36 Works

Data from: Shared genetic diversity across the global invasive range of the Monk parakeet suggests a common restricted geographic origin and the possibility of convergent selection

Pim Edelaar, Severine Roques, Elizabeth A. Hobson, Anders Gonçalves Da Silva, Michael L. Avery, Michael A. Russello, Juan Carlos Senar, Timothy F. Wright, Martina Carrete & Jose Luis Tella
While genetic diversity is hypothesized to be an important factor explaining invasion success, there is no consensus yet on how variation in source populations or demographic processes affects invasiveness. We used mitochondrial DNA haplotypic and microsatellite genotypic data to investigate levels of genetic variation and reconstruct the history of replicate invasions on three continents in a globally invasive bird, the monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus). We evaluated whether genetic diversity at invasive sites could be explained...

Data from: Climate vs. topography – spatial patterns of plant species diversity and endemism on a high-elevation island

Severin D. H. Irl, David E. V. Harter, Manuel J. Steinbauer, David Gallego Puyol, José María Fernández-Palacios, Anke Jentsch & Carl Beierkuhnlein
1. Climate and topography are among the most fundamental drivers of plant diversity. Here, we assess the importance of climate and topography in explaining diversity patterns of species richness, endemic richness and endemicity on the landscape scale of an oceanic island, and evaluate the independent contribution of climatic and topographic variables to spatial diversity patterns. 2. We constructed a presence/absence matrix of perennial endemic and native vascular plant species (including subspecies) in 890 plots on...

Data from: Drought legacies are short, prevail in dry conifer forests and depend on growth variability.

Antonio Gazol, J. Julio Camarero, Raúl Sánchez-Salguero, Sergio Vicente-Serrano, Xavier Serra-Maluquer, Emilia Gutiérrez, Martín De Luis, Gabriel Sangüesa-Barreda, Klemen Novak, Vicente Rozas, Pedro A. Tiscar, Juan C. Linares, Edurne Martínez Del Castillo, Montse Ribas, Ignacio García-González, Fernando Silla, Álvaro Camisón, Mar Genova, Jose Miguel Olano, Ana-Maria Hereș, Jorge Curiel-Yuste, Luis A. Longares, Andrea Hevia, Miquel Tomas-Burguera & Juan Galván
The negative impacts of drought on forest growth and productivity last for several years generating legacies, although the factors that determine why such legacies vary across sites and tree species remain unclear. We used an extensive network of tree-ring width (RWI, ring-width index) records of 16 tree species from 567 forests, and high-resolution climate and NDVI datasets across Spain during the common period 1982‒2008 to test the hypothesis that climate conditions and growth features modulate...

Data from: Quercus suber dieback alters soil respiration and nutrient availability in Mediterranean forests

Jose Manuel Avila, Antonio Gallardo, Beatriz Ibáñez & Lorena Gómez-Aparicio
An increase in tree mortality rates has been recently detected in forests world-wide. However, few works have focused on the potential consequences of forest dieback for ecosystem functioning. Here we assessed the effect of Quercus suber dieback on carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycles in two types of Mediterranean forests (woodlands and closed forests) affected by the aggressive pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi. We used a spatially explicit neighbourhood approach to analyse the direct effects of Q. suber...

Data from: Resource stability and geographic isolation are associated with genome divergence in western Palearctic crossbills

Thomas L. Parchman, Pim Edelaar, Kathryn Uckele, Eduardo T. Mezquida, Daniel Alonso, Joshua P. Jahner, Ron W. Summers & Craig W. Benkman
While many conifers produce annually variable seed crops, serotinous species (which hold seeds in cones for multiple years) represent unusually stable food resources for seed predators. Such stability is conducive to residency and potentially population divergence of consumers as exemplified by the Cassia crossbill (Loxia sinesciuris) in North America. We used genotyping-by-sequencing to test whether three Mediterranean subspecies of common crossbills (L. curvirostra) associated with the serotinous Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) were more genetically distinct...

Data from: Background colour matching increases with risk of predation in a colour-changing grasshopper

Pim Edelaar, Adrián Baños-Villalba, Graciela Escudero & Consuelo Rodriguez-Bernal
Cryptic colouration can be adjusted to the local environment by physiological (rapid) change, and/or by morphological (slow) change. The threat-sensitivity hypothesis predicts that the degree of crypsis should respond to the risk of predation (assuming some cost to crypsis). This has not been studied for morphological colour changers, so we manipulated the colour of the rearing substrate (black versus white) and the perceived risk of predation (higher versus lower) for the grasshopper Sphingonotus azurescens. Over...

