43 Works

Woody encroachment happens via intensification, not extensification, of species ranges in an African savanna

Yong Zhou, Morgan Tingley, Madelon Case, Corli Coetsee, Gregory Kiker, Rheinhardt Scholtz, Freek Venter & Carla Staver
Widespread woody encroachment is a prominent concern for savanna systems as it is often accompanied by losses in productivity and biodiversity. Extensive ecosystem-level work has advanced our understanding of its causes and consequences. However, there is still debate over whether local management can override regional and global drivers of woody encroachment, and it remains largely unknown how encroachment influences woody community assemblages. Here, we examined species-level changes in woody plant distributions and size structure from...

Rare missense functional variants at COL4A1 and COL4A2 in sporadic intracerebral hemorrhage

Jaeyoon Chung, Graham Hamilton, Minsup Kim, Sandro Marini, Bailey Montgomery, Jonathan Henry, Art Cho, Devin Brown, Bradford Worrall, James Meschia, Scott Silliman, Magdy Selim, David Tirschwell, Chelsea Kidwell, Brett Kissela, Steven Greenberg, Anand Viswanathan, Joshua Goldstein, Carl Langefeld, Kristiina Rannikmae, Catherine Sudlow, Neshika Samarasekera, Mark Rodrigues, Rustam Salman, James Prendergast … & Christopher Anderson
Objective To test the genetic contribution of rare missense variants in COL4A1 and COL4A2 in which common variants are genetically associated with sporadic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), we performed rare variant analysis in multiple sequencing data for the risk for sporadic ICH. Methods We performed sequencing across 559Kbp at 13q34 including COL4A1 and COL4A2 among 2,133 individuals (1,055 ICH cases; 1,078 controls) in US-based and 1,492 individuals (192 ICH cases; 1,300 controls) from Scotland-based cohorts, followed...

Phylogeny of African long-fingered frogs (Arthroleptidae: Cardioglossa) reveals recent allopatric divergences in coloration

David Blackburn
The African anuran genus Cardioglossa contains 19 described species, most of which are distinguished from one another by striking patterns and colors. We present a well- resolved phylogeny based on analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear loci for 18 species of Cardioglossa. This provides the basis for species-delimitation analyses and interpreting historical biogeography in the genus. Whereas much of the diversification within the genus occurred among Central African lineages during the Miocene following the origin of...

Spermatocysts stained positively with anti-pHH3 antibody

Patricia Moore & Christine Miller
Males have the ability to compete for fertilizations through both pre-copulatory and post-copulatory intrasexual competition. Pre-copulatory competition has selected for large weapons and other adaptations to maximize access to females and mating opportunities while post-copulatory competition has resulted in ejaculate adaptations to maximize fertilization success. Negative associations between these strategies support the hypothesis that there is a trade-off between success at pre- and post-copulatory mating success. Recently, this trade-off has been demonstrated with experimental manipulation....

An Interview with Dr. Trish Hatch: An Advocate for School Counseling Policy

Jan L. Gay

Moss growth, development, morphology, and physiology dataset and code

Leslie Kollar
A central problem in evolutionary biology is to identify the forces that maintain genetic variation for fitness in natural populations. Sexual antagonism, in which selection favors different variants in males and females, can slow the transit of a polymorphism through a population or can actively maintain fitness variation. The amount of sexually antagonistic variation to be expected depends in part on the genetic architecture of sexual dimorphism, about which we know relatively little. Here, we...

Data from: Hybrid coffee cultivars may enhance agroecosystem resilience to climate change

Emily Pappo, Chris H. Wilson & S. Luke Flory
Anthropogenic climate change is predicted to cause shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns that will be detrimental for global agriculture. Developing comprehensive strategies for building climate resilient agroecosystems is critical for maintaining future crop production. Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica) is highly sensitive to the quantity and timing of precipitation, so alterations in precipitation patterns that are predicted under climate change are likely to be a major challenge for maintaining coffee agroecosystems. We assessed cultivar selection...

