43 Works

Data from: The influence of host plant extrafloral nectaries on multitrophic interactions: an experimental investigation

Suzanne Koptur, Ian M. Jones & Jorge E. Peña
A field experiment was conducted with outplantings of the native perennial shrub Senna mexicana var. chapmanii in a semi-natural area adjacent to native pine rockland habitat in southern Florida. The presence of ants and the availability of extrafloral nectar were manipulated in a stratified random design. Insect communities were monitored and recorded over a period of six months with a view to addressing three main questions. Do ants provide biotic defense against key herbivores on...

Data from: Character evolution and the origin of Caimaninae (Crocodylia) in the New World Tropics: new evidence from the Miocene of Panama and Venezuela

Alexander K. Hastings, Moritz Reisser & Torsten M. Scheyer
Alligators and caimans share a close relationship, supported by both molecular and morphological characters. The divergence between alligators and caimans has been difficult to discern in the fossil record. Two basal taxa have recently been described from the Miocene of Panama and Venezuela but have not yet been presented in a joint phylogeny. Continued preparation of the type material of the Venezuelan Globidentosuchus brachyrostris Scheyer et al., 2013 has revealed new characters for scoring in...

Data from: Conservation under uncertainty: optimal network protection strategies for worst-case disturbance events

Miguel A. Acevedo, Jorge A. Sefair, J. Cole Smith, , Brian Reichert & Robert J. Fletcher
1. Conservation goals are ideally set after a thorough understanding of potential threats; however, predicting future spatial patterns of threats, such as disturbance, remains challenging. Here, we develop a novel extension of network fortification-interdiction models (NFIM) that deals with uncertainty in future spatial patterns of disturbance by optimally selecting sites that will best mitigate a worst-case scenario for a given magnitude of disturbance. 2. This approach uses information on between-patch movement probabilities and patch-specific survival,...

Data from: New mud turtles (Kinosternidae, Kinosternon) from the Middle-Late Miocene of the United States

Jason R. Bourque
Kinosternon Spix, 1824, was widespread in xeric to savanna associated paleowetlands across North America during the middle–late Miocene and steadily diversified following its first occurrences in the Hemingfordian. In the middle Miocene, Kinosternon rincon n. sp. occurred in the late Barstovian Cerro Conejo Formation of north central New Mexico, perhaps concurrently with Kinosternon pojoaque Bourque 2012a from the Tesuque Formation. Subsequent late Miocene kinosternine fossils indicate that at least three potentially contemporaneous species existed throughout...

Data from: Evaluation of Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus, megalopal settlement and condition during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

Erin K. Grey, Susan C. Chiasson, Hannah G. Williams, Victoria J. Troeger & Caz M. Taylor
The Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus, is a commercially, culturally, and ecologically significant species in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), whose offshore stages were likely impacted by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH). To test for DWH effects and to better understand the planktonic ecology of this species, we monitored Callinectes spp. megalopal settlement and condition at sites within and outside of the spill extent during and one year after the DWH. We tested for DWH...

Data from: Regional variation in Caribbean dry forest tree species composition

Janet Franklin, Julie Ripplinger, Ethan H. Freid, Humfredo Marcano-Vega & David W. Steadman
How does tree species composition vary in relation to geographical and environmental gradients in a globally rare tropical/subtropical broadleaf dry forest community in the Caribbean? We analyzed data from 153 Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots from Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI), along with 42 plots that we sampled in the Bahamian Archipelago (on Abaco and Eleuthera Islands). FIA data were collected using published protocols. In the Bahamian Archipelago, we recorded terrain...

Data from: Moth tails divert bat attack: evolution of acoustic deflection

Jesse R. Barber, Brian C. Leavell, Adam L. Keener, Jesse W. Breinholt, Brad A. Chadwell, Christopher J.W. McClure, Geena M. Hill & Akito Y. Kawahara
Adaptations to divert the attacks of visually guided predators have evolved repeatedly in animals. Using high-speed infrared videography, we show that luna moths (Actias luna) generate an acoustic diversion with spinning hindwing tails to deflect echolocating bat attacks away from their body and toward these nonessential appendages. We pit luna moths against big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and demonstrate a survival advantage of ∼47% for moths with tails versus those that had their tails removed....

