14 Works

Data from: Genetic consequences of population expansions and contractions in the common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) since the Late Pleistocene

Céline Stoffel, Christophe Dufresnes, John B. A. Okello, Christian Noirard, Pierre Joly, Silvester Nyakaana, Vincent B. Muwanika, Nicolas Alcala, Séverine Vuilleumier, Hans R. Siegismund & Luca Fumagalli
Over the past two decades, an increasing amount of phylogeographic work has substantially improved our understanding of African biogeography, in particular the role played by Pleistocene pluvial–drought cycles on terrestrial vertebrates. However, still little is known on the evolutionary history of semi-aquatic animals, which faced tremendous challenges imposed by unpredictable availability of water resources. In this study, we investigate the Late Pleistocene history of the common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence...

Data from: Does kin selection moderate sexual conflict in Drosophila?

Adam K. Chippindale, Meredith Berggren, Joshua H. M. Alpern & Robert Montgomerie
Two recent studies provide provocative experimental findings about the potential influence of kin recognition and cooperation on the level of sexual conflict in Drosophila melanogaster. In both studies, male fruit flies apparently curbed their mate-harming behaviours in the presence of a few familiar or related males, suggesting some form of cooperation mediated by kin selection. In one study, the reduction in agonistic behaviour by brothers apparently rendered them vulnerable to dramatic loss of paternity share...

Data from: Contact zone dynamics during early stages of speciation in a chorus frog (Pseudacris crucifer)

Kathryn A. Stewart, James D. Austin, Kelly R. Zamudio & Stephen C. Lougheed
Characterizing the genetic and behavioural consequences of contact between previously geographically isolated lineages provides insights into the mechanisms underlying diversification and ultimately speciation. The spring peeper (Pseudacris crucifer) is a widespread Nearctic chorus frog with six divergent mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages, many of which came into secondary contact during the Holocene. We examined genetics, morphology, advertisement calls and female preference for two lineages that began diverging in allopatry in the Pliocene and now overlap in...

Data from: Closely related species of birds differ more in body size when their ranges overlap—in warm, but not cool, climates

Emma Bothwell, Robert Montgomerie, Stephen C. Lougheed & Paul R. Martin
Differences in body size are widely thought to allow closely related species to coexist in sympatry, but body size also varies as an adaptive response to climate. Here, we use a sister lineage approach to test the prediction that body size differences between closely related species of birds worldwide are greater for species whose ranges are sympatric rather than allopatric. We further test if body size differences among sympatric versus allopatric species vary with geography,...

Data from: The signature of fine scale local adaptation in Atlantic salmon revealed from common garden experiments in nature

Ciar L O'Toole, Thomas E. Reed, Deborah Bailie, Caroline Bradley, Deirdre Cotter, Jamie Coughlan, Tom Cross, Eileen Dillane, Sarah McEvoy, Niall O'Maoileidigh, Paulo Prodöhl, Ger Rogan & Philip McGinnity
Understanding the extent, scale and genetic basis of local adaptation (LA) is important for conservation and management. Its relevance in salmonids at microgeographic scales, where dispersal (and hence potential gene flow) can be substantial, has however been questioned. Here, we compare the fitness of communally reared offspring of local and foreign Atlantic salmon Salmo salar from adjacent Irish rivers and reciprocal F1 hybrid crosses between them, in the wild ‘home’ environment of the local population....

Data from: Fitness declines toward range limits and local adaptation to climate affect dispersal evolution during climate-induced range shifts

Anna L. Hargreaves, Susan F. Bailey & Robert A. Laird
Dispersal ability will largely determine whether species track their climatic niches during climate change, a process especially important for populations at contracting (low-latitude/low-elevation) range limits that otherwise risk extinction. We investigate whether dispersal evolution at contracting range limits is facilitated by two processes that potentially enable edge populations to experience and adjust to the effects of climate deterioration before they cause extinction: (i) climate-induced fitness declines towards range limits and (ii) local adaptation to a...

Data from: Spatial patterns and predictors of trophic control in marine ecosystems

Daniel G. Boyce, Kenneth T. Frank, Boris Worm & William C. Leggett
A key question in ecology is under which conditions ecosystem structure tends to be controlled by resource availability vs. consumer pressure. Several hypotheses derived from theory, experiments and observational field studies have been advanced, yet a unified explanation remains elusive. Here, we identify common predictors of trophic control in a synthetic analysis of 52 observational field studies conducted within marine ecosystems across the Northern Hemisphere and published between 1951 and 2014. Spatial regression analysis of...

