111 Works

Wood decomposition data from an experiment in Malaysian Borneo, 2015-2018

S.J. Law, L. Ashton, H. Griffiths, P. Eggleton & C. Parr
This dataset measures the decomposition of experimental wood blocks, Pinus radiata, over a period of one year in lowland, old growth, tropical rainforest. Wood blocks are placed on the ground or suspended above the ground in mesh bags that either allow or prevent entry of macro-invertebrates. The decomposition of ground placed wood blocks is measured during a period of drought and non-drought. Dry weight of wood blocks is measured at the start and end of...

Data from: Deep-sea benthic ostracodes from multiple core and epibenthic sledge samples in Icelandic waters

Moriaki Yasuhara, Maria Grimm, Simone N. Brandão, Anna Jöst, Hisayo Okahashi, Hokuto Iwatani, Alexandra Ostmann & Pedro Martínez Arbizu
Deep-sea benthic Ostracoda (Crustacea) in Icelandic waters are poorly known. Here we report deep-sea ostracode assemblages from the multiple core (MUC) and the epibenthic sledge (EBS) samples collected from Icelandic waters by the first cruise of the IceAGE (Icelandic Marine Animals: Genetics and Ecology) project. Samples from shelf-edge and lower-bathyal working areas are examined. The results show (1) distinct MUC and EBS faunas due to the large difference in mesh size of MUC and EBS;...

Data from: Risky business: linking Toxoplasma gondii infection and entrepreneurship behaviours across individuals and countries

Stefanie K. Johnson, Fitza A. Markus, Daniel A. Lerher, Dana M. Calhoun, Marissa A. Beldon, Elsa T. Chan & Pieter T. J. Johnson
Disciplines such as business and economics often rely on the assumption of rationality when explaining complex human behaviours. However, growing evidence suggests that behaviour may concurrently be influenced by infec- tious microorganisms. The protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, infects an estimated 2 billion people worldwide and has been linked to behavioural alterations in humans and other vertebrates. Here we integrate primary data from college students and business professionals with national-level information on cultural attitudes toward business to...

Data from: Biotic and abiotic variables influencing plant litter breakdown in streams: a global study

Luz Boyero, Richard Pearson, Cang Hui, Mark Gessner, Javier Perez, Markos Alexandrou, Manuel Graça, Bradley Cardinale, Ricardo Albariño, M. Arunachalam, Leon Barmuta, Andrew Boulton, Andreas Bruder, Marcos Callisto, Eric Chauvet, Russell Death, David Dudgeon, Andrea Encalada, Veronica Ferreira, Ricardo Figueroa, Alex Flecker, , Julie Helson, Tomoya Iwata, Tajang Jinggut … & Catherine Yule
Plant litter breakdown is a key ecological process in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Streams and rivers, in particular, have high rates of carbon dioxide evasion and they contribute substantially to global carbon fluxes. However, there is little information available on the relative roles of different drivers of plant litter breakdown in fresh waters, particularly at large scales. We present a global-scale study of litter breakdown in streams to compare the roles of biotic, climatic and...

Data from: Comparative genomics of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST239: distinct geographical variants in Beijing and Hong Kong

Zheng Wang, Haokui Zhou, Hui Wang, Hongbin Chen, K. K. Leung, Stephen Tsui & Margaret Ip
Background: The ST239 lineage is a globally disseminated, multiply drug-resistant hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA). We performed whole-genome sequencing of representative HA-MRSA isolates of the ST239 lineage from bacteremic patients in hospitals in Hong Kong (HK) and Beijing (BJ) and compared them with three published complete genomes of ST239, namely T0131, TW20 and JKD6008. Orthologous gene group (OGG) analyses of the Hong Kong and Beijing cluster strains were also undertaken. Results: Homology analysis, based on...

Data from: Assessing current genetic status of the Hainan gibbon using historical and demographic baselines: implications for conservation management of species of extreme rarity

Jessica V. Bryant, Dada Gottelli, Xinyuan Zeng, Xiaojiang Hong, Bosco P.L. Chan, John R. Fellowes, Ya-Ping Zhang, Jing Luo, Christopher Durrant, Thomas Geissmann, Helen J. Chatterjee & Samuel T. Turvey
Evidence-based conservation planning is crucial for informing management decisions for species of extreme rarity, but collection of robust data on genetic status or other parameters can be extremely challenging for such species. The Hainan gibbon, possibly the world's rarest mammal, consists of a single population of ~25 individuals restricted to one protected area on Hainan Island, China, and has persisted for over 30 years at exceptionally low population size. Analysis of genotypes at 11 microsatellite...

