431 Works

Individual life history data from a resource degradation and temperature variation life history experiment in the Plodia-Venturia host-parasitoid interaction

M. Mugabo, D. Gilljam, L. Petteway, C. Yuan, M. S. Fowler & S. M. Sait
This dataset contains information on life history traits of the host Plodia interpunctella (Pyralidae; Hübner) and the parasitoid wasp Venturia canescens (Ichneumonidae; Gravenhorst). The data was collected from a single generation life history experiment investigating the combined effects of daily stochastic temperature fluctuations and resource degradation on individual life history in the Plodia-Venturia host-parasitoid trophic interaction. The Plodia interpunctella data include egg viability, egg status, hatching date, adult emergence date, date of death, sex, egg...

Migration of tagged silver eels in the Atlantic 2006 - 2014

Known and estimated locations of silver European eels in the Atlantic from 2006 to 2014 derived from popup satellite tags and archival tags. Other data associated with the tagging experiments such as the length, weight, fat percentage, Pankhurst index and Fin index are also included. Locations were either known (from transmitted positions) or were estimated based on the temperature at depth data recorded by electronic tags (latitude) and the timing of steep dives at dawn...

Data from: With Ellenberg indicator values towards the north: does the indicative power decrease with distance from Central Europe?

Per-Ola Hedwall, Jörg Brunet & Martin Diekmann
Aim: Ellenberg indicator values (EIV) are frequently used in regions outside their Central European origin as proxies for environmental conditions, a practice further boosted by the increasing scientific focus on global change. The performance of EIV outside their geographic origin and over long gradients has, however, rarely been tested. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the indicative power of EIV changes over a large geographic gradient and to analyze the potential causes...

Data from: Influence of canopy openness, ungulate exclosure, and low-intensity fire for improved oak regeneration in temperate Europe

Linda Petersson, Daniel Dey, Annika Felton, Emile Gardiner & Magnus Löf
Failed oak regeneration is widely reported in temperate forests and has been linked in part to changed disturbance regimes and land-use. We investigated if the North American fire-oak hypothesis could be applicable to temperate European oaks (Q. robur, Q. petraea) using a replicated field experiment with contrasting canopy openness, protection against ungulate browsing (fencing/no fencing), and low-intensity surface fire (burn/no burn). Survival, relative height growth (RGRH), browsing damage on naturally regenerated oaks (≤300 cm tall),...

Crop diversity benefits carabid and pollinator communities in landscapes with semi-natural habitats

Guillermo Aguilera Núñez, Tomas Roslin, Kirsten Miller, Giovanni Tamburini, Klaus Birkhofer, Berta Caballero-Lopez, Sandra Lindström, Erik Öckinger, , Adrien Rusch, Henrik Smith & Riccardo Bommarco
1. In agricultural landscapes, arthropods provide essential ecosystem services such as biological pest control and pollination. Intensified crop management practices and homogenization of landscapes have led to declines among such organisms. Semi-natural habitats, associated with high numbers of these organisms, are increasingly lost from agricultural landscapes but diversification by increasing crop diversity has been proposed as a way to reverse observed arthropod declines and thus restore ecosystem services. However, whether or not an increase in...

The effectiveness of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control, pollination services and crop yield: a quantitative synthesis

Matthias Albrecht, David Kleijn, Neal Williams, Matthias Tschumi, Brett Blaauw, Riccardo Bommarco, Alistair Campbell, Matteo Dainese, Frank Drummond, Martin Entling, Dominik Ganser, Arjen De Groot, David Goulson, Heather Grab, Hannah Hamilton, Felix Herzog, Rufus Isaacs, Katja Jacot, Philippe Jeanneret, Mattias Jonsson, Eva Knop, Claire Kremen, Doug Landis, Greg Loeb, Lorenzo Marini … & Louis Sutter
Floral plantings are promoted to foster ecological intensification of agriculture through provisioning of ecosystem services. However, a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of different floral plantings, their characteristics and consequences for crop yield is lacking. Here we quantified the impacts of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control (18 studies) and pollination services (17 studies) in adjacent crops in North America, Europe and New Zealand. Flower strips, but not hedgerows, enhanced pest control services in...