Dataset for: Trade-offs between weapons and testes do not manifest at high social densities

Christine Miller
Social conditions can alter the allocation of resources to reproductive traits. For example, an increase in social density during development is frequently associated with an increase in the testes mass of males. Sperm competition theory assumes that increased investment in testes should come at the expense of investing into precopulatory traits, such as sexually selected weaponry. However, much remains unknown about the role of the social context on the concurrent, relative investment in both testes...

American crocodile captures in South Florida

Venetia Briggs-Gonzalez
The federally threatened American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) is a flagship species and ecological indicator of hydrologic restoration in the Florida Everglades. we conducted a long-term capture-recapture study on the South Florida population of American crocodiles from 1978 to 2015 to evaluate the effects of restoration efforts to restore historic hydrologic conditions. The study produced 10,040 crocodile capture events of 9,865 individuals and more than 90% of captures were of hatchlings. Body condition and growth rates...

Data from: Invasive grass fuel loads suppress native species by increasing fire intensity and soil heating

Giovanna Tomat-Kelly, Whalen W. Dillon & S. Luke Flory
Non-native invasive grasses are driving intense fires across the globe but the impacts of native versus invader-fueled fires on community assemblages are poorly understood. By increasing fire intensity, grass invasions might increase belowground mortality of heat-sensitive seeds and buds, thereby shifting community composition. We compared fuel loads in native and non-native invasive (cogongrass, Imperata cylindrica) plant dominated areas of pine savannas in Florida. Then, we conducted a field experiment to examine how fuel loads and...

Life history and environment predict variation in testosterone across vertebrates

Jerry Husak, Matthew Fuxjager, Michele A. Johnson, Maren Vitousek, Jeremy Donald, Clinton David Francis, Wolfgang Goymann, Michaela Hau, Bonnie Kircher, Rosemary Knapp, Lynn B. Martin, Eliot Miller, Laura Schoenle & Tony Williams
Endocrine systems act as key intermediaries between organisms and their environments. This interaction leads to high variability in hormone levels, but we know little about the ecological factors that influence this variation within and across major vertebrate groups. We study this topic by assessing how various social and environmental dynamics influence testosterone levels across the entire vertebrate tree of life. Our analyses show that breeding season length and mating system are the strongest predictors of...

A target enrichment probe set for resolving the flagellate land plant tree of life

Jesse W. Breinholt, Sarah B. Carey, George P. Tiley, E. Christine Davis, Lorena Endara, Stuart F. McDaniel, Leandro Neves, Emily B. Sessa, Matt Von Konrat, Susan Fawcett, Stefanie M. Ickert-Bond, Paulo H. Labiak, Juan Larraín, Marcus Lehnert, Lily R. Lewis, Nathalie S. Nagalingum, Nikisha Patel, Stefan A. Rensing, Weston Testo, Alejandra Vasco, Juan Carlos Villarreal, Evelyn Webb Williams, J. Gordon Burleigh, Sahut Chantanaorrapint, Leandro G. Neves … & Stefanie M. Ickert‐Bond
Premise of the Study: New sequencing technologies enable the possibility of generating large-scale molecular datasets for constructing the plant tree of life. We describe a new probe set for target enrichment sequencing to generate nuclear sequence data to build phylogenetic trees with any flagellate land plants, including hornworts, liverworts, mosses, lycophytes, ferns, and all gymnosperms. Methods and Results: We leveraged existing transcriptome and genome sequence data to design a set of 56,989 probes for target...

Six-state amino acid recoding is not an effective strategy to offset compositional heterogeneity and saturation in phylogenetic analyses

Alexandra Hernandez & Joseph Ryan
Six-state amino acid recoding strategies are commonly applied to combat the effects of compositional heterogeneity and substitution saturation in phylogenetic analyses. While these methods have been endorsed from a theoretical perspective, their performance has never been extensively tested. Here, we test the effectiveness of 6-state recoding approaches by comparing the performance of analyses on recoded and non-recoded datasets that have been simulated under gradients of compositional heterogeneity or saturation. In our simulation analyses, non-recoding approaches...