Data from: Sign epistasis limits evolutionary trade-offs at the confluence of single- and multi-carbon metabolism in Methylobacterium extorquens AM1

Sean Michael Carroll, Ming-Chun Lee & Christopher James Marx
Adaptation of one set of traits is often accompanied by attenuation of traits important in other selective environments, leading to fitness trade-offs. The mechanisms that either promote or prevent the emergence of trade-offs remain largely unknown, and are difficult to discern in most systems. Here, we investigate the basis of trade-offs that emerged during experimental evolution of Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 to distinct growth substrates. After 1500 generations of adaptation to a multi-carbon substrate, succinate (S),...

Data from: Decipher soil organic carbon dynamics and driving forces across China using machine learning

Huiwen Li, Yiping Wu, Shuguang Liu, Jingfeng Xiao, Wenzhi Zhao, Ji Chen, Georgii Alexandrov & Yue Cao
The dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) play a critical role in modulating global warming. However, the long-term spatiotemporal changes of SOC at large scale and the impacts of driving forces remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the dynamics of SOC in different soil layers across China through the 1980s to 2010s using a machine learning approach and quantified the impacts of the key factors based on factorial simulation experiments. Our results showed that...

Testing the reliability and ecological implications of ramping rates in the measurement of Critical Thermal maximum

Chi Man Leong, Toby P. N. Tsang & Benoit Guénard
Critical Thermal maximum (CTmax) is often used to characterize the upper thermal limits of organisms and represents a key trait for evaluating the fitness of ectotherms. The lack of standardization in CTmax assays has, however, introduced methodological problems in its measurement, which can lead to questionable estimates of species’ upper thermal limits. Focusing on ants, which are model organisms for research on thermal ecology, we aim to obtain a reliable ramping rate that will yield...

No consistent effect of daytime versus night-time measurement of thermal tolerance in nocturnal and diurnal lizards

Pauline C Dufour, Toby PN Tsang, Susana Clusella-Trullas & Timothy C Bonebrake
While essential in understanding impacts of climate change for organisms, diel variation remains an understudied component of temporal variation in thermal tolerance limits (i.e. the critical thermal minimum (CTmin) and maximum (CTmax)). For example, a higher Ctmax might be expected for an individual if the measurement is taken during the day (when heat stress is most likely to occur) instead of at night. We measured thermal tolerance (Ctmin and Ctmax) during both the daytime and...

Respiratory virus shedding in exhaled breath and efficacy of face masks

Nancy H. L. Leung, Daniel K. W. Chu, Eunice Y. C. Shiu, Kwok-Hung Chan, James J. McDevitt, Benien J. P. Hau, Hui-Ling Yen, Yuguo Li, Dennis K. M. Ip, J. S. Malik Peiris, Wing-Hong Seto, Gabriel M. Leung, Donald K. Milton & Benjamin J. Cowling
We identified seasonal human coronaviruses, influenza viruses and rhinoviruses in the exhaled breath and coughs of children and adults with acute respiratory illness. Surgical face masks significantly reduced detection of influenza virus RNA in respiratory droplets and coronavirus RNA in aerosols, with a marginally significant reduction in coronavirus RNA in respiratory droplets. Our results indicate that surgical facemasks could prevent transmission of human coronaviruses and influenza viruses from symptomatic individuals.

Fossil microbodies are melanosomes: evaluating and rejecting the ‘fossilised decay-associated microbes’ hypothesis

Arindam Roy, Christopher Rogers, Thomas Clements, Michael Pittman, Olivier Habimana, Martin Peter & Jakob Vinther
Melanosomes are membrane-bound organelles of varying geometry, commonly found within a range of vertebrate tissues, that contain the pigment melanin. Melanosomes have been identified in the fossil record in many exceptionally preserved fossils allowing reconstructions of the coloration of many extinct animals. However, these microstructures have also been interpreted as “microbial cells” or melanin producing bacteria based on their geometric similarities to melanosomes. Here we test these two conflicting hypotheses experimentally. Our results demonstrate multiple...

Do heterogeneous seascapes of carbonate conditions across biogeographic breaks influence divergent phenotypic plasticity in natural populations?

