19 Works

Size-dependent costs of migration: migrant bird species are subordinate to residents, but only at small body sizes

Paul Martin, Haley Kenyon & Leah Hayes
Migrant species are commonly thought to be poor competitors in aggressive interactions with resident species. However, no studies have tested if this relationship is widespread. Here we compare the behavioural dominance of closely-related species of migratory and non-migratory birds, testing if migrants are consistently subordinate to resident species in aggressive contests. We compiled published behavioural dominance data involving migrant and resident congeners, gathering additional data on the body mass and migratory distance of each species....

The extensibility of the plantar fascia influences the windlass mechanism during human running

Lauren Welte, Luke Kelly, Sarah Kessler, Daniel Lieberman, Susan D'Andrea, Glen Lichtwark & Michael Rainbow
The arch of the human foot is unique among hominins as it is compliant at ground-contact but sufficiently stiff to enable push-off. These behaviours are partly facilitated by the ligamentous plantar fascia whose role is central to two mechanisms. The ideal windlass mechanism assumes that the plantar fascia has a nearly constant length to directly couple toe dorsiflexion with a change in arch shape. However, the plantar fascia also stretches and then shortens throughout gait...

Data from: Plasticity versus evolutionary divergence: what causes habitat partitioning in urban-adapted birds?

Paul Martin, Kevin Burke & Frances Bonier
Habitat partitioning can facilitate the coexistence of closely related species, and often results from competitive interference inducing plastic shifts of subordinate species in response to aggressive, dominant species (plasticity), or the evolution of ecological differences in subordinate species that reduce their ability to occupy habitats where the dominant species occurs (evolutionary divergence). Evidence consistent with both plasticity and evolutionary divergence exist, but the relative contributions of each to habitat partitioning have been difficult to discern....

The microevolutionary response to male-limited X-chromosome evolution in Drosophila melanogaster reflects macroevolutionary patterns

Jessica Abbott, Adam Chippindale & Ted Morrow
Due to its hemizygous inheritance and role in sex determination, the X chromosome is expected to play an important role in the evolution of sexual dimorphism, and to be enriched for sexually antagonistic genetic variation. By forcing the X chromosome to only be expressed in males over >40 generations, we changed the selection pressures on the X to become similar to those experienced by the Y. This releases the X from any constraints arising from...

Gene expression data of Sinorhizobium meliloti-alfalfa initiation of symbiosis

Alessio Mengoni, George DiCenzo, Camilla Fagorzi, Rui Huang, Giovanni Bacci, Alice Checcucci, Chiara Natali, Lisa Cangioli, Margherita Fini & Elena Perrin
Rhizobia are ecologically important, facultative plant symbiotic microbes. In nature there exists large variability in the association of rhizobial strains and host plants of the same species. Here, we evaluated whether plant and rhizobial genotypes influence the initial transcriptional response of rhizobium following perception of host plant. RNA-sequencing of the model rhizobium Sinorhizobium meliloti exposed to root exudates or luteolin was performed in a combination of three S. meliloti strains and three Medicago sativa varieties....

Det tør!: Frozen-Ground Cartoons; Et international samarbejde mellem kunstnere og permafrostforskere

Heta Nääs, Noémie Ross, Frédéric Bouchard, Michelle Paquette, Audrey Veillette, Michael Fritz, Stefanie Weege, Julie Malenfant-Lepage, Bethany Deshpande, Alexander Nieuwendam, Ashley Rudy, Matthias Siewert, Ylva Sjöberg, Jonathan Harbor, J. Otto Habeck, Kerstin Krøier Rasmussen & Kirstey Langley
This project started in October 2015 with a crazy idea : prepare and submit a funding application for an international, multidisciplinary and non-traditional scientific outreach project… within the next 48 hours. Well, it worked out. A group of highly motivated young researchers from Canada and Europe united to combine arts and science and produce a series of outreach comic strips about permafrost (frozen ground). The aim of the project is to present and explain scientific...