Disentangling the influence of water limitation and simultaneous above and belowground herbivory on plant tolerance and resistance to stress

Fabiane Mundim, Ernane Vieira-Neto, Hans Alborn & Emilio Bruna
1. Plants face multiple biotic and abiotic stressors simultaneously. Many species can tolerate and resist stress, but countermeasures differ between roots and leaves. Since herbivores and environmental conditions modulate costs and benefits of plant defense traits, stress responses are context-dependent. We examined whole-plant tolerance and resistance responses to individual and combined effects of above and belowground herbivory under variable water conditions. 2. We manipulated water availability and access by two common herbivores (Spodoptera exigua caterpillars...

Cost of step time asymmetry and step length asymmetry in human walking

Jan Stenum & Julia Choi
The metabolic cost of walking in healthy individuals increases with spatiotemporal gait asymmetries. Pathological gait, such as post-stroke, often has asymmetry in step lengths and step times which may contribute to an increased energy cost. But paradoxically, enforcing step length symmetry does not reduce metabolic cost of post-stroke walking. The isolated and interacting costs of asymmetry in step times and step lengths remain unclear, because previous studies did not simultaneously enforce spatial and temporal gait...

Data and Code for: An index for measuring functional extension and evenness in trait space

Tao Zhang, Grant M. Domke, Matthew B. Russell & Jeremy W. Lichstein
Most existing functional diversity indices focus on single specific facet of functional diversity. Although they help scrutinize the details of functional diversity from their own angles, they often present some limitations in estimating functional diversity from a broad perspective. Here we presented a functional extension and evenness (FEE) index that encloses two important aspects of functional diversity. This index is based on a straightforward notion that a community has high diversity when its species are...

Data from: Multiple dimensions of bird beta diversity support that mountains are higher in the tropics

Flavia A. Montaño-Centellas, Bette Loiselle & Christy McCain
Aim We examine latitudinal effects of breeding bird taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional β-diversity (Tβ, Pβ and Fβ, respectively) along elevational gradients to test predictions derived from Janzen’s (1967) classic ideas that tropical mountains represent stronger dispersal barriers than temperate mountains. Location Global Taxon Birds Methods Using a global dataset from 46 mountains, we examine latitudinal patterns of Tβ, Pβ, and Fβ, and their components: β rich and β repl. For each mountain and each dimension...

Large herbivores transform plant-pollinator networks in an African savanna

Matthew C. Hutchinson, Travis J. Guy, Todd M. Palmer, Robert M. Pringle, Katherine C. R. Baldock, Elisha Kayser, Benjamin Baiser, Phillip P. A. Staniczenko, Jacob R. Goheen, Robert M. Pringle & Todd M. Palmer
Pollination by animals is a key ecosystem service1,2 and interactions between plants and their pollinators are a model system for the study of ecological networks3,4, yet plant-pollinator networks are typically studied in isolation from the broader ecosystems in which they are embedded. The plants visited by pollinators also interact with other consumer guilds that eat stems, leaves, fruits, or seeds. One such guild, large mammalian herbivores, are well-known ecosystem engineers5–7 and may have substantial impacts...

Endosperm-based incompatibilities in hybrid monkeyflowers

Taliesin Kinser, Ronald Smith, Amelia Lawrence, Arielle Cooley, Mario Vallejo-Marín, Gregory Conradi Smith & Joshua Puzey
The sexual endosperm is an angiosperm innovation central to flowering plant reproduction. Genomic interactions between parental alleles control its development and help determine seed viability. These interactions are characterized by genomic imprinting, where expression from certain genes is parent-specific. Unsuccessful imprinting has been linked to failed hybridization between plants of different species or ploidies. Here, we describe an endosperm-based barrier between Mimulus guttatus, a diploid, and M. luteus, an allotetraploid. Hybrid seeds suffer from underdeveloped...