Marco Lardies, Araceli Rodriguez-Romero, Tania Opitz, Juan Gaitan-Espitia & Lardies Lardies
Aim: Understanding how environmental variability influences stress tolerance, local adaptation, and phenotypic variation among populations is a key challenge for evolutionary ecology and climate change biology. Coastal biogeographic breaks are natural laboratories to explore this fundamental research question due to the contrasting environmental conditions experienced by natural populations across these regions. Location: In the South East Pacific (SEP) coast a major break (30º-32ºS) is characterized by extreme natural variability in seawater carbonate chemistry parameters related...

Effect of acupuncture and metformin on insulin sensitivity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin resistance: a three-armed randomized controlled trial

Qidan Wen, Min Hu, Maohua Lai, Juan Li, Zhenxing Hu, Kewei Quan, Jia Liu, Hua Liu, Yanbing Meng, Suling Wang, Xiaohui Wen, Chuyi Yu, Shuna Li, Shiya Huang, Yanhua Zheng, Han Lin, Xingyan Liang, Lingjing Lu, Zhefen Mai, Chunren Zhang, Taixiang Wu, Ernest HY Ng, Elisabet Stener-Victorin & Hongxia Ma
STUDY QUESTION Does acupuncture improve insulin sensitivity more effectively than metformin or sham acupuncture in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and insulin resistance (IR)? SUMMARY ANSWER Among women with PCOS and IR, acupuncture was not more effective than metformin or sham acupuncture in improving insulin sensitivity. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Uncontrolled trials have shown that acupuncture improved insulin sensitivity with fewer side effects compared with metformin in women with PCOS and IR. However, data...

Data from: Economic costs and health-related quality of life for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) patients in China

Yaming Zheng, Mark Jit, Joseph T. Wu, Juan Yang, Kathy Leung, Qiaohong Liao & Hongjie Yu
Background: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common illness in China that mainly affects infants and children. The objective of this study is to assess the economic cost and health-related quality of life associated with HFMD in China. Method: A telephone survey of caregivers were conducted in 31 provinces across China. Caregivers of laboratory-confirmed HFMD patients who were registered in the national HFMD enhanced surveillance database during 2012-2013 were invited to participate in...

Numbers of individuals and endemicity for birds in three study sites of the Himalayas-Hengduan mountains of China

Yiming Hu, Brett Scheffers, Xinyuan Pan, Huijian Hu, Zhixin Zhou, Dan Liang, Cheng Wenda, Zhixin Wen & Luke Gibson
1. Describing the patterns and revealing the underlying mechanisms responsible for variations in community structure remains a central focus in ecology. However, important gaps remain, including our understanding of species abundance. Most studies on abundance-based relationships are from either temperate ecosystems or tropical ecosystems, and few have explicitly tested abundance-based relationships across a temperate to tropical ecotone. 2. Here, we use a comprehensive dataset of breeding birds across elevation spanning a temperate to subtropical gradient...

The global distribution of known and undiscovered ant biodiversity

Jamie Kass, Benoit Guénard, Kenneth Dudley, Clinton Jenkins, Fumika Azuma, Brian Fisher, Catherine Parr, Heloise Gibb, John Longino, Philip Ward, Anne Chao, David Lubertazzi, Michael Weiser, Walter Jetz, Robert Guralnick, Rumsaïs Blatrix, James Des Lauriers, David Donoso, Christos Georgiadis, Kiko Gomez, Peter Hawkes, Robert Johnson, John Lattke, Joe MacGown, William Mackay … & Evan Economo
Invertebrates constitute the majority of animal species and are critical for ecosystem functioning and services. Nonetheless, global invertebrate biodiversity patterns and their congruences with vertebrates remain largely unknown. We resolve the first high-resolution (~20-km) global diversity map for a major invertebrate clade, ants, using biodiversity informatics, range modeling, and machine learning to synthesize existing knowledge and predict the distribution of undiscovered diversity. We find that ants and different vertebrate groups have distinct features in their...

Activity niches outperform thermal physiological limits in predicting global ant distributions

Fengyi Guo, Benoit Guénard, Evan Economo, Curtis Deutsch & Timothy Bonebrake
Aim: Thermal physiology is commonly used in mechanistic models to predict species distributions and project distribution change. Such thermal constraints for ants are often measured under laboratory conditions as critical thermal limits (CTmax and CTmin), but have also been observed in the field as foraging thermal limits (FTmin and FTmax). Here we compared distribution projections based on ant physiological and behavioural thermal limits with their realized distributions to assess the validity of using ecophysiological models...