Data from: Does white tail patch size indicate quality in male Cerulean Warblers (Setophaga cerulea)

Elisabeth F. Purves, Mark A. Conboy, Raleigh J. Robertson & Paul R. Martin
Within species of birds, variation in plumage may allow potential mates or competitive rivals to quickly assess the quality of an individual. Little is known about the role of white tail feather patches (“tail white”) in male Cerulean Warblers (Setophaga cerulea) and whether variation in patch size could serve as a signal. We hypothesized that the size of tail white patches in males acts as an honest signal of quality, with larger white patches indicating...

Data from: Simultaneously uncovering the patterns of the brain regions involved in different story reading subprocesses

Leila Wehbe, Brian Murphy, Partha Talukdar, Alona Fyshe, Aaditya Ramdas & Tom Mitchell
Story understanding involves many perceptual and cognitive subprocesses, from perceiving individual words, to parsing sentences, to understanding the relationships among the story characters. We present an integrated computational model of reading that incorporates these and additional subprocesses, simultaneously discovering their fMRI signatures. Our model predicts the fMRI activity associated with reading arbitrary text passages, well enough to distinguish which of two story segments is being read with 74% accuracy. This approach is the first to...

Data from: Does high-dose antimicrobial chemotherapy prevent the evolution of resistance?

Troy Day & Andrew F. Read
High-dose chemotherapy has long been advocated as a means of controlling drug resistance in infectious diseases but recent empirical studies have begun to challenge this view. We develop a very general framework for modeling and understanding resistance emergence based on principles from evolutionary biology. We use this framework to show how high-dose chemotherapy engenders opposing evolutionary processes involving the mutational input of resistant strains and their release from ecological competition. Whether such therapy provides the...

Data from: Tracking the history and ecological changes of rising double-crested cormorant populations using pond sediments from islands in eastern Lake Ontario

Emily M. Stewart, Neal Michelutti, Sarah Shenstone-Harris, Christopher Grooms, Chip Weseloh, Linda E. Kimpe, Jules M. Blais & John P. Smol
In the Laurentian Great Lakes region, the double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) has seen a thousand-fold population increase in recent decades. These large colonies of birds now often conflict with socioeconomic interests, particularly due to perceived competition with fisheries and the destruction of terrestrial vegetation in nesting habitats. Here we use dated sediment cores from ponds on islands in eastern Lake Ontario that receive waste inputs from dense colonies of cormorants and ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis)...

Data from: Detecting adaptive evolution in phylogenetic comparative analysis using the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model

Clayton E. Cressler, Marguerite A. Butler & Aaron A. King
Phylogenetic comparative analysis is an approach to inferring evolutionary process from a combination of phylogenetic and phenotypic data. The last few years have seen increasingly sophisticated models employed in the evaluation of more and more detailed evolutionary hypotheses, including adaptive hypotheses with multiple selective optima and hypotheses with rate variation within and across lineages. The statistical performance of these sophisticated models has received relatively little systematic attention, however. We conducted an extensive simulation study to...

Data from: Conflict between biotic and climatic selective pressures acting on an extended phenotype in a subarctic, but not temperate, environment

Vanya G. Rohwer, Frances Bonier & Paul R. Martin
Climatic selective pressures are thought to dominate biotic selective pressures at higher latitudes. However, few studies have experimentally tested how these selective pressures differentially act on traits across latitudes because traits can rarely be manipulated independently of the organism in nature. We overcame this challenge by using an extended phenotype—active bird nests—and conducted reciprocal transplant experiments between a subarctic and temperate site, separated by 14° of latitude. At the subarctic site, biotic selective pressures (nest...

Data from: High-elevation range limit of an annual herb is neither caused nor reinforced by declining pollinator service

Anna L. Hargreaves, Jennifer L. Weiner & Christopher G. Eckert
1. Pollination failure has been proposed to be an important determinant of plant species’ range limits, if pollinator activity declines along an environmental gradient, directly limiting plant populations, or if plant populations decline along an environmental gradient and subsequently fail to attract sufficient visitation. Both mechanisms predict reduced pollinator visitation, increased pollen limitation, and decreased seed production towards range limits, and the first additionally predicts declining pollinator abundance independent of any particular plant species. However,...

Registration Year

  • 2015
    14

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    14

Affiliations

  • Queen's University
    14
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    1
  • University of Lausanne
    1
  • Aarhus University
    1
  • National Institutes of Health
    1
  • Dalhousie University
    1
  • University of Guelph
    1
  • University of Hawaii at Manoa
    1
  • Environment Canada
    1
  • University of Florida
    1