13 Works

Respiratory virus shedding in exhaled breath and efficacy of face masks

Nancy H. L. Leung, Daniel K. W. Chu, Eunice Y. C. Shiu, Kwok-Hung Chan, James J. McDevitt, Benien J. P. Hau, Hui-Ling Yen, Yuguo Li, Dennis K. M. Ip, J. S. Malik Peiris, Wing-Hong Seto, Gabriel M. Leung, Donald K. Milton & Benjamin J. Cowling
We identified seasonal human coronaviruses, influenza viruses and rhinoviruses in the exhaled breath and coughs of children and adults with acute respiratory illness. Surgical face masks significantly reduced detection of influenza virus RNA in respiratory droplets and coronavirus RNA in aerosols, with a marginally significant reduction in coronavirus RNA in respiratory droplets. Our results indicate that surgical facemasks could prevent transmission of human coronaviruses and influenza viruses from symptomatic individuals.

Fossil microbodies are melanosomes: evaluating and rejecting the ‘fossilised decay-associated microbes’ hypothesis

Arindam Roy, Christopher Rogers, Thomas Clements, Michael Pittman, Olivier Habimana, Martin Peter & Jakob Vinther
Melanosomes are membrane-bound organelles of varying geometry, commonly found within a range of vertebrate tissues, that contain the pigment melanin. Melanosomes have been identified in the fossil record in many exceptionally preserved fossils allowing reconstructions of the coloration of many extinct animals. However, these microstructures have also been interpreted as “microbial cells” or melanin producing bacteria based on their geometric similarities to melanosomes. Here we test these two conflicting hypotheses experimentally. Our results demonstrate multiple...

Do heterogeneous seascapes of carbonate conditions across biogeographic breaks influence divergent phenotypic plasticity in natural populations?

Marco Lardies, Araceli Rodriguez-Romero, Tania Opitz, Juan Gaitan-Espitia & Lardies Lardies
Aim: Understanding how environmental variability influences stress tolerance, local adaptation, and phenotypic variation among populations is a key challenge for evolutionary ecology and climate change biology. Coastal biogeographic breaks are natural laboratories to explore this fundamental research question due to the contrasting environmental conditions experienced by natural populations across these regions. Location: In the South East Pacific (SEP) coast a major break (30º-32ºS) is characterized by extreme natural variability in seawater carbonate chemistry parameters related...

Predator presence and recent climatic warming raise body temperatures of island lizards

Felix Landry Yuan
In ectothermic predator-prey relationships, evasion of predation by prey depends on physiological and behavioural responses relating to the thermal biology of both predator and prey. On Japan’s Izu Islands, we investigated a prey lizard’s physiological and thermal responses to the presence of a snake predator over geologic time in addition to recent climatic warming. Foraging lizard body temperatures increased by 1.0°C from 1981 to 2019 overall, yet were 2.9°C warmer on snake islands relative to...

Activity niches outperform thermal physiological limits in predicting global ant distributions

Fengyi Guo, Benoit Guénard, Evan Economo, Curtis Deutsch & Timothy Bonebrake
Aim: Thermal physiology is commonly used in mechanistic models to predict species distributions and project distribution change. Such thermal constraints for ants are often measured under laboratory conditions as critical thermal limits (CTmax and CTmin), but have also been observed in the field as foraging thermal limits (FTmin and FTmax). Here we compared distribution projections based on ant physiological and behavioural thermal limits with their realized distributions to assess the validity of using ecophysiological models...

Fluorescence‐based detection of field targets using an autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle system

Thomas G Kaye & Michael Pittman
This dataset comprises of the IDL code referenced in the 'Open Research' section of the Kaye and Pittman (2020) study 'Fluorescence‐based detection of field targets using an autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle system' published in Methods in Ecology and Evolution (https://doi.org/10.1111/2041-210X.13402). This study describes a proof‐of‐concept autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system that utilizes the fluorescence characteristics unique to different materials to scan and acquire targets in the field e.g. fossils, rocks and minerals, organisms and...

Data from: Omnivorous ants are less carnivorous and more protein-limited in exotic plantations

Toby Pak Nok Tsang, Benoit Guénard & Timothy Carlton Bonebrake
1. Diets of species are crucial in determining how they influence food webs and community structures, and how their populations are regulated by different bottom-up processes. Omnivores are able to adjust their diet flexibly according to environmental conditions, such that their impacts on food webs and communities, and the macronutrients constraining their population, can be plastic. In particular, omnivore diets are known to be influenced by prey availability, which exhibit high spatial and temporal variation....