Canadian polar bear population structure using genome-wide markers

Evelyn Jensen, Christina Tschritter, Peter Van Coeverden De Groot, Kristen Hayward, Marsha Branigan, Markus Dyck, Rute Clemente-Carvalho & Stephen Lougheed
Predicting the consequences of environmental changes, including human-mediated climate change on species, requires that we quantify range-wide patterns of genetic diversity and identify the ecological, environmental, and historical factors that have contributed to it. Here, we generate baseline data on polar bear population structure across most Canadian subpopulations (n=358) using 13,488 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified with double digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD). Our ddRAD dataset showed three genetic clusters in the sampled...

Data from: Body size variation in a guild of carrion beetles

Allison Collard, Jillian Wettlaufer, Kevin Burke, David Beresford & Paul Martin
Body size is a key biological trait, influencing the biomechanics, physiology, behaviour, and ecology of species. Describing variation in body size within and among co-occurring species within an ecological guild can provide important context for understanding the ecology of species and the structure of ecological communities. Here, we focus on a guild of carrion beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae) co-occurring in southeastern Ontario, Canada. We examine how body size varies (i) among species, (ii) within species, including...

Striking centennial-scale changes in the population size of a threatened seabird

Matthew Duda, Gregory Robertson, Joeline Lim, Jennifer Kissinger, David Eickmeyer, Christopher Grooms, Lynda Kimpe, William Montevecchi, Neal Michelutti, Jules Blais & John Smol
Many animal populations are under stress and declining. For numerous marine bird species, only recent or sparse monitoring data are available, lacking the appropriate temporal perspective needed to consider natural, long-term population dynamics when developing conservation strategies. Here we use a combination of established paleoenvironmental approaches to examine the millennial-scale dynamics of the world’s largest colony (representing ~50% of the global population) of the declining and vulnerable Leach’s Storm-petrel (Hydrobates leucorhous). By reconstructing the last...

Characterizing and classifying neuroendocrine neoplasms through microRNA sequencing and data mining

Jina Nanayakkara, Xiaojing Yang, Kathrin Tyryshkin, Justin J.M. Wong, Kaitlin Vanderbeck, Paula S. Ginter, Theresa Scognamiglio, Yao-Tseng Chen, Nicole Panarelli, Nai-Kong Cheung, Frederike Dijk, Iddo Z. Ben-Dov, Michelle Kang Kim, Simron Singh, Pavel Morozov, Klaas E. A. Max, Thomas Tuschl & Neil Renwick
Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are clinically diverse and incompletely characterized cancers that are challenging to classify. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs that can be used to classify cancers. Recently, a morphology-based classification framework for evaluating NENs from different anatomic sites was proposed by experts, with the requirement of improved molecular data integration. Here, we compiled 378 miRNA expression profiles to examine NEN classification through comprehensive miRNA profiling and data mining. Following data preprocessing, our final...

Enhancing the usefulness of artificial seeds in seed beetle model systems research

Leslie Holmes, William Nelson, Markus Dyck & Stephen Lougheed
Seed beetles are among textbook examples of experimental model systems used to better understand nature’s complexities. A potential seed beetle model systems strength is the use of artificial seeds to remove experimental confounds. This is particularly relevant for scaling life histories to population dynamics but requires many artificial seeds. Current methods of producing seeds are laborious, limiting their application. Building on previous work, we developed efficient methods to produce artificial seeds and expand their use....

Habitat use of co-occurring burying beetles (genus Nicrophorus) in southeastern Ontario, Canada

Kevin Burke, Jillian Wettlaufer, David Beresford & Paul Martin
The coexistence of closely related species plays an important role in shaping local diversity. However, competition for shared resources can limit the ability of species to coexist. Many species avoid the costs of coexistence by diverging in habitat use, known as habitat partitioning. We examine patterns of habitat use in seven co-occurring species of burying beetles (genus Nicrophorus Fabricius, 1775), testing the hypothesis that Nicrophorus species partition resources by occupying distinct habitats. We surveyed Nicrophorus...