Data for: Parasitoids indicate major climate-induced shifts in Arctic communities

Tuomas Kankaanpää, Eero Vesterinen, Bess Hardwick, Niels Martin Martin Schmidt, Tommi Andersson, Paul Eric Aspholm, Isabel Barrio, Niklas Beckers, Joël Bêty, Tone Birkemoe, Melissa DeSiervo, Katherine Drotos, Dorothee Ehrich, Olivier Gilg, Vladimir Gilg, Nils Hein, Toke Høye, Kristian Jakobsen, Camille Jodouin, Jesse Jorna, Mikhail Kozlov, Jean-Claude Kresse, Don-Jean Leandri-Breton, Nicolas Lecomte, Maia Olsen … & Tomas Roslin
Climatic impacts are especially pronounced in the Arctic, which as a region is warming twice as fast as the rest of the globe. Here, we investigate how mean climatic conditions and rates of climatic change impact parasitoid insect communities in 16 localities across the Arctic. We focus on parasitoids in a wide-spread habitat, Dryas heathlands, and describe parasitoid community composition in terms of larval host use (i.e. parasitoid use of herbivorous Lepidoptera versus pollinating Diptera)...

Data from: Island properties dominate species traits in determining plant colonizations in an archipelago system

Mikael Von Numers, Sami Aikio, Satu Ramula & Anne Muola
The extrinsic determinants hypothesis emphasizes the essential role of environmental heterogeneity in species’ colonization. Consequently, high resident species diversity can increase community susceptibility to colonizations because good habitats may support more species that are functionally similar to colonizers. On the other hand, colonization success is also likely to depend on species traits. We tested the relative importance of environmental characteristics and species traits in determining colonization success using census data of 587 vascular plant species...

Population structure of five native sheep breeds of Sweden estimated with high density SNP genotypes

Christina Marie Rochus, Elisabeth Jonas & Anna M. Johansson
Background Native Swedish sheep breeds are part of the North European short-tailed sheep group; characterized in part by their genetic uniqueness. Our objective was to study the population structure of native Swedish sheep. Five breeds were genotyped using the 600 K SNP array. Dalapäls and Klövsjö sheep are from the middle of Sweden; Gotland and Gute sheep from Gotland, an island in the Baltic Sea; and Fjällnäs sheep from northern Sweden. We studied population structure...

Data from: Population structure in Atlantic cod in the eastern North Sea-Skagerrak-Kattegat: early life stage dispersal and adult migration

Carl André, Henrik Svedäng, Halvor Knutsen, Geir Dahle, Patrik Jonsson, Anna-Karin Ring, Mattias Sköld & Per Erik Jorde
Background: In marine fish species, where pelagic egg and larvae drift with ocean currents, population structure has been suggested to be maintained by larval retention due to hydrographic structuring and by homing of adult fish to natal areas. Whilst natal homing of adults has been demonstrated for anadromous and coral reef fishes, there are few documented examples of philopatric migration in temperate marine fish species. Results: Here, we demonstrate temporally stable genetic differentiation among spawning...

Data from: Metabolic theory predicts animal self-thinning

Tomas Jonsson
1. The Metabolic Theory of Ecology (MTE) predicts observed patterns in ecology based on metabolic rates of individuals. The theory is influential but also criticized for a lack of firm empirical evidence confirming MTE’s quantitative predictions of processes, e.g. outcome of competition, at population or community level. 2. Self-thinning is a well-known population level phenomenon among plants, but a much less studied phenomenon in animal populations and no consensus exists on what a universal thinning...

Data from: Rainfall during parental care reduces reproductive and survival components of fitness in a passerine bird

Meit Öberg, Debora Arlt, Tomas Pärt, Ane T. Laugen, Sönke Eggers & Matthew Low
Adverse weather conditions during parental care may have direct consequences for offspring production, but longer-term effects on juvenile and parental survival are less well known. We used long-term data on reproductive output, recruitment, and parental survival in northern wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) to investigate the effects of rainfall during parental care on fledging success, recruitment success (juvenile survival), and parental survival, and how these effects related to nestling age, breeding time, habitat quality, and parental nest...

Data from: Effect of insect herbivory on plant community dynamics under contrasting water availability levels

Giovanni Tamburini, Elena Dani, Riccardo Bommarco & Lorenzo Marini
1. Diversity of plant communities is impacted by multiple global change drivers but also by altered biotic interactions with antagonist and mutualist organisms that can potentially affect species coexistence. 2. With a two-year outdoor mesocosm experiment in realistic mesic grassland communities, we explored the role of insect herbivory in impacting plant community dynamics under contrasting levels of water availability simulating altered rainfall regimes. We selected a grasshopper species (Calliptamus italicus) feeding predominantly on forbs while...

