150 Works

Data from: Role of multiple invasion mechanisms and their interaction in regulating the population dynamics of an exotic tree

Raelene M. Crandall & Tiffany M. Knight
Understanding the mechanisms that allow exotic species to have rapid population growth is an important step in the process of controlling existing invasions and preventing future invasions. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain why some exotic species become invasive, the most prominent of which focus on the roles of habitat disturbance, competitors and consumers. The magnitude and direction of each of these mechanisms on population dynamics observed in previous studies is quite variable. It...

Data from: Spatial genetic structure in American black bears (Ursus americanus): female philopatry is variable and related to population history

Thea V. Kristensen, Emily E. Puckett, Erin L. Landguth, Jerrold L. Belant, John T. Hast, Colin Carpenter, Jaime L. Sajecki, Jeff Beringer, Myron Means, John J. Cox, Lori S. Eggert, & Kimberly G. Smith
Previously, American black bears (Ursus americanus) were thought to follow the pattern of female philopatry and male-biased dispersal. However, recent studies have identified deviations from this pattern. Such flexibility in dispersal patterns can allow individuals greater ability to acclimate to changing environments. We explored dispersal and spatial genetic relatedness patterns across ten black bear populations—including long established (historic), with known reproduction >50 years ago, and newly established (recent) populations, with reproduction recorded <50 years ago—in...

Data from: Timing of rapid diversification and convergent origins of active pollination within Agavoideae (Asparagaceae)

Michael R. McKain, Joel R. McNeal, P. Roxanne Kellar, Luis E. Eguiarte, J. Chris Pires, James Leebens-Mack & Jim Leebens-Mack
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Yucca species are ideal candidates for the study of coevolution due to the obligate mutualism they form with yucca moth pollinators (genera Tegeticula and Parategeticula). Yuccas are not the only species to exhibit a mutualism with yucca moths; the genus Hesperoyucca is pollinated by the California yucca moth (Tegeticula maculata). Relationships among yuccas, Hesperoyucca, and other members of subfamily Agavoideae are necessary to understand the evolution of this unique pollination syndrome....

Data from: Pollination on the dark side: acoustic monitoring reveals impacts of a total solar eclipse on flight behavior and activity schedule of foraging bees

Candace Galen, Zachary Miller, Austin Lynn, Michael Axe, Samuel Holden, Levi Storks, Edward Ramirez, Emilia Asante, David Heise, Susan Kephart, James Kephart, Eddie Ramirez & Jim Kephart
The total solar eclipse of 21 August 2017 traversed ~5000 km from coast to coast of North America. In its 90-min span, sunlight dropped by three orders of magnitude and temperature by 10–15°C. To investigate impacts of these changes on bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) pollinators, we monitored their flights acoustically in natural habitats of Pacific Coast, Rocky Mountain, and Midwest regions. Temperature changes during the eclipse had little impact on bee activity. Most of the explained...

Data from: Ecophenotypy, temporal and spatial fidelity, functional morphology, and physiological trade-offs among intertidal bivalves

John W. Huntley, James D. Schiffbauer, Teresa D. Avila & Jesse S. Broce
Ecophenotypic variation in populations is driven by differences in environmental variables. In marine environments, ecophenotypic variation may be caused by differences in hydrodynamic conditions, substrate type, water depth, temperature, salinity, oxygen concentration, and habitat heterogeneity, among others. Instances of ecophenotypic variation in modern and fossil settings are common, but little is known about the influences of time-averaging and spatial-averaging on their preservation. Here we examine the shell morphology of two adjacent populations, both live-collected and...

Data from: Competitive response of savanna tree seedlings to C4 grasses is negatively related to photosynthesis rate

Tracy A. Campbell & Ricardo M. Holdo
Savanna tree species vary in the magnitude of their response to grass competition, but the functional traits that explain this variation remain largely unknown. To address this gap, we grew seedlings of 10 savanna tree species with and without grasses in a controlled greenhouse experiment. We found strong interspecific differences in tree competitive response, which was positively related to photosynthesis rates, suggesting a trade-off between the ability to grow well under conditions of low and...