Data from: Neural dysfunction correlates with heat coma and CTmax in Drosophila but does not set the boundaries for heat stress survival

Lisa B. Jørgensen, R. Meldrum Robertson & Johannes Overgaard
When heated, insects lose coordinated movement followed by the onset of heat coma (critical thermal maximum, CTmax). These traits are popular measures to quantify interspecific and intraspecific differences in insect heat tolerance, and CTmax correlates well with current species distributions of insects, including Drosophila. Here, we examined the function of the central nervous system (CNS) in five species of Drosophila with different heat tolerances, while they were exposed to either constant high temperature or a...

The evolution of age-specific choosiness when mating

Olivier Cotto & Troy Day
Mate choice is a crucial element of many processes in evolutionary biology. Empirical research has shown that mating preference and choosiness often change with age. Understanding the evolutionary causes of patterns of age-specific choosiness is challenging because different mechanisms can give rise to the same pattern. Instead of focusing on the optimal age-specific choosiness strategy given fitness trade-offs, we approach this question from a more general standpoint and ask how the strength of selection on...

On the evolutionary epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2

Troy Day, Sylvain Gandon, Sébastien Lion & Sarah P. Otto
There is no doubt that the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 that causes COVID-19 is mutating and thus has the potential to adapt during the current pandemic. Whether this evolution will lead to changes in the transmission, the duration, or the severity of the disease is not clear. This has led to considerable scientific and media debate, from raising alarms about evolutionary change to dismissing it. Here we review what little is currently known about the evolution...

Exploring the inclusion of dental providers on interprofessional healthcare teams treating patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a rapid review

Navia Novosel, Greta Fratarcangeli, Jasdip Randhawa, Olivia Novosel & Shannon Sibbald
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death in the world. Emerging concepts like One Health, integrated models for COPD, and associations between oral and respiratory health are innovative ways to approach COPD treatment. This study explored contemporary evidence on the inclusion of dental providers on interprofessional healthcare teams treating patients with COPD. The first objective was to explore the current state of interprofessional care for COPD treatment, and the second...

Food quality effects on instar-specific life histories of a holometabolous insect

Leslie Holmes, William Nelson & Stephen Lougheed
It is a long-standing challenge to understand how changes in food resources impact consumer life history traits and, in turn, impact how organisms interact with their environment. To characterize food quality effects on life history, most studies follow organisms throughout their life cycle and quantify major life events, such as age at maturity or fecundity. From these studies, we know that food quality generally impacts body size, juvenile development, and life span. Importantly, throughout juvenile...

A comparison of neutral genetic differentiation and genetic diversity among migratory and resident populations of Golden-crowned-Kinglets (Regulus satrapa)

Brendan Graham, Amanda Carpenter, Vicki Friesen & Theresa Burg
Many animals migrate seasonally between breeding and non-breeding territories and these annual movements can have a profound effect on population genetic structure. We genotyped 283 individuals from 11 populations at seven variable microsatellite loci and compared patterns of neutral genetic differentiation and neutral genetic diversity among migratory and resident breeding populations of the Golden-crowned Kinglet (Regulus satrapa), a widespread North American songbird. We predicted that resident populations would exhibit greater genetic differentiation and lower genetic...

Data on zooplankton species and lake environments from 29 lakes in southern Ontario, Canada

James Sinclair, Shelley Arnott, William Nelson & Kaitlyn Brougham
The data published here were used to determine temporal variability in the drivers of zooplankton community composition, and to identify associations between individual species and different environmental metrics. Here, we provide two datasets, which are used in the paper by Sinclair et al. titled: "Consistent and transient drivers of freshwater zooplankton communities". Each dataset is provided as a separate tab in a single Excel spreadsheet. The “Info” tab provides more detail on each. The first...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    19

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    18
  • Text
    1

Affiliations

  • Queen's University
    19
  • Government of Nunavut
    2
  • Trent University
    2
  • Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive
    1
  • Universität Hamburg
    1
  • University of Queensland
    1
  • University of Bologna
    1
  • Lund University
    1
  • University of Montreal
    1
  • Aarhus University
    1