus), a species that lives in close association with the benthic substrate and whose fins are positioned near its ventral margin....

Data from: Affinity for natal environments by dispersers impacts reproduction and explains geographic structure of a highly mobile bird

Robert J. Fletcher, Ellen P. Robertson, Rebecca C. Wilcox, Brian E. Reichert, Wiley M. Kitchens & James D. Austin
Understanding dispersal and habitat selection behaviours is central to many problems in ecology, evolution and conservation. One factor often hypothesized to influence habitat selection by dispersers is the natal environment experienced by juveniles. Nonetheless, evidence for the effect of natal environment on dispersing, wild vertebrates remains limited. Using 18 years of nesting and mark–resight data across an entire North American geographical range of an endangered bird, the snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis), we tested for natal...

Data from: Orchid phylogenomics and multiple drivers of their extraordinary diversification

Thomas J. Givnish, Daniel Spalink, Mercedes Ames, Stephanie P. Lyon, Steven J. Hunter, Alejandro Zuluaga, William J. D. Iles, Mark A. Clements, Mary T. K. Arroyo, James Leebens-Mack, Lorena Endara, Ricardo Kriebel, Kurt M. Neubig, W. Mark Whitten, Norris H. Williams & Kenneth M. Cameron
Orchids are the most diverse family of angiosperms, with over 25 000 species, more than mammals, birds and reptiles combined. Tests of hypotheses to account for such diversity have been stymied by the lack of a fully resolved broad-scale phylogeny. Here, we provide such a phylogeny, based on 75 chloroplast genes for 39 species representing all orchid subfamilies and 16 of 17 tribes, time-calibrated against 17 angiosperm fossils. A supermatrix analysis places an additional 144...

Data from: Early back-to-Africa migration into the Horn of Africa

Jason A. Hodgson, Connie J. Mulligan, Ali Al-Meeri & Ryan L. Raaum
Genetic studies have identified substantial non-African admixture in the Horn of Africa (HOA). In the most recent genomic studies, this non-African ancestry has been attributed to admixture with Middle Eastern populations during the last few thousand years. However, mitochondrial and Y chromosome data are suggestive of earlier episodes of admixture. To investigate this further, we generated new genome-wide SNP data for a Yemeni population sample and merged these new data with published genome-wide genetic data...

Data from: Genetic surfing, not allopatric divergence, explains spatial sorting of mitochondrial haplotypes in venomous coralsnakes

Jeffrey W. Streicher, Jay P. McEntee, Laura C. Drzich, Daren C. Card, Drew R. Schield, Utpal Smart, Christopher L. Parkinson, Tereza Jezkova, Eric N. Smith & Todd A. Castoe
Strong spatial sorting of genetic variation in contiguous populations is often explained by local adaptation or secondary contact following allopatric divergence. A third explanation, spatial sorting by stochastic effects of range expansion, has been considered less often though theoretical models suggest it should be widespread, if ephemeral. In a study designed to delimit species within a clade of venomous coralsnakes, we identified an unusual pattern within the Texas coral snake (Micrurus tener): strong spatial sorting...

Data from: Taxonomic and phylogenetic determinants of functional composition of Bolivian bat assemblages

Luis F. Aguirre, Flavia A. Montaño-Centellas, M. Mercedes Gavilanez, Richard D. Stevens, Luis Acosta, Marcos F. Terán, M. Gabriela Flores-Saldaña & Aideé Vargas
Understanding diversity patterns and the potential mechanisms driving them is a fundamental goal in ecology. Examination of different dimensions of biodiversity can provide insights into the relative importance of different processes acting upon biotas to shape communities. Unfortunately, patterns of diversity are still poorly understood in hyper-diverse tropical countries. Here, we assess spatial variation of taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity of bat assemblages in one of the least studied Neotropical countries, Bolivia, and determine whether...