Data from: Organic farming increases richness of fungal taxa in the wheat phyllosphere

Ida Karlsson, Hanna Friberg, Anna-Karin Kolseth, Christian Steinberg & Paula Persson
Organic farming is often advocated as an approach to mitigate biodiversity loss on agricultural land. The phyllosphere provides a habitat for diverse fungal communities that are important for plant health and productivity. However, it is still unknown how organic farming affects the diversity of phyllosphere fungi in major crops. We sampled wheat leaves from 22 organically and conventionally cultivated fields in Sweden, paired based on their geographical location and wheat cultivar. Fungal communities were described...

Data from: Does wolf presence reduce moose browsing intensity in young forest plantations?

Suzanne T.S. Van Beeck Calkoen, Dries P.J. Kuijper, Hakan Sand, Navinder J. Singh, Sip E. Van Wieren, Joris P.G.M. Cromsigt, Joris P. G. M. Cromsigt, Suzanne T. S. Van Beeck Calkoen & Dries P. J. Kuijper
Large carnivores can be a key factor in shaping their ungulate prey’s behavior, which may affect lower trophic levels. While most studies on trade-offs between food acquisition and risk avoidance by ungulate prey species have been conducted in areas with limited human impact, carnivores are now increasingly returning to highly anthropogenic landscapes. Many of these landscapes are dominated by forestry, and ungulate-forestry conflicts are an increasing issue. The aim of this study was to test...

Data from: Great cormorants reveal overlooked secondary dispersal of plants and invertebrates by piscivorous waterbirds

Casper H. A. Van Leeuwen, Ádam Lovas-Kiss, Maria Ovegård & Andy J. Green
In wetland ecosystems, birds and fish are important dispersal vectors for plants and invertebrates, but the consequences of their interactions as vectors are unknown. Darwin suggested that piscivorous birds carry out secondary dispersal of seeds and invertebrates via predation on fish. We tested this hypothesis in the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo L.). Cormorants regurgitate pellets daily, which we collected at seven European locations and examined for intact propagules. One-third of pellets contained at least one...

Data from: Different DMRT3 genotypes are best adapted for harness racing and riding in Finnhorses

Kim Jäderkvist Fegraeus, Lisa Johansson, Minna Mäenpää, Anna Mykkänen, Lisa S. Andersson, Brandon D. Velie, Leif Andersson, Thorvaldur Árnason & Gabriella Lindgren
Previous studies showed a positive effect of the DMRT3 “gait keeper” mutation on harness racing performance in Standardbreds, French-, and Nordic trotters. The mutation has also been shown to influence riding traits in multiple breeds. This study investigated the effect of the DMRT3 mutation on harness racing performance and riding traits in Finnhorses. Finnhorses used for harness racing (n = 180) and for riding (n = 59) were genotyped for the DMRT3 mutation. For the...

Data from: Moving in the Anthropocene: global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements

Marlee A. Tucker, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, William F. Fagan, John M. Fryxell, Bram Van Moorter, Susan C. Alberts, Abdullahi H. Ali, Andrew M. Allen, Nina Attias, Tal Avgar, Hattie Bartlam-Brooks, Buuveibaatar Bayarbaatar, Jerrold L. Belant, Alessandra Bertassoni, Dean Beyer, Laura Bidner, Floris M. Van Beest, Stephen Blake, Niels Blaum, Chloe Bracis, Danielle Brown, P. J. Nico De Bruyn, Francesca Cagnacci, Justin M. Calabrese, Constança Camilo-Alves … & Thomas Mueller
Animal movement is fundamental for ecosystem functioning and species survival, yet the effects of the anthropogenic footprint on animal movements have not been estimated across species. Using a unique GPS-tracking database of 803 individuals across 57 species, we found that movements of mammals in areas with a comparatively high human footprint were on average one-half to one-third the extent of their movements in areas with a low human footprint. We attribute this reduction to behavioral...

Data from: Sociodemographic factors modulate the spatial response of brown bears to vacancies created by hunting

Shane C. Frank, Martin Leclerc, Fanie Pelletier, Frank Rosell, Jon E. Swenson, Richard Bischof, Jonas Kindberg, Hans Geir Eiken, Snorre B. Hagen, Andreas Zedrosser & Jon. E. Swenson
1.There is a growing recognition of the importance of indirect effects from hunting on wildlife populations, e.g., social and behavioral changes due to harvest, which occur after the initial offtake. Nonetheless, little is known about how the removal of members of a population influences the spatial configuration of the survivors. 2.We studied how surviving brown bears (Ursus arctos) used former home ranges that had belonged to casualties of the annual bear hunting season in southcentral...

