Data from: Functional attributes of savannah soils: contrasting effects of tree canopies and herbivores on bulk density, nutrients and moisture dynamicsRicardo M. Holdo & Michelle C. Mack
1. Savannahs are highly heterogeneous tree-grass mixtures, and the structural variation imposed by a discontinuous canopy cover results in spatial variation in soil properties such as plant-available nutrients, temperature and soil moisture. Many savannahs are also dominated by large vertebrate herbivores, which impose a different suite of effects on soil properties related to consumption, excretion and physical disturbance. 2. In nutrient-poor, water-limited systems, variation in soil resource availability may play a fundamental role in structuring...
Data from: Homing of invasive Burmese pythons in South Florida: evidence for map and compass senses in snakesShannon E. Pittman, Kristen M. Hart, Michael S. Cherkiss, Ray W. Snow, Ikuko Fujisaki, Brian J. Smith, Frank J. Mazzotti & Michael E. Dorcas
Navigational ability is a critical component of an animal's spatial ecology and may influence the invasive potential of species. Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) are apex predators invasive to South Florida. We tracked the movements of 12 adult Burmese pythons in Everglades National Park, six of which were translocated 21–36 km from their capture locations. Translocated snakes oriented movement homeward relative to the capture location, and five of six snakes returned to within 5 km...
1.The question posed by the title of this paper is a basic one, and it is surprising that the answer is not known. Recently assembled trait datasets provide an opportunity to address this, but scaling these datasets to the global scale is challenging because of sampling bias. Although we currently know the growth form of tens of thousands of species, these data are not a random sample of global diversity; some clades are exhaustively characterised,...
Data from: A multivariate analysis of genetic variation in the advertisement call of the gray treefrog, Hyla versicolorAllison M. Welch, Michael J. Smith & H. Carl Gerhardt
Genetic variation in sexual displays is crucial for an evolutionary response to sexual selection, but can be eroded by strong selection. Identifying the magnitude and sources of additive genetic variance underlying sexually-selected traits is thus an important issue in evolutionary biology. We conducted a quantitative genetics experiment with gray treefrogs (Hyla versicolor) to investigate genetic variances and covariances among features of the male advertisement call. Two energetically-expensive traits showed significant genetic variation: call duration, expressed...
Data from: Influence of drift and admixture on population structure of American black bears (Ursus americanus) in the Central Interior Highlands, U.S.A. 50 years after translocationEmily E. Puckett, Thea V. Kristensen, Clay M. Wilton, Sara B. Lyda, Karen V. Noyce, Paula M. Holahan, , Jeff Beringer, Jerrold L. Belant, , Lori S. Eggert & David M. Leslie
Bottlenecks, founder events, and genetic drift often result in decreased genetic diversity and increased population differentiation. These events may follow abundance declines due to natural or anthropogenic perturbations, where translocations may be an effective conservation strategy to increase population size. American black bears (Ursus americanus) were nearly extirpated from the Central Interior Highlands, USA by 1920. In an effort to restore bears, 254 individuals were translocated from Minnesota, USA and Manitoba, Canada, into the Ouachita...
Data from: Women’s preference for masculine traits is disrupted by images of male-on-female aggressionYaoran Li, Drew H. Bailey, Benjamin Winegard, David A. Puts, Lisa L. M. Welling & David C. Geary
Women’s preferences for men’s masculinized faces and voices were assessed after women (n = 331) were primed with images of male-on-male aggression, male-on-female aggression, pathogens, and neutral scenes. Male-on-male aggression and pathogen primes were associated with increased preference for masculine traits, but the same effect emerged in the neutral condition. We show the increased preference for masculine traits was due to repeated exposure to these traits, not the priming images themselves. Images of male-on-female aggression...
In a dual-task paradigm, participants performed a spatial location working memory task and a forced two-choice perceptual decision task (neutral vs. fearful) with gradually morphed emotional faces (neutral ~ fearful). Task-irrelevant word distractors (negative, neutral, and control) were experimentally manipulated during spatial working memory encoding. We hypothesized that, if affective perception is influenced by concurrent cognitive load using a working memory task, task-irrelevant emotional distractors would bias subsequent perceptual decision-making on ambiguous facial expression. We...
Data from: Ecological resistance surfaces predict fine scale genetic differentiation in a terrestrial woodland salamanderWilliam E. Peterman, Grant M. Connette, Raymond D. Semlitsch & Lori S. Eggert
Landscape genetics has seen tremendous advances since its introduction, but parameterization and optimization of resistance surfaces still poses significant challenges. Despite increased availability and resolution of spatial data, few studies have integrated empirical data to directly represent ecological processes as genetic resistance surfaces. In our study, we determine the landscape and ecological factors affecting gene flow in the western slimy salamander (Plethodon albagula). We used field data to derive resistance surfaces representing salamander abundance and...
The domestication and development of cattle has considerably impacted human societies, but the histories of cattle breeds have been poorly understood especially for African, Asian, and American breeds. Using genotypes from 43,043 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 1,543 animals, we evaluate the population structure of 134 domesticated bovid breeds. Regardless of the analytical method or sample subset, the three major groups of Asian indicine, Eurasian taurine, and African taurine were consistently observed. Patterns...
Data from: Bumble bee nest abundance, foraging distance, and host-plant reproduction: implications for management and conservationJennifer C. Geib, James P. Strange & Candace Galen
Recent reports of global declines in pollinator species imply an urgent need to assess the abundance of native pollinators and density-dependent benefits for linked plants. In this study, we investigated (1) pollinator nest distributions and estimated colony abundances, (2) the relationship between abundances of foraging workers and the number of nests they represent, (3) pollinator foraging ranges, and (4) the relationship between pollinator abundance and plant reproduction. We examined these questions in an alpine ecosystem...
Data from: Competition for hummingbird pollination shapes flower color variation in Andean SolanaceaeNathan Muchhala, Sönke Johnsen & Stacey Dewitt Smith
One classic explanation for the remarkable diversity of flower colors across angiosperms involves evolutionary shifts among different types of pollinators with different color preferences. However, the pollinator shift model fails to account for the many examples of color variation within clades that share the same pollination system. An alternate explanation is the competition model, which suggests that color divergence evolves in response to interspecific competition for pollinators, as a means to decrease interspecific pollinator movements....
Data from: Morphological, phylogenetic, and ecological diversity of the new model species Setaria viridis (Poaceae: Paniceae) and its close relativesDaniel J. Layton & Elizabeth A. Kellogg
Premise of the study: Species limits of the emerging model organism Setaria viridis (tribe Paniceae, subtribe Cenchrinae) are not well defined. It is thought to be related to S. adhaerens, S. faberi, S. verticillata, and S. verticilliformis and in North America occurs with the morphologically similar S. pumila. An integrated approach was taken to evaluate its variation and relationships with the other taxa. Methods: Statistical morphology, flow cytometry, molecular phylogenetics, and growth experiments were employed...
Parasite specialization on one or a few host species leads to a reduction in the total number of available host individuals, which may decrease transmission. However, specialists are thought to be able to compensate by increased prevalence in the host population and increased success in each individual host. Here, we use variation in host breadth among a community of avian Haemosporida to investigate consequences of generalist and specialist strategies on prevalence across hosts. We show...
University of Missouri13
Oklahoma State University2
University of Florida2
Pennsylvania State University2
National Evolutionary Synthesis Center1
North West Agriculture and Forestry University1
VU University Amsterdam1
University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences1
Utah State University1