Data from: Thermal niche evolution across replicated Anolis lizard adaptive radiations

Alex R. Gunderson, D. Luke Mahler & Manuel Leal
Elucidating how ecological and evolutionary mechanisms interact to produce and maintain biodiversity is a fundamental problem in evolutionary ecology. We investigate this issue by focusing on how physiological evolution affects performance and species coexistence along the thermal niche axis in replicated radiations of Anolis lizards, groups best known for resource partitioning based on morphological divergence. We find repeated divergence in thermal physiology within these radiations, and that this divergence significantly affects performance within natural thermal...

Data from: Phylogenetic patterns of trait and trait plasticity evolution: Insights from amphibian embryos

Rick Relyea, Patrick R. Stephens, Lisa N. Barrow, Andrew Blaustein, Paul Bradley, Julia Buck, Ann Chang, Brian I Crother, James Collins, Julia Earl, Stephanie S. Gervasi, Jason T. Hoverman, Olliver Hyman, Emily Claire Moriarty Lemmon, Thomas Luhring, Moses Michelsohn, Christopher M. Murray, Steven Price, Raymond Semlitsch, Andy Sih, Aaron Stoler, Nick VandenBroek, Alexa Warwick, Greta Wengert, John Hammond … & Aaron B. Stoler
Environmental variation favors the evolution of phenotypic plasticity. For many species, we understand the costs and benefits of different phenotypes, but we lack a broad understanding of how plastic traits evolve across large clades. Using identical experiments conducted across North America, we examined prey responses to predator cues. We quantified five life history traits and the magnitude of their plasticity for 23 amphibian species/populations (spanning three families and five genera) when exposed to no cues,...

Data from: Children's visuospatial memory predicts mathematics achievement through early adolescence

Yaoran Li & David C. Geary
A previous study showed that gains in visuospatial memory from first to fifth grade predicted end-of-fifth grade mathematics but not reading achievement, controlling other factors. In this follow up study, these relations were assessed from sixth to ninth grade, inclusive (n = 145). The results showed that growth in visuospatial memory across the elementary school years was related to growth in mathematics achievement after fifth grade, controlling intelligence, the central executive and phonological memory components...

Data from: Repeated evolution of vertebrate pollination syndromes in a recently diverged Andean plant clade

Laura P. Lagomarsino, Elisabeth J. Forrestel, Nathan Muchhala & Charles C. Davis
While specialized interactions, including those involving plants and their pollinators, are often invoked to explain high species diversity, they are rarely explored at macroevolutionary scales. We investigate the dynamic evolution of hummingbird and bat pollination syndromes in the centropogonid clade (Lobelioideae: Campanulaceae), an Andean-centered group of ∼550 angiosperm species. We demonstrate that flowers hypothesized to be adapted to different pollinators based on flower color fall into distinct regions of morphospace, and this is validated by...

Data from: Bottlenecks and selective sweeps during domestication have increased deleterious genetic variation in dogs

Clare D. Marsden, Diego Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Dennis P. O'Brien, Jeremy F. Taylor, Oscar Ramirez, Carles Vila, Tomas Marques-Bonet, Robert D. Schnabel, Robert K. Wayne & Kirk E. Lohmueller
Population bottlenecks, inbreeding, and artificial selection can all, in principle, influence levels of deleterious genetic variation. However, the relative importance of each of these effects on genome-wide patterns of deleterious variation remains controversial. Domestic and wild canids offer a powerful system to address the role of these factors in influencing deleterious variation because their history is dominated by known bottlenecks and intense artificial selection. Here, we assess genome-wide patterns of deleterious variation in 90 whole-genome...

Data from: Functional mismatch in a bumble bee pollination mutualism under climate change

Nicole E. Miller-Struttmann, Jennifer C. Geib, James D. Franklin, Peter G. Kevan, Ricardo M. Holdo, Diane Ebert-May, Austin M. Lynn, Jessica A. Kettenbach, Elizabeth Hedrick & Candace Galen
Ecological partnerships, or mutualisms, are globally widespread, sustaining agriculture and biodiversity. Mutualisms evolve through the matching of functional traits between partners, such as tongue length of pollinators and flower tube depth of plants. Long-tongued pollinators specialize on flowers with deep corolla tubes, whereas shorter-tongued pollinators generalize across tube lengths. Losses of functional guilds because of shifts in global climate may disrupt mutualisms and threaten partner species. We found that in two alpine bumble bee species,...