Data from: Assessing reproductive behavior important to fisheries management: a case study with red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus

Susan K. Lowerre-Barbieri, Sarah Lyle Walters Burnsed & Joel William Bickford
Spawning site selection and reproductive timing affect stock productivity and structure in marine fishes but are poorly understood. Traditionally, stock assessments measure reproductive potential as spawning stock biomass or egg production and do not include other aspects of reproductive behavior. Red drum make an excellent case study to assess these other aspects, as (1) they are highly fecund, pelagic spawners, like most exploited marine fishes; (2) their life cycle is delineated between nursery (estuarine) and...

Data from: Comparing process-based and constraint-based approaches for modeling macroecological patterns

Xiao Xiao, James P. O'Dwyer & Ethan P. White
Ecological patterns arise from the interplay of many different processes, and yet the emergence of consistent phenomena across a diverse range of ecological systems suggests that many patterns may in part be determined by statistical or numerical constraints. Differentiating the extent to which patterns in a given system are determined statistically, and where it requires explicit ecological processes, has been difficult. We tackled this challenge by directly comparing models from a constraint-based theory, the Maximum...

Data from: Raccoon contact networks predict seasonal susceptibility to rabies outbreaks and limitations of vaccination

Jennifer J. H. Reynolds, Ben T. Hirsch, Stanley D. Gehrt & Meggan E. Craft
1. Infectious disease transmission often depends on the contact structure of host populations. Although it is often challenging to capture the contact structure in wild animals, new technology has enabled biologists to obtain detailed temporal information on wildlife social contacts. In this study, we investigated the effects of raccoon contact patterns on rabies spread using network modelling. 2. Raccoons (Procyon lotor) play an important role in the maintenance of rabies in the United States. It...

Data from: Resolving basal lamiid phylogeny and the circumscription of Icacinaceae with a plastome-scale data set

Gregory W. Stull, Rodrigo Duno De Stefano, Douglas E. Soltis & Pamela S. Soltis
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Major relationships within Lamiidae, an asterid clade with ∼40000 species, have largely eluded resolution despite two decades of intensive study. The phylogenetic positions of Icacinaceae and other early-diverging lamiid clades (Garryales, Metteniusaceae, and Oncothecaceae) have been particularly problematic, hindering classification and impeding our understanding of early lamiid (and euasterid) character evolution. METHODS: To resolve basal lamiid phylogeny, we sequenced 50 plastid genomes using the Illumina sequencing platform and combined these with...

Data from: Tempo and mode of antibat ultrasound production and sonar jamming in the diverse hawkmoth radiation

Akito Y. Kawahara & Jesse R. Barber
The bat–moth arms race has existed for over 60 million y, with moths evolving ultrasonically sensitive ears and ultrasound-producing organs to combat bat predation. The evolution of these defenses has never been thoroughly examined because of limitations in simultaneously conducting behavioral and phylogenetic analyses across an entire group. Hawkmoths include >1,500 species worldwide, some of which produce ultrasound using genital stridulatory structures. However, the function and evolution of this behavior remain largely unknown. We built...

Data from: Identifying differentially expressed genes under heat stress and developing molecular markers in orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) through transcriptome analysis

Lin K. Huang, Hai D. Yan, J. Wang, T. Frazier, X. X. Zhao, X. Q. Zhang, X. Huang, D. F. Yan, W. J. Zang, X. Ma, Y. Peng, Y. H. Yan, W. Liu & G. Yin
Orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) is a long-lived, cool-season forage grass that is commonly used for hay production. Despite its economic importance, orchardgrass genome remains relatively unexplored. In this study, we used Illumina RNA sequencing to identify gene-associated molecular markers, including simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), as well as heat stress-induced differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in two orchardgrass genotypes, ‘Baoxing’ (heat resistant) and ‘01998’ (heat susceptible). Approximately 163 million high-quality trimmed reads...

Data from: Synthesis of phylogeny and taxonomy into a comprehensive tree of life

Cody E. Hinchliff, Stephen A. Smith, James F. Allman, J. Gordon Burleigh, Ruchi Chaudhary, Lyndon M. Coghill, Keith A. Crandall, Jiabin Deng, Bryan T. Drew, Romina Gazis, Karl Gude, David S. Hibbett, Laura A. Katz, , Emily Jane McTavish, Peter E. Midford, Christopher L. Owen, Richard H. Ree, Jonathan A. Rees, Douglas E. Soltis, Tiffani Williams & Karen Ann Cranston
Reconstructing the phylogenetic relationships that unite all lineages (the tree of life) is a grand challenge. The paucity of homologous character data across disparately related lineages currently renders direct phylogenetic inference untenable. To reconstruct a comprehensive tree of life, we therefore synthesized published phylogenies, together with taxonomic classifications for taxa never incorporated into a phylogeny. We present a draft tree containing 2.3 million tips—the Open Tree of Life. Realization of this tree required the assembly...

