15 Works

Data from: Independent evolution of ancestral and novel defenses in a genus of toxic plants (Erysimum, Brassicaceae)

Tobias Züst, Susan Strickler, Adrian Powell, Makenzie Mabry, Hong An, Mahdieh Mirzaei, Thomas York, Cynthia Holland, Pavan Kumar, Matthias Erb, Georg Petschenka, José-María Gomez, Francisco Perfectti, Caroline Mueller, Chris Pires, Lukas Mueller & Georg Jander
Phytochemical diversity is thought to result from coevolutionary cycles as specialization in herbivores imposes diversifying selection on plant chemical defenses. Plants in the speciose genus Erysimum (Brassicaceae) produce both ancestral glucosinolates and evolutionarily novel cardenolides as defenses. Here we test macroevolutionary hypotheses on co-expression, co-regulation, and diversification of these potentially redundant defenses across this genus. We sequenced and assembled the genome of E. cheiranthoides and foliar transcriptomes of 47 additional Erysimum species to construct a...

Intraspecific genetic variation underlying postmating reproductive barriers between species in the wild tomato clade (Solanum sect. Lycopersicon)

Cathleen Jewell, Simo Zhang, Matthew Gibson, Alejandro Tovar-Mendez, Bruce McClure & Leonie Moyle
A goal of speciation genetics is to understand how the genetic components underlying interspecific reproductive barriers originate within species. Unilateral incompatibility (UI) is a postmating prezygotic barrier in which pollen rejection in the female reproductive tract (style) occurs in only one direction of an interspecific cross. Natural variation in the strength of UI has been observed among populations within species in the wild tomato clade. In some cases, molecular loci underlying self-incompatibility (SI) are associated...

Evolutionary history of Neotropical savannas geographically concentrates species, phylogenetic and functional diversity of lizards

Jessica Fenker, Fabricius M. C. B. Domingos, Leonardo G. Tedeschi, Dan F. Rosauer, Fernanda P. Werneck, Guarino R. Colli, Roger M. D. Ledo, Emanuel M. Fonseca, Adrian A. Garda, Derek Tucker, , Maria F. Breitman, Flavia Soares, Lilian G. Giugliano & Craig Moritz
Supporting information (scripts) to compute diversity and endemism indices copied and available by Dan Rosauer (https ://github.com/DanRosauer/phylospatial). Aim: Understanding where and why species diversity is geographically concentrated remains a challenge in biogeography and macroevolution. This is true for the Cerrado, the most biodiverse tropical savanna in the world, which has experienced profound biodiversity loss. Previous studies have focused on a single metric (species composition), neglecting the fact that ‘species’ within the biome are often composed...

Data from: On the sampling design of spatially explicit integrated population models

Qing Zhao
It is important to understand metapopulation dynamics and underlying demographic processes in heterogeneous landscapes. Traditionally demographic parameters are estimated using capture-recapture data that can be difficult to collect. Spatially explicit dynamic N-mixture models allow inference for demographic parameters, including dispersal, using count data of unmarked animals, but these models have only been shown effective under constant demographic parameters and dispersal between adjacent local populations. In this study I aimed to compensate the weakness of spatially...

Inter- and intraspecific variation in juvenile metabolism and water loss among five biphasic amphibian species

Arianne Messerman & Manuel Leal
Population persistence is informed by the ability of individuals to cope with local abiotic conditions, which is commonly mediated by physiological traits. Among biphasic amphibians, juveniles—which are infrequently studied but play a key role in amphibian population dynamics—are the first life stage to experience terrestrial conditions following the aquatic larval stage. To illuminate phenotypic variation that may allow juveniles to survive the physiological challenges presented by this transition, we examined respiratory surface area water loss...

Data from: Bat ensembles differ in response to use zones in a tropical biosphere reserve

Natalie Yoh, Isham Azhar, Katheryn V. Fitzgerald, Rieka Yu, Tenaja Smith-Butler, Azniza Mahyudin & Tigga Kingston
Biosphere reserves, designated under The United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization’s (UNESCO) Man and Biosphere Programme, aim to sustainably integrate protected areas into the biological and economic landscape around them by buffering strictly protected habitats with zones of limited use. However, the effectiveness of biosphere reserves and the contribution of the different zones of use to protection is poorly known. We assessed the diversity and activity of bats in the Crocker Range Biosphere Reserve...

Data from: More than one way to be a giant: convergence and disparity in the hip joints of saurischian dinosaurs

Henry P. Tsai, Kevin M. Middleton, John Hutchinson & Casey M. Holliday
Saurischian dinosaurs evolved seven orders of magnitude in body mass, as well as a wide diversity of hip joint morphology and locomotor postures. The very largest saurischians possess incongruent bony hip joints, suggesting that large volumes of soft tissues mediated hip articulation. To understand the evolutionary trends and functional relationships between body size and hip anatomy of saurischians, we tested the relationships among discrete and continuous morphological characters using phylogenetically corrected regression. Giant theropods and...