Data from: Differences in thallus chemistry are related to species-specific effects of biocrust-forming lichens on soil nutrients and microbial communities

Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Antonio Gallardo, Felisa Covelo, Ana Prado-Comesaña, Victoria Ochoa & Fernando T. Maestre
1. It is well-known that vascular plants have species-specific effects on soil properties. However, little is known on how individual species forming biocrusts, communities dominated by lichens, mosses and cyanobacteria that are prevalent in many ecosystems world-wide, affect microbial communities and soil variables related to nutrient cycling. 2. We evaluated the relationship of six biocrust-forming lichens (Buellia epipolia, Diploschistes diacapsis, Fulgensia subbracteata, Psora decipiens, Squamarina cartilaginea and Squamarina lentigera) with microbial abundance and multiple variables...

Data from: Pliocene-Pleistocene ecological niche evolution shapes the phylogeography of a Mediterranean plant group

Carmen Benítez Benítez, Marcial Escudero, Francisco Rodriguez-Sanchez, Santiago Martín-Bravo & Pedro Jiménez Mejías
Estimating species ability to adapt to environmental changes is crucial to understand their past and future response to climate change. The Mediterranean basin has experienced remarkable climatic changes since the Miocene, which have greatly influenced the evolution of the Mediterranean flora. Here we examine the evolutionary history and biogeographic patterns of two sedge sister species (Carex, Cyperaceae) restricted to the western Mediterranean basin, but with Pliocene fossil record in central Europe. In particular, we estimated...

Data from: Vascular plants mediate the effects of aridity and soil properties on ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea

Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Antonio Gallardo, Matthew D. Wallenstein & Fernando T. Maestre
An integrated perspective of the most important factors driving the abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) in natural ecosystems is lacking, especially in drylands. We evaluated how different climatic, abiotic, and nutrient-related factors determine AOA and AOB abundance in bare and vegetated microsites from grasslands throughout the Mediterranean Basin. We found a strong negative relationship between the abundance of AOA genes and soil fertility (availability of C, N, and P). Aridity and other...

Data from: Habitat use, but not gene flow, is influenced by human activities in two ecotypes of Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus)

Alejandro Centeno-Cuadros, Pavel Hulva, Dusan Romportl, Simone Santoro, Tereza Stříbná, David Shohami, Ivan Horáček, Asaf Tsoar, Ran Nathan & P. Benda
Understanding the ecological, behavioral and evolutionary response of organisms to changing environments is of primary importance in a human-altered world. It is crucial to elucidate how human activities alter gene flow and what are the consequences for the genetic structure of a species. We studied two lineages of the Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) throughout the contact zone between mesic and arid ecozones in the Middle East to evaluate the species' response to the growing...

Data from: Mediterranean and temperate treelines are controlled by different environmental drivers

Frida I. Piper, Benjamín Viñegla, Juan Carlos Linares, Jesús Julio Camarero, Lohengrin A. Cavieres & Alex Fajardo
The growth limitation hypothesis (GLH) is the most accepted explanation for treeline formation, but it has been scarcely examined in Mediterranean treelines, which are located at lower elevations than temperate treelines. The GLH states that low temperature is the ultimate environmental driver for treeline formation, constraining C-sinks (i.e. tissue formation) more than C-sources. The GLH predicts similar or increasing (but not decreasing) non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations with elevation throughout the course of the growing season....

Data from: On the importance of shrub encroachment by sprouters, climate, species richness and anthropic factors for ecosystem multifunctionality in semi-arid mediterranean ecosystems

José L. Quero, Fernando T. Maestre, Victoria Ochoa, Miguel García-Gómez & Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo
One of the most important changes taking place in drylands worldwide is the increase of the cover and dominance of shrubs in areas formerly devoid of them (shrub encroachment). A large body of research has evaluated the causes and consequences of shrub encroachment for both ecosystem structure and functioning. However, there are virtually no studies evaluating how shrub encroachment affects the ability of ecosystems to maintain multiple functions and services simultaneously (multifunctionality). We aimed to...

Data from: Impacts of urbanization on insect herbivory and plant defences in oak trees

Xoaquín Moreira, Luis Abdala-Roberts, Jorge Berny Mier C. Y Terán, Felisa Covelo, Raúl De La Mata, Marta Francisco, Bess Hardwick, Ricardo M. Pires, Tomas Roslin, Dmitry S. Schigel, Jan P.J.G. Ten Hoopen, Bart G.H. Timmermans, Laura J.A. Van Dijk, Bastien Castagneyrol, Ayco J.M. Tack, Jorge C. Berny Mier Y Teran, Laura J. A. Van Dijk & Ayco J. M. Tack
Systematic comparisons of species interactions in urban vs. rural environments can improve our understanding of shifts in ecological processes due to urbanization. However, such studies are relatively uncommon and the mechanisms driving urbanization effects on species interactions (e.g., between plants and insect herbivores) remain elusive. Here we investigated the effects of urbanization on leaf herbivory by insect chewers and miners associated with the English oak (Quercus robur) by sampling trees in rural and urban areas...