Data from: Molecular phylogenetics of Kosteletzkya (Malvaceae, Hibisceae) reveals multiple independent and successive polyploid speciation events

Kurt M. Neubig, , W. Mark Whitten, Stuart F. McDaniel & Orland J. Blanchard
Kosteletzkya s.s. is a genus of 17 species (excluding the endemic species of Madagascar), found in the New World, continental Africa, Madagascar, and Southeast Asia. Recent chromosome counts revealed diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid species. To estimate the history of the genus, we sequenced nuclear and plastid loci for nearly all Kosteletzkya spp., in the majority of cases, with multiple accessions per species. The African species form a paraphyletic grade relative to a New World clade....

Data from: Abiotic stress does not magnify the deleterious effects of spontaneous mutations

Jacob R. Andrew, Melody M. Dossey, Veniel O. Garza, Michelle Keller-Pearson, Charles F. Baer & Joanna Joyner-Matos
Although the effects of deleterious alleles often are predicted to be greater in stressful environments, there is no theoretical basis for this prediction and the empirical evidence is mixed. Here we characterized the effects of three types of abiotic stress (thermal, oxidative and hyperosmotic) on two sets of nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans) mutation accumulation (MA) lines that differ by threefold in fitness. We compared the survival and egg-to-adult viability between environments (benign and stressful) and between...

Data from: A quantitative framework for investigating risk of deadly collisions between marine wildlife and boats

Julien Martin, Quentin Sabatier, Timothy A. Gowan, Christophe Giraud, Eliezer Gurarie, Charles Scott Calleson, Joel G. Ortega-Ortiz, Charles J. Deutsch, Athena Rycyk & Stacie M. Koslovsky
Speed regulations of watercraft in protected areas are designed to reduce lethal collisions with wildlife but can have economic consequences. We present a quantitative framework for investigating the risk of deadly collisions between boats and wildlife. We apply encounter rate theory to demonstrate how marine mammal-boat encounter rate can be used to predict the expected number of deaths associated with management scenarios. We illustrate our approach with management scenarios for two endangered species: the Florida...

Data from: Anatomy, systematics, paleoenvironment, growth, and age of the sauropod dinosaur Sonorasaurus thompsoni from the Cretaceous of Arizona, USA

Michael D. D'Emic, Brady Z. Foreman & Nathan A. Jud
Sauropod dinosaurs are rare in the Cretaceous North American fossil record in general and are absent from that record for most of the Late Cretaceous. Sonorasaurus thompsoni from the Turney Ranch Formation of the Bisbee Group of Arizona, USA, potentially represents one of the youngest sauropods before their ca. 30-million-year-long hiatus from the record. The anatomy of Sonorasaurus has only been briefly described, its taxonomic validity has been questioned, several hypotheses have been proposed regarding...

Data from: Genetic structure, admixture, and invasion success in a Holarctic defoliator, the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar, Lepidoptera: Erebidae)

Yunke Wu, John J. Molongoski, Deborah F. Winograd, Steven M. Bogdanowicz, Artemis S. Louyakis, David R. Lance, Victor C. Mastro & Richard G. Harrison
Characterizing the current population structure of potentially invasive species provides a critical context for identifying source populations and for understanding why invasions are successful. Non-native populations inevitably lose genetic diversity during initial colonization events, but subsequent admixture among independently introduced lineages may increase both genetic variation and adaptive potential. Here we characterize the population structure of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar Linnaeus), one of the world's most destructive forest pests. Native to Eurasia and recently...

Data from: Climate mediates the effects of disturbance on ant assemblage structure

Heloise Gibb, Nathan J. Sanders, Robert R. Dunn, Simon Watson, Manoli Photakis, Silvia Abril, Alan N. Andersen, Elena Angulo, Inge Armbrecht, Xavier Arnan, Fabricio B. Baccaro, Tom R. Bishop, Raphael Boulay, Cristina Castracani, Israel Del Toro, Thibaut Delsinne, Mireia Diaz, David A. Donoso, Martha L. Enríquez, Tom M. Fayle, Donald H. Feener, Matthew C. Fitzpatrick, Crisanto Gómez, Donato A. Grasso, Sarah Groc … & C. Gomez
Many studies have focused on the impacts of climate change on biological assemblages, yet little is known about how climate interacts with other major anthropogenic influences on biodiversity, such as habitat disturbance. Using a unique global database of 1128 local ant assemblages, we examined whether climate mediates the effects of habitat disturbance on assemblage structure at a global scale. Species richness and evenness were associated positively with temperature, and negatively with disturbance. However, the interaction...