RNA-sequencing endometrium intact, vasectomized, and control heifers

Sandra Recuero, José María Sánchez, Yentel Mateo-Otero, Sandra Bagés-Arnal, Michael McDonald, Susanta K Behura, Thomas E Spencer, David A Kenny, Marc Yeste, Pat Lonergan & Beatriz Fernandez-Fuertes
An appropriate female reproductive environment is essential for pregnancy success. In several species, including mice, pigs and horses, seminal plasma (SP) components have been shown to modulate this environment, leading to increased embryo viability and implantation. Due to the characteristics of mating in the aforementioned species, SP comes into direct contact with the uterus. However, it is questionable whether any SP reaches the uterus in species that ejaculate inside the vagina, such as humans and...

Data from: Thinking outside the box: problem-solving in free-living lizards

Levi Storks & Manuel Leal
Despite evidence that organisms are more likely to exhibit their full range of cognitive abilities under conditions found in nature, studies evaluating cognition under such conditions remain rare, particularly in vertebrate species. Here we conducted an experiment to evaluate problem solving and motor-self regulation in free-living arboreal lizards, Anolis sagrei, under natural conditions. We presented lizards with a novel detour problem which challenged individuals to circumvent a transparent barrier in order to obtain a food...

Data from: Forkhead box a2 (FOXA2) impacts uterine decidualization and fetoplacental development

Pramod Dhakal, Andrew Kelleher, Susanta Behura & Thomas Spencer
Glands of the uterus are essential for the establishment of pregnancy in mice and likely humans. Forkhead box a2 (FOXA2) is a transcription factor expressed specifically in the glands of the uterus and a critical regulator of uterine gland differentiation, development and function. Mice with a conditional deletion of FOXA2 in the adult uterus, created using the lactotransferrin iCre (Ltf-iCre) model, have a morphologically normal uterus with glands, but lack a considerable number of FOXA2-dependent...

Hazing in Student Organizations: Prevalence, Attitudes, and Solutions

Stephen S. Owen, Tod W. Burke & David Vichesky

Data from: Molecular square dancing in CO-CO collisions

ZhongFa Sun, David H. Parker, Marc C. Van Hemert, Jérôme Loreau, Ad Van Der Avoird & Arthur G. Suits
Knowledge of rotational energy transfer (RET) involving carbon monoxide (CO) molecules is crucial for the interpretation of astrophysical data. As of now, our nearly perfect understanding of atom-molecule scattering shows that RET usually occurs by only a simple “bump” between partners. To advance molecular dynamics to the next step in complexity, we studied molecule-molecule scattering in great detail for collision between two CO molecules. Using advanced imaging methods and quasi-classical and fully quantum theory, we...

Active modification of cavity nest-entrances is a common strategy in arboreal ants

Flávio Camarota, Galen V. Priest, Flávio Camarota, Heraldo Vasconcelos, Scott Powell & Robert J. Marquis.
The majority of tropical arboreal ant species nest in tree cavities. These cavities, often produced initially by wood-boring beetles, can be in live or dead wood and represent long-lasting and highly defensible nesting resources. Yet the size of cavity entrances can constrain their use. Active entrance modification may be an effective way to overcome this constraint. Here, we conduct the first systematic study of nest-entrance modification in an arboreal ant community. Using field experiments deployed...

The complex history of genome duplication and hybridization in North American gray treefrogs

William W. Booker, H. Carl Gerhardt, Alan R. Lemmon, Margaret Ptacek, Alyssa T. B. Hassinger, Johannes Schul & Emily M. Lemmon
Polyploid speciation has played an important role in evolutionary history across the tree of life, yet there remain large gaps in our understanding of how polyploid species form and persist. While systematic studies have been conducted in numerous polyploid complexes, recent advances in sequencing technology have demonstrated that conclusions from data-limited studies may be spurious and misleading. The North American gray treefrog complex, consisting of the diploid Hyla chrysoscelis and the tetraploid Hyla versicolor, has...

Data from: Trait plasticity alters the range of possible coexistence conditions in a competition-colonization trade-off

Ranjan Muthukrishnan, Lauren L. Sullivan, Allison Shaw & James Forester
Most of the classical theory on species coexistence has been based on species-level competitive trade-offs. However, it is becoming apparent that plant species display high levels of trait plasticity. The implications of this plasticity are almost completely unknown for most coexistence theory. Here, we model a competition-colonization trade-off and incorporate trait plasticity to evaluate its effects on coexistence. Our simulations show that the classic competition-colonization trade-off is highly sensitive to environmental circumstances and coexistence only...

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