Data from: Changing light conditions in pine rockland habitats affect the intensity and outcome of ant–plant interactions

Ian M. Jones, Suzanne Koptur, Hilma R. Gallegos, Joseph P. Tardanico, Patricia A. Trainer & Jorge Peña
Extrafloral nectar (EFN) mediates food-for-protection mutualisms between plants and ants. Such mutualisms exist within a complex web of biotic interactions, and in a framework provided by the abiotic environment. Both biotic and abiotic factors, therefore, affect the outcome of ant–plant interactions. We conducted an experiment to determine the effects of ant activity, and light intensity, on herbivory rates, growth, and reproductive fitness in Senna mexicana var. chapmanii, a perennial legume native to pine rockland habitats...

Lack of neophobic responses to color in a jumping spider that uses color cues when foraging (Habronattus pyrrithrix)

Michael Vickers, Madison Heisey & Lisa Taylor
Chemically defended prey often advertise their toxins with bright and conspicuous colors. To understand why such colors are effective at reducing predation, we need to understand the psychology of key predators. In bird predators, there is evidence that individuals avoid novelty - including prey of novel colors (with which they have had no prior experience). Moreover, the effect of novelty is strongest for colors that are typically associated with aposematic prey (e.g., red, orange, yellow)....

Kearney 2021 Lateral Pinch Data

Kalyn Kearney, Jennifer Nichols & Joel Harley
Datasets representing variations in lateral pinch thumb-tip force due to changes in maximum isometric force, as simulated with OpenSim v4.0. Each dataset includes outputs from forward dynamics, with thumb-tip force provided via joint reactions analyses. We also include muscle activations from computed muscle control which were used to drive these forward dynamic simulations. See the included ReadMe file and the following publication for more details: Kearney KM, Harley JB, Nichols JA. “Classifying muscle parameters with...

Large herbivores transform plant-pollinator networks in an African savanna

Matthew C. Hutchinson, Travis J. Guy, Todd M. Palmer, Robert M. Pringle, Katherine C. R. Baldock, Elisha Kayser, Benjamin Baiser, Phillip P. A. Staniczenko, Jacob R. Goheen, Robert M. Pringle & Todd M. Palmer
Pollination by animals is a key ecosystem service1,2 and interactions between plants and their pollinators are a model system for the study of ecological networks3,4, yet plant-pollinator networks are typically studied in isolation from the broader ecosystems in which they are embedded. The plants visited by pollinators also interact with other consumer guilds that eat stems, leaves, fruits, or seeds. One such guild, large mammalian herbivores, are well-known ecosystem engineers5–7 and may have substantial impacts...

Exploring the effects of extreme polyandry on estimates of sexual selection and reproductive success

E.V(Ginny) Greenway, Jennifer Hamel & Christine Miller
Multiple mating by females can dramatically alter selection on males by creating indirect interactions between rivals via sperm competition. Exactly how this behavior alters the relationship between male mating and fertilization success depends on multiple factors: re-mating frequency, sperm usage patterns, and mating assortment (the extent to which the most promiscuous individuals mate with each other). Here we explore the role these elements play in determining sexual selection in a highly polygyandrous species, the squash...

Data for: Characterizing individual tree-level snags using airborne lidar-derived forest canopy gaps within closed-canopy conifer forests

Jessica M. Stitt, Andrew T. Hudak, Carlos Alberto Silva, Lee A. Vierling & Kerri T. Vierling
1. Airborne lidar is often used to calculate forest metrics about trees but it may also provide a wealth of information about the space between trees. Forest canopy gaps are defined by the absence of vegetative structure and serve important roles for wildlife, such as facilitating animal movement. Forest canopy gaps also occur around snags, keystone structures that provide important substrates to wildlife species for breeding, roosting, and foraging. 2. We wanted to test a...