Data from: Systematics of the giant sedges of Carex sect. Rhynchocystis (Cyperaceae) in Macaronesia with description of two new species

Monica Miguez, Pedro Jimenez-Mejias, Carmen Benitez-Benitez, Hanno Schaefer & Santiago Martín-Bravo
Populations of Carex sect. Rhynchocystis (Cyperaceae) from the Macaronesian archipelagos (Azores and Madeira) have traditionally been treated either as a variety of the widely distributed Western Palearctic C. pendula, or directly synonymized under it. However, recent phylogenetic studies have shown that Azorean populations of C. pendula display a certain degree of differentiation from mainland plants, while the phylogenetic relationships of Madeiran populations remain unclear. Here we perform an integrated systematic study focused on the Macaronesian...

The evolutionary history of sedges (Cyperaceae) in Madagascar

Isabel Larridon, Daniel Spalink, Pedro Jiménez-Mejías, José Ignacio Márquez-Corro, Santiago Martín-Bravo & Marcial Escudero
Aim: Madagascar is renowned for its unparalleled biodiversity and endemism. With many ecosystems under threat, research is urgently needed on its unique plant diversity. This applies both to Madagascar’s forests and treeless vegetation types. Sedges (Cyperaceae) are among the top ten species-richest angiosperm families in Madagascar (310 native species, 38% endemic), of which two thirds occur in open habitats. We aimed to infer the evolutionary history of sedges in Madagascar, by estimating the number, age...

Data from: The role of nutritional impairment in carbon-water balance of silver fir drought-induced dieback

Ester González De Andrés, Antonio Gazol, José Ignacio Querejeta, José M. Igual, Michele Colangelo, Raúl Sánchez-Salguero, Juan Carlos Linares & J. Julio Camarero
Rear-edge populations at the xeric distribution limit of tree species are particularly vulnerable to forest dieback triggered by drought. This is the case of silver fir (Abies alba) forests located in the southwestern of Europe. While silver fir drought-induced dieback patterns have been previously explored, information on the role played by nutritional impairment is lacking despite its potential interactions with tree carbon-water balances. We performed a comparative analysis of radial growth, intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE),...

Data from: Biased movement drives local cryptic colouration on distinct urban pavements

Pim Edelaar, Adrian Baños-Villalba, David P. Quevedo, Graciela Escudero, Daniel Bolnick & Aída Jordán-Andrade
Explanations of how organisms might adapt to urban environments have mostly focused on divergent natural selection and adaptive plasticity. However, differential habitat choice has been suggested as an alternative. Here we test for habitat choice in enhancing crypsis in ground-perching grasshoppers colonising an urbanised environment, composed of a mosaic of four distinctly coloured substrates (asphalt roads and adjacent pavements). Additionally, we determine its relative importance compared to present-day natural selection and phenotypic plasticity. We found...

Fruit-feeding butterfly populations respond to variation in adult food availability: evidence from longitudinal body mass and abundance data

Freerk Molleman, Jorge Granados-Tello, Colin Chapman & Toomas Tammaru
The degree to which variation in adult food availability affects the population dynamics of a species depends on its position on the capital-income breeding continuum. The long-lived butterflies that feed on fruits as adults constitute an example of Lepidoptera with a high degree of income breeding. For three species of fruit-feeding butterflies in Uganda, we assessed the contribution of the income to breeding in the wild, and the consequences of variation in fruit availability for...

Tree growth response to drought partially explains regional-scale growth and mortality patterns in Iberian forests

Antonio Gazol, J. Julio Camarero, Raúl Sánchez-Salguero, Miguel A. Zavala, Xavier Serra-Maluquer, Emilia Gutiérrez, Martín De Luis, Gabriel Sangüesa-Barreda, Klemen Novak, Vicente Rozas, Pedro A. Tíscar, Juan C. Linares, Edurne Martínez Del Castillo, Montse Ribas, Ignacio García-González, Fernando Silla, Álvaro Camison, Mar Génova, José M. Olano, Ana-Maria Hereş, Jorge Curiel Yuste, Luis A. Longares, Andrea Hevia, J. Diego Galván & Paloma Ruiz-Benito
To quantify responses to drought from different data sources we take advantage of an extensive network of cross-dated tree-ring data with increment cores from 16 tree species sampled across the Spanish Iberian Peninsula (hereafter abbreviated as RWI-net), and of the Spanish National Forest Inventory (hereafter abbreviated as NFI) sampling tree and plot level data each km in forested areas. We selected the five most severe droughts that have affected each selected RWI-net population in the...