Data from: What you need is what you eat? Prey selection by the bat Myotis daubentonii

Eero J. Vesterinen, Lasse Ruokolainen, Niklas Wahlberg, Carlos Peña, Tomas Roslin, Veronika N. Laine, Ville Vasko, Ilari E. Sääksjärvi, Kai Norrdahl & Thomas M. Lilley
Optimal foraging theory predicts that predators are selective when faced with abundant prey, but become less picky when prey gets sparse. Insectivorous bats in temperate regions are faced with the challenge of building up fat reserves vital for hibernation during a period of decreasing arthropod abundances. According to optimal foraging theory, prehibernating bats should adopt a less selective feeding behaviour – yet empirical studies have revealed many apparently generalized species to be composed of specialist...

Data from: Retracing the routes of introduction of invasive species: the case of the Sirex noctilio woodwasp.

Emilie Boissin, Brett Hurley, Michael J. Wingfield, Rimvydas Vasaitis, Jan Stenlid, Chuck Davis, Peter De Groot, Rodrigo Ahumeda, Angus Carnegie, Arturo Goldarazena, Paula Klasmer, Beat Wermelinger & Bernard Slippers
Understanding the evolutionary histories of invasive species is critical to adopt appropriate management strategies, but this process can be exceedingly complex to unravel. As illustrated in this study of the worldwide invasion of the woodwasp Sirex noctilio, population genetic analyses using coalescent-based scenario testing together with Bayesian clustering and historical records provide opportunities to address this problem. The pest spread from its native Eurasian range to the Southern Hemisphere in the 1900’s and recently to...

Data from: The evolutionary origin of variation in song length and frequency in the avian family Cettiidae

Chentao Wei, Trevor D. Price, Jiayu Liu, Per Alström & Yanyun Zhang
Aspects of bird song have been shown to correlate with morphological and ecological features, including beak and body size, and habitat. Here we study evolution of song length and song frequency among 30 species belonging to the Cettiidae. Frequency is negatively correlated with body size, and song length increases with latitude. Although migration distance correlates with latitude, the association of song length with latitude is only present within the non-migratory species, implying the association is...

Data from: Specialists in ancient trees are more affected by climate than generalists

Leonie A. Gough, Anne Sverdrup-Thygeson, Per Milberg, Hanne E. Pilskog, Niclas Jansson, Mats Jonsell, Tone Birkemoe & Nicklas Jansson
Ancient trees are considered one of the most important habitats for biodiversity in Europe and North America. They support exceptional numbers of specialized species, including a range of rare and endangered wood-living insects. In this study, we use a dataset of 105 sites spanning a climatic gradient along the oak range of Norway and Sweden to investigate the importance of temperature and precipitation on beetle species richness in ancient, hollow oak trees. We expected that...

Data from: Linkage of plant trait space to successional age and species richness in boreal forest understory vegetation

Bright B. Kumordzi, Francesco De Bello, Grégoire Freschet, Yoann Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Jan Lepš & David A. Wardle
Determining the changes in within- and between-species functional diversity in plant communities, and their contribution to overall species trait overlap, can enhance efforts at understanding mechanisms of species coexistence. However, little is known about how variation in species functional diversity influences variation in species trait overlap among contrasting environments. Here, we studied the understorey vegetation in a well-characterized 5000-year-old chronosequence involving 30 forested islands that differ greatly in size, soil fertility, and species diversity. Across...

Data from: Between-year changes in community composition shape species' roles in an Arctic plant-pollinator network

Alyssa R. Cirtwill, Tomas Roslin, Claus Rasmussen, Jens Mogens Olesen & Daniel B. Stouffer
Inter-annual turnover in community composition can affect the richness and functioning of ecological communities. If incoming and outgoing species do not interact with the same partners, ecological functions such as pollination may be disrupted. Here, we explore the extent to which turnover affects species' roles --as defined based on their participation in different motifs positions-- in a series of temporally replicated plant-pollinator networks from high-Arctic Zackenberg, Greenland. We observed substantial turnover in the plant and...

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