Evolutionary history of Neotropical savannas geographically concentrates species, phylogenetic and functional diversity of lizards

Jessica Fenker, Fabricius M. C. B. Domingos, Leonardo G. Tedeschi, Dan F. Rosauer, Fernanda P. Werneck, Guarino R. Colli, Roger M. D. Ledo, Emanuel M. Fonseca, Adrian A. Garda, Derek Tucker, , Maria F. Breitman, Flavia Soares, Lilian G. Giugliano & Craig Moritz
Supporting information (scripts) to compute diversity and endemism indices copied and available by Dan Rosauer (https ://github.com/DanRosauer/phylospatial). Aim: Understanding where and why species diversity is geographically concentrated remains a challenge in biogeography and macroevolution. This is true for the Cerrado, the most biodiverse tropical savanna in the world, which has experienced profound biodiversity loss. Previous studies have focused on a single metric (species composition), neglecting the fact that ‘species’ within the biome are often composed...

Inter- and intraspecific variation in juvenile metabolism and water loss among five biphasic amphibian species

Arianne Messerman & Manuel Leal
Population persistence is informed by the ability of individuals to cope with local abiotic conditions, which is commonly mediated by physiological traits. Among biphasic amphibians, juveniles—which are infrequently studied but play a key role in amphibian population dynamics—are the first life stage to experience terrestrial conditions following the aquatic larval stage. To illuminate phenotypic variation that may allow juveniles to survive the physiological challenges presented by this transition, we examined respiratory surface area water loss...

Data from: On the sampling design of spatially explicit integrated population models

Qing Zhao
It is important to understand metapopulation dynamics and underlying demographic processes in heterogeneous landscapes. Traditionally demographic parameters are estimated using capture-recapture data that can be difficult to collect. Spatially explicit dynamic N-mixture models allow inference for demographic parameters, including dispersal, using count data of unmarked animals, but these models have only been shown effective under constant demographic parameters and dispersal between adjacent local populations. In this study I aimed to compensate the weakness of spatially...

Data from: Bat ensembles differ in response to use zones in a tropical biosphere reserve

Natalie Yoh, Isham Azhar, Katheryn V. Fitzgerald, Rieka Yu, Tenaja Smith-Butler, Azniza Mahyudin & Tigga Kingston
Biosphere reserves, designated under The United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization’s (UNESCO) Man and Biosphere Programme, aim to sustainably integrate protected areas into the biological and economic landscape around them by buffering strictly protected habitats with zones of limited use. However, the effectiveness of biosphere reserves and the contribution of the different zones of use to protection is poorly known. We assessed the diversity and activity of bats in the Crocker Range Biosphere Reserve...

Hematoma expansion shift analysis to assess acute intracerebral hemorrhage treatments

Vignan Yogendrakumar, Tim Ramsay, Bijoy Menon, Adnan Qureshi, Jeffrey Saver & Dar Dowlatshahi
Objective: Hematoma expansion (HE) is commonly analyzed as a dichotomous outcome in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) trials. In this proof-of-concept study, we propose a “HE shift” analysis model as a method to improve the evaluation of candidate ICH therapies. Methods: Using data from the Antihypertensive Treatment of Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage II (ATACH-2) trial, we performed HE shift analysis in response to intensive blood pressure lowering by generating polychotomous strata based on a) previously established HE definitions,...

Fossil evidence unveils an early Cambrian origin for Bryozoa

Zhiliang Zhang, Zhifei Zhang, Junye Ma, Paul Taylor, Luke Strotz, Sarah Jacquet, Christian Skovsted, Feiyang Chen, Jian Han & Glenn Brock
Bryozoans (ectoprocts or moss animals) are aquatic, dominantly sessile, filter-feeding lophophorates that construct an organic or calcareous modular colonial (clonal) exoskeleton. The presence of six major orders of bryozoans with advanced polymorphisms in lower Ordovician rocks strongly suggests a Cambrian origin for the largest and most diverse lophophorate phylum. However, a lack of convincing bryozoan fossils from the Cambrian has hampered resolution of the true origins and character assembly of earliest members of the group....