Automated audio recording as a means of surveying Tinamous (Tinamidae) in the Peruvian Amazon

Reid Rumelt, Arianna Basto & Carla Mere Roncal
The use of machine learning technologies to process large quantities of remotely-collected audio data is a powerful emerging research tool in ecology and conservation. We applied these methods to a field study of tinamou (Tinamidae) biology in Madre de Dios, Peru, a region expected to have high levels of interspecies competition and niche partitioning as a result of high tinamou alpha diversity. We used autonomous recording units to gather environmental audio over a period of...

Data and Code for: An index for measuring functional extension and evenness in trait space

Tao Zhang, Grant M. Domke, Matthew B. Russell & Jeremy W. Lichstein
Most existing functional diversity indices focus on single specific facet of functional diversity. Although they help scrutinize the details of functional diversity from their own angles, they often present some limitations in estimating functional diversity from a broad perspective. Here we presented a functional extension and evenness (FEE) index that encloses two important aspects of functional diversity. This index is based on a straightforward notion that a community has high diversity when its species are...

Data from: Multiple dimensions of bird beta diversity support that mountains are higher in the tropics

Flavia A. Montaño-Centellas, Bette Loiselle & Christy McCain
Aim We examine latitudinal effects of breeding bird taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional β-diversity (Tβ, Pβ and Fβ, respectively) along elevational gradients to test predictions derived from Janzen’s (1967) classic ideas that tropical mountains represent stronger dispersal barriers than temperate mountains. Location Global Taxon Birds Methods Using a global dataset from 46 mountains, we examine latitudinal patterns of Tβ, Pβ, and Fβ, and their components: β rich and β repl. For each mountain and each dimension...

Cost of step time asymmetry and step length asymmetry in human walking

Jan Stenum & Julia Choi
The metabolic cost of walking in healthy individuals increases with spatiotemporal gait asymmetries. Pathological gait, such as post-stroke, often has asymmetry in step lengths and step times which may contribute to an increased energy cost. But paradoxically, enforcing step length symmetry does not reduce metabolic cost of post-stroke walking. The isolated and interacting costs of asymmetry in step times and step lengths remain unclear, because previous studies did not simultaneously enforce spatial and temporal gait...

Numbers of individuals and endemicity for birds in three study sites of the Himalayas-Hengduan mountains of China

Yiming Hu, Brett Scheffers, Xinyuan Pan, Huijian Hu, Zhixin Zhou, Dan Liang, Cheng Wenda, Zhixin Wen & Luke Gibson
1. Describing the patterns and revealing the underlying mechanisms responsible for variations in community structure remains a central focus in ecology. However, important gaps remain, including our understanding of species abundance. Most studies on abundance-based relationships are from either temperate ecosystems or tropical ecosystems, and few have explicitly tested abundance-based relationships across a temperate to tropical ecotone. 2. Here, we use a comprehensive dataset of breeding birds across elevation spanning a temperate to subtropical gradient...

A Case Study on the Medical Library Association’s 2019 Communities Transition Qualitative Data Set

Kathryn Houk, Kelsa Bartley, Jane Morgan-Daniel & Elaina Vitale
In 2019, the Medical Library Association (MLA) adopted a new model of community governance and participation, referred to as the MLA Communities Transition. The Communities Transition was the culmination of long-ranging plans by MLA to support two of its strategic goals: Diversity and Inclusion, and Communities. The reorganization aimed to strengthen MLA member communities, better support programming, reduce administrative overhead, and attract new members. The 2019 - 2020 MLA Rising Stars cohort was tasked to...

In the eye of the beholder: Is color classification consistent amongst human observers?

Kim Valenta, Sally Bornbusch, Yan-Daniel Jacques & Omer Nevo
Colorful displays have evolved in multiple plant and animal species as signals to mutualists, antagonists, competitors, mates, and other potential receivers. Studies of color have long relied on subjective classifications of color by human observers. However, humans have a limited ability to perceive color compared to other animals, and human biological, cultural, and environmental variables can influence color perception. Here, we test the consistency of human color classification using fruit color as a model system....

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