Data from: Omnivorous ants are less carnivorous and more protein-limited in exotic plantations

Toby Pak Nok Tsang, Benoit Guénard & Timothy Carlton Bonebrake
1. Diets of species are crucial in determining how they influence food webs and community structures, and how their populations are regulated by different bottom-up processes. Omnivores are able to adjust their diet flexibly according to environmental conditions, such that their impacts on food webs and communities, and the macronutrients constraining their population, can be plastic. In particular, omnivore diets are known to be influenced by prey availability, which exhibit high spatial and temporal variation....

Fluorescence‐based detection of field targets using an autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle system

Thomas G Kaye & Michael Pittman
This dataset comprises of the IDL code referenced in the 'Open Research' section of the Kaye and Pittman (2020) study 'Fluorescence‐based detection of field targets using an autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle system' published in Methods in Ecology and Evolution (https://doi.org/10.1111/2041-210X.13402). This study describes a proof‐of‐concept autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system that utilizes the fluorescence characteristics unique to different materials to scan and acquire targets in the field e.g. fossils, rocks and minerals, organisms and...

Successful Ageing and Oral Health

Rita Suen
As our populations age there is a growing interest in ‘Successful Ageing’. This thesis plans to (A) conduct systematic reviews to i) identify the growing interest of successful ageing in the oral health context by way of a citation review, ii) identify how successful ageing is operationalized in the oral health context - the dimensions and domains covered, and iii) how successful ageing is assessed in the oral health context – the outcome measures (Pros...

Predator presence and recent climatic warming raise body temperatures of island lizards

Felix Landry Yuan
In ectothermic predator-prey relationships, evasion of predation by prey depends on physiological and behavioural responses relating to the thermal biology of both predator and prey. On Japan’s Izu Islands, we investigated a prey lizard’s physiological and thermal responses to the presence of a snake predator over geologic time in addition to recent climatic warming. Foraging lizard body temperatures increased by 1.0°C from 1981 to 2019 overall, yet were 2.9°C warmer on snake islands relative to...

Ant body size mediates functional performance and species interactions in carrion decomposer communities

Sabine Sylvia Nooten, Kin Chan, Patrick Schultheiss, Taylor Bogar & Benoit Guénard
Growing concern over rapid species declines and extinctions has led to considerable interest in the role of biodiversity for maintaining ecological processes. However, the loss of particular species has more pronounced effects on ecosystem services than others, highlighting the importance of key functional species traits and their relationships to ecosystem functioning. Human induced disturbances, such as species invasions, land use changes or abiotic changes, appear to disproportionally impact larger species rather than smaller ones. The...

Data from: Ecophysiological variation across a forest-ecotone gradient produces divergent climate change vulnerability within species

Félix Landry Yuan, Adam H. Freedman, Laurent Chirio, Matthew LeBreton & Timothy C. Bonebrake
Climate change related risks and impacts on ectotherms will be mediated by habitats and their influence on local thermal environments. While many studies have documented morphological and genetic aspects of niche divergence across habitats, few have examined thermal performance across such gradients and directly linked this variation to contemporary climate change impacts. In this study, we quantified variation in thermal performance across a gradient from forest to gallery forest-savanna mosaic in Cameroon for a skink...

Data from: The global antigenic diversity of swine influenza A viruses

Nicola S. Lewis, Colin A. Russell, Tavis K. Anderson, Kathryn Berger, David F. Burke, Judith M. Fonville, Ronald A.M. Fouchier, Paul Kellam, Bjorn F. Koel, Tung Nguyen, Bundit Nuansrichy, J. S. Malik Peiris, Takehiko Saito, Gaelle Simon, Eugene Skepner, Nobuhiro Takemae, ESNIP3 Consortium, Richard J. Webby, Kristien Van Reeth, Sharon M. Brookes, Lars Larsen, Ian H. Brown, Amy L. Vincent, Pinky Langat, Filip Bielejec … & JS Malik Peiris
Swine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introductions of viruses from humans and birds coupled with geographic segregation of global swine populations. Much of this diversity is characterized genetically but the antigenic diversity of these viruses is poorly understood. Critically, the antigenic diversity shapes the...

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