Data from: Size, species, and fire behavior predict tree and liana mortality from experimental burns in the Brazilian Amazon

Denis Valle
Anthropogenic understory fires have affected large areas of tropical forest in recent decades, particularly during severe droughts. Yet, the mechanisms that control fire-induced mortality of tropical trees and lianas remain ambiguous due to the challenges associated with documenting mortality given variation in fire behavior and forest heterogeneity. In a seasonally dry Amazon forest, we conducted a burn experiment to quantify how increasing understory fires alter patterns of stem mortality. From 2004 to 2007, tree and...

Data from Divergent, age-associated fungal communities of Pinus flexilis and Pinus longaeva

Joseph D. Birch, James A. Lutz, Benjamin L. Turner & Justine Karst
The long-lived five-needle pines, Pinus flexilis (limber pine) and Pinus longaeva (Great Basin bristlecone pine) can co-occur and may form symbiotic partnerships with the same species of ectomycorrhizal fungi. These shared symbiotic relationships may facilitate the persistence of these pine species. Throughout their lives, P. flexilis and P. longaeva may also assemble unique elowground fungal communities, adding to the conservation value of ancient trees. We used MiSeq sequencing of fungal rDNA to compare fungal community...

Supplementary: Global continental and marine detrital εNd: an updated compilation for use in understanding marine Nd cycling

Suzanne Robinson, Ruza Ivanovic, Tina van de Flierdt, Cecile Blanchet, Kazuyo Tachikawa, Ellen E. Martin, Carys Falko, Trevor Williams, Lauren Gregoire, Yves Plancherel, Catherine Jeandel & Thomas Arsouze
Understanding the role of sediment-water interactions in the oceanic cycling of neodymium (Nd) isotopes is essential for its reliable use as a modern and palaeoceanographic tracer of ocean circulation. However, the exact processes that control Nd cycling in the ocean are poorly defined and require an up-to-date knowledge of the sources, sinks and transformation of this tracer to and within the ocean (e.g. as per the GEOTRACES core mission). We propose a considerable improvement of...

Code for: Environmental fluctuations dampen the effects of clonal reproduction on evolutionary rescue

James Peniston, Michael Barfield, Robert Holt & Maria Orive
Evolutionary rescue occurs when genetic change allows a population to persist in response to an environmental change that would otherwise have led to extinction. Most studies of evolutionary rescue assume that species have either fully clonal or fully sexual reproduction; however, many species have partially clonal reproductive strategies in which they reproduce both clonally and sexually. Furthermore, the few evolutionary rescue studies that have evaluated partially clonal reproduction did not consider fluctuations in the environment,...

Data from: Temperature and vegetation complexity structure mixed-species flocks along a gradient of elevation in the tropical Andes

Flavia A. Montaño-Centellas & Harrison Jones
Mixed-species flocks constitute community modules that can help test mechanisms driving changes to community composition across environmental gradients. Here, we examined elevational patterns of flock diversity (species richness, taxonomic diversity, species and guild composition) and asked if these patterns were reflections of the full bird community at a given elevation (open-membership hypothesis), or if they were instead structured by environmental variables. We surveyed both the overall avian community and mixed-species flocks across an undisturbed elevational...

Data from: Colour use by tiny predators: jumping spiders exhibit colour biases during foraging

Lisa Taylor, Emily Maier, Kevin Byrne, Zareen Amin & Nathan Morehouse
The evolution of many animal colours is thought to be driven by selection from visually guided predators. Yet research has largely focused on large vertebrate predators such as birds while ignoring smaller, terrestrial invertebrate predators. This is despite clear evidence that small invertebrate predators are important regulators of prey densities in a variety of ecosystems. Jumping spiders are small voracious predators that feed on a wide variety of prey in the field. They are capable...

Registration Year

  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Dataset
  • Event
  • Journal Article


  • University of Florida
  • Utah State University
  • University of Michigan–Ann Arbor
  • Higher University of San Andrés
  • University of Vermont
  • University of Minnesota
  • University of Cincinnati
  • University of California Los Angeles
  • University of Western Australia
  • Max Planck Institute for Ornithology