Selection on individuals of introduced species starts before introduction

Pim Edelaar & Adrian Baños-Villalba
Biological invasion is a global problem with large negative impacts on ecosystems and human societies. When a species is introduced, individuals will first have to pass through the invasion stages of uptake and transport, before actual introduction in a non-native range. Selection is predicted to act during these earliest stages of biological invasion, potentially influencing the invasiveness and/or impact of introduced populations. Despite this potential impact of pre-introduction selection, empirical tests are virtually lacking. To...

Revisiting of Carex sect. Confertiflorae s.l. (Cyperaceae): new data from molecular and morphological evidence and first insights on Carex biogeography in East Asia.

Yi-Fei Lu, Xiao-Feng Jin, Hiroshi Ikeda, Okihito Yano, Carmen Benítez Benítez, Wei-Jie Chen, Yong-Di Liu, Pedro Jiménez-Mejías & Ming-Jian Yu
Carex sect. Confertiflorae s.l., contains ca. 40 species and diverse in E Asia. It has one of the most unstable delimitations in the literature, and the section was proposed to split into two sections up to five different ones. Recent phylogenetic reconstructions showed Confertiflorae s.l. not to be monophyletic. In this study we investigate the phylogenetic structure, morphological affinities, and biogeographic history of sect. Confertiflorae s.l. We performed a taxon-based approach to explore the morphological...

Data from: Aridity Modulates N Availability in Arid and Semiarid Mediterranean Grasslands

Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Fernando T. Maestre, Antonio Gallardo, José L. Quero, Victoria Ochoa, Miguel García-Gómez, Cristina Escolar, Pablo García-Palacios, Miguel Berdugo, Enrique Valencia, Beatriz Gozalo, Zouhaier Noumi, Mchich Derak, Matthew D. Wallenstein & Matteo Convertino
While much is known about the factors that control each component of the terrestrial nitrogen (N) cycle, it is less clear how these factors affect total N availability, the sum of organic and inorganic forms potentially available to microorganisms and plants. This is particularly true for N-poor ecosystems such as drylands, which are highly sensitive to climate change and desertification processes that can lead to the loss of soil nutrients such as N. We evaluated...

Data from: Ancestral whole genome duplication in the marine chelicerate horseshoe crabs

Nathan J. Kenny, Ka Wo Chan, Wenyan Nong, Zhe Qu, Ignacio Maeso, Ho Yin Yip, Ting Fung Chan, Hoi Shan Kwan, Peter W. H. Holland, Ka Hou Chu & Jerome H. L. Hui
Whole-genome duplication (WGD) results in new genomic resources that can be exploited by evolution for rewiring genetic regulatory networks in organisms. In metazoans, WGD occurred before the last common ancestor of vertebrates, and has been postulated as a major evolutionary force that contributed to their speciation and diversification of morphological structures. Here, we have sequenced genomes from three of the four extant species of horseshoe crabs—Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda, Limulus polyphemus and Tachypleus tridentatus. Phylogenetic and sequence...

Data from: Biological soil crusts modulate nitrogen availability in semi-arid ecosystems: insights from a Mediterranean grassland

Andrea P. Castillo-Monroy, Fernando T. Maestre, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo & Antonio Gallardo
Biological soil crusts (BSCs) greatly influence the N cycle of semi-arid ecosystems, as some organisms forming them are able to fix atmospheric N. However, BSCs are not always taken into account when studying biotic controls on N cycling and transformations. Our main objective was to understand how BSCs modulate the availability of N in a semi-arid Mediterranean ecosystem dominated by the tussock grass Stipa tenacissima. We selected the six most frequent soil cover types in...

Data from: Direct and indirect impacts of climate change on microbial and biocrust communities alter the resistance of the N cycle in a semiarid grassland

Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Fernando T. Maestre, Cristina Escolar, Antonio Gallardo, Victoria Ochoa, Beatriz Gozalo & Ana Prado-Comesaña
1. Climate change will raise temperatures and modify precipitation patterns in drylands worldwide, affecting their structure and functioning. Despite the recognized importance of soil communities dominated by mosses, lichens and cyanobacteria (biocrusts) as a driver of nutrient cycling in drylands, little is known on how biocrusts will modulate the resistance (i.e., the amount of change caused by a disturbance) of the N cycle in response to climate change. 2. Here, we evaluate how warming (ambient...

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