Data from: Exploring origins, invasion history and genetic diversity of Imperata cylindrica (L.) P. Beauv. (Cogongrass) in the United States using genotyping by sequencing

A. Millie Burrell, Alan E. Pepper, George Hodnett, John A. Goolsby, William A. Overholt, Alexis E. Racelis, Rodrigo Diaz & Patricia E. Klein
Imperata cylindrica (Cogongrass, Speargrass) is a diploid C4 grass that is a noxious weed in 73 countries and constitutes a significant threat to global biodiversity and sustainable agriculture. We used a cost-effective genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach to identify the reproductive system, genetic diversity and geographic origins of invasions in the south-eastern United States. In this work, we demonstrated the advantage of employing the closely related, fully sequenced crop species Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench as a proxy...

Data from: Convergence of soil nitrogen isotopes across global climate gradients

Joseph M. Craine, Andrew J. Elmore, Lixin Wang, Laurent Augusto, W. Troy Baisden, E. N. J. Brookshire, Michael D. Cramer, Niles J. Hasselquist, Erik A. Hobbie, Ansgar Kahmen, Keisuke Koba, J. Marty Kranabetter, Michelle C. Mack, Erika Marin-Spiotta, Jordan R. Mayor, Kendra K. McLauchlan, Anders Michelsen, Gabriela B. Nardoto, Rafael S. Oliveira, Steven S. Perakis, Pablo L. Peri, Carlos A. Quesada, Andreas Richter, Louis A. Schipper, Bryan A. Stevenson … & Bernd Zeller
Quantifying global patterns of terrestrial nitrogen (N) cycling is central to predicting future patterns of primary productivity, carbon sequestration, nutrient fluxes to aquatic systems, and climate forcing. With limited direct measures of soil N cycling at the global scale, syntheses of the 15N:14N ratio of soil organic matter across climate gradients provide key insights into understanding global patterns of N cycling. In synthesizing data from over 6000 soil samples, we show strong global relationships among...

Data from: Contact zone dynamics during early stages of speciation in a chorus frog (Pseudacris crucifer)

Kathryn A. Stewart, James D. Austin, Kelly R. Zamudio & Stephen C. Lougheed
Characterizing the genetic and behavioural consequences of contact between previously geographically isolated lineages provides insights into the mechanisms underlying diversification and ultimately speciation. The spring peeper (Pseudacris crucifer) is a widespread Nearctic chorus frog with six divergent mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages, many of which came into secondary contact during the Holocene. We examined genetics, morphology, advertisement calls and female preference for two lineages that began diverging in allopatry in the Pliocene and now overlap in...

Data from: Fire and non-native grass invasion interact to suppress tree regeneration in temperate deciduous forests

S. Luke Flory, Keith Clay, Sarah M. Emery, Joseph R. Robb & Brian Winters
1. While many ecosystems depend on fire to maintain biodiversity, non-native plant invasions can enhance fire intensity, suppressing native species and generating a fire–invasion feedback. These dynamics have been observed in arid and semi-arid ecosystems, but fire–invasion interactions in temperate deciduous forests, where prescribed fires are often used as management tools to enhance native diversity, have rarely been investigated. 2. Here we evaluated the effects of a widespread invasive grass on fire behaviour in eastern...

Data from: Synergistic effects of fire and elephants on arboreal animals in an African savannah

Robert M. Pringle, Duncan M. Kimuyu, Ryan L. Sensenig, Todd M. Palmer, Corinna Riginos, Kari E. Veblen & Truman P. Young
1. Disturbance is a crucial determinant of animal abundance, distribution and community structure in many ecosystems, but the ways in which multiple disturbance types interact remain poorly understood. The effects of multiple-disturbance interactions can be additive, subadditive or super-additive (synergistic). Synergistic effects in particular can accelerate ecological change; thus, characterizing such synergies, the conditions under which they arise, and how long they persist has been identified as a major goal of ecology. 2. We factorially...

Registration Year

  • 2015

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Florida
  • University of Kansas
  • Field Museum of Natural History
  • University of Alberta
  • Utah State University
  • Princeton University
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
  • Duke University
  • University of Wyoming
  • University of California, Berkeley