Data from: Telemedicine in neurology: telemedicine work group of the American Academy of Neurology update

Jaime M. Hatcher-Martin, Jamie Lynn Adams, Eric R Anderson, Riley Bove, Tamika M. Burrus, Mahan Chehrenama, Mary Dolan O'Brien, Dawn S. Eliashiv, Deniz Erten-Lyons, Barbara S. Giesser, Lauren Moo, Pushpa Narayanaswami, Marvin A. Rossi, Madhu Soni, Nauman Tariq, Jack W. Tsao, Bert Vargas, Scott Vota, Scott Wessels, Hannah Planalp & Raghav Govindarajan
ABSTRACT Purpose: While there is strong evidence supporting the importance of telemedicine in stroke, its role in other areas of neurology is not as clear. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of evidence-based data regarding the role of teleneurology in the care of patients with neurologic disorders other than stroke. Recent findings: Studies across multiple specialties report noninferiority of evaluations by telemedicine compared with traditional, in-person evaluations in terms of patient...

The lion's mane: sexual and natural selection on pollen morphology in Taraxacum

Austin Lynn, Emelyn Piotter, Ellie Harrison & Candace Galen
Premise of the study: Spiny pollen has evolved independently in multiple entomophilous lineages. Sexual selection may act on exine traits that facilitate male mating success by influencing the transfer of pollen from the anther to the body of the pollinator, while natural selection acts to increase pollen survival. We postulated that relative to sexual congeners, apomictic dandelions undergo relaxed selection on traits associated with male mating success. Methods: We explored sexual selection on exine traits...

Estimating survival for elusive juvenile pond‐breeding salamanders

Arianne Messerman, Raymond Semlitsch, Manuel Leal, Arianne F. Messerman & Raymond D. Semlitsch
Juvenile vital rates have important effects on population dynamics for many species, but this demographic is often difficult to locate and track. As such, we frequently lack reliable estimates of juvenile survival, which are necessary for accurately assessing population stability and potential management approaches to conserve biodiversity. We empirically estimated survival rates for elusive juveniles of 3 complex lifecycle species of salamanders (ringed salamander [Ambystoma annulatum], spotted slamander [A. maculatum], and small-mouthed slamander [A. texanum])...

The Forgotten Kingdom. New investigations in the prehistory of Eswatini

Gregor D. Bader, Bob Forrester, Lisa Ehlers, Elizabeth Velliky, Brandy Lee MacDonald & Jörg Linstädter
Journal of Global Archaeology, 2021

Uterine lumen fluid is metabolically semi-autonomous

Constantine Simintiras, Jessica Drum, Hongyu Liu, Sofia Ortega & Thomas Spencer
Uterine lumen fluid (ULF) is central to successful pregnancy establishment and maintenance, and impacts offspring wellbeing into adulthood. The current dogma is that ULF composition is primarily governed by endometrial glandular epithelial cell secretions and influenced by progesterone. To investigate the hypothesis that ULF is metabolically semi-autonomous, ULF was obtained from cyclic heifers, and aliquots incubated for various durations prior to analysis by untargeted semi-quantitative metabolomic profiling. Metabolite flux was observed in these ULF isolates,...

The contributions of individual traits to survival among terrestrial juvenile pond-breeding salamanders

Arianne Messerman & Manuel Leal
Individual survival is influenced by interactions between local environmental conditions and an organism’s morphological, behavioral, and physiological traits. Studies examining the effects of individual phenotypes on survival under variable conditions are relatively rare among early transitional life stages, though the vital rates of these life stages can importantly influence population dynamics. We experimentally examined the effects of initial body mass, movement, standard metabolic rate (SMR), and respiratory surface area water loss (RSAWL) on survival in...

Data from: Angiosperm wood structure: global patterns in vessel anatomy and their relationship to wood density and potential conductivity

Amy E. Zanne, Mark Westoby, Daniel S Falster, David D Ackerly, Scott R Loarie, Sarah E J Arnold, David A. Coomes, David D. Ackerly, Sarah E. J. Arnold & Daniel S. Falster
Woody stems comprise a large biological carbon fraction and determine water transport between roots and leaves; their structure and function can influence both carbon and hydrological cycles. While angiosperm wood anatomy and density determine hydraulic conductivity and mechanical strength, little is known about interrelations across many species. We compiled a global dataset comprising two anatomical traits for 3005 woody angiosperms: mean vessel lumen area ( ) and number per unit area (N). From these, we...

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