Data from: Early Miocene marine ostracods from southwestern India: implications for their biogeography and the closure of the Tethyan Seaway

Moriaki Yasuhara, Yuanyuan Hong, Skye Yunshu Tian, Wing Ki Chong, Rachel Wai Ching Chu, Hisayo Okahashi, Markus Reuter, Werner E. Piller & Mathias Harzhauser
Twenty-six genera and 34 species of early Miocene Indian shallow-marine ostracods were examined for taxonomy and paleobiogeography. A new genus Paractinocythereis and new species Costa ponticulocarinata were described. Early Miocene Indian ostracod fauna shows strong affinity to Eocene–Miocene Eastern and Western Tethyan ostracod faunas and Miocene–Recent Indo-Pacific ostracod fauna, supporting the Hopping Hotspot Hypothesis that Tethyan biodiversity hotspot have shifted eastward through Arabia to Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA) together with concomitant biogeographic shifts of the Tethyan...

The Cryptic impacts of invasion: functional homogenization of tropical ant communities by invasive fire ants

Mark Wong, Benoit Guénard & Owen Lewis
The diversity and distribution of traits in an ecological community shapes its responses to change and the ecosystem processes it modulates. This ‘functional diversity’, however, is not necessarily a direct outcome of taxonomic diversity. Invasions by exotic insects occur in ecosystems worldwide, but there is limited understanding of how they impact functional diversity. We present the first comprehensive trait-based investigation of the impacts of an ant invasion, and the first incorporating intraspecific polymorphisms in species-level...

Feeding behaviour is the main driver for microparticle intake in mangrove crabs

Christelle Not, Cheuk Yan Iris Lui & Stefano Cannicci
As marine plastic debris is primarily sourced from terrestrial input, coastal environments are particularly affected by deposition. Because of their pneumatophores, mangroves have been recognized for their importance in confining plastic waste. Crabs are a dominant component of the mangrove ecosystem and play a critical role in maintaining healthy and resilient mangrove forests. Therefore, the presence of debris fragmented from waste, in their habitat is a potential threat. However, the potential ingestion of microplastic pieces...

Viruses harness YxxØ motif to interact with host AP2M1 for replication: A vulnerable broad-spectrum antiviral target

Shuofeng Yuan & Kwok-Yung Yuen
Targeting a universal host protein exploited by most viruses would be a game-changing strategy that offers broad-spectrum solution and rapid pandemic control including the current COVID-19. Here, we found a common YxxØ-motif of multiple viruses that exploits host AP2M1 for intracellular trafficking. A library chemical, N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid (ACA), was identified to interrupt AP2M1-virus interaction and exhibit potent antiviral efficacy against a number of viruses in vitro and in vivo, including the influenza A viruses (IAVs),...

Past and future decline of tropical pelagic biodiversity

Moriaki Yasuhara, Chih-Lin Wei, Michal Kucera, Mark Costello, Derek Tittensor, Wolfgang Kiessling, Timothy Bonebrake, Clay Tabor, Ran Feng, Andrés Baselga, Kerstin Kretschmer, Buntarou Kusumoto & Yasuhiro Kubota
A major research question concerning global pelagic biodiversity remains unanswered: when did the apparent tropical biodiversity depression (i.e., bimodality of latitudinal diversity gradient [LDG]) begin? The bimodal LDG may be a consequence of recent ocean warming or of deep-time evolutionary speciation and extinction processes. Using rich time-slice datasets of planktonic foraminifers, we show here that a unimodal (or only weakly bimodal) diversity gradient, with a plateau in the tropics, occurred during the last ice age...

Drought and presence of ants can influence hemipitera in tropical leaf litter

Anna Goldman, Timothy Bonebrake, Theodore Evans, Hannah Griffiths, Catherine Parr, Louise Ashton & Paul Eggleton
Climate change is predicted to impact tropical rainforests, with droughts becoming more frequent and more severe in some regions. We currently have a poor understanding of how increased drought will change the functioning of tropical rainforest. In particular, tropical rainforest invertebrates, which are numerous and biologically important, may respond to drought in different ways across trophic levels. Ants are a diverse group that carry out important ecosystem processes, shaping ecosystem structure and function through predation...

Registration Year

  • 2020

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Hong Kong
  • University of Washington
  • University of Erlangen-Nuremberg
  • Natural History Museum
  • Dalhousie University
  • University of Graz
  • Finis Terrae University
  • University of Connecticut
  • Marum
  • University of the Ryukyus