31 Works

Data from: Adaptive genetic variation mediates bottom-up and top-down control in an aquatic ecosystem

Seth M. Rudman, Mariano A. Rodriguez-Cabal, Adrian Stier, Takuya Sato, Julian Heavyside, Rana W. El-Sabaawi & Gregory M. Crutsinger
Research in eco-evolutionary dynamics and community genetics has demonstrated that variation within a species can have strong impacts on associated communities and ecosystem processes. Yet, these studies have centred around individual focal species and at single trophic levels, ignoring the role of phenotypic variation in multiple taxa within an ecosystem. Given the ubiquitous nature of local adaptation, and thus intraspecific variation, we sought to understand how combinations of intraspecific variation in multiple species within an...

Data from: Microclimate variability in alpine ecosystems as stepping stones for non-native plant establishment above their current elevational limit

Jonas J. Lembrechts, Jonathan Lenoir, Martin A. Nuñez, Aníbal Pauchard, Charly Geron, Gilles Bussé, Ann Milbau & Ivan Nijs
Alpine environments are currently relatively free from non-native plant species, although their presence and abundance have recently been on the rise. It is however still unclear whether the observed low invasion levels in these areas are due to an inherent resistance of the alpine zone to invasions or whether an exponential increase in invasion is just a matter of time. Using a seed-addition experiment on north- and south-facing slopes (cf. microclimatic gradient) on two mountains...

Data from: The role of frugivory in plant diversity maintenance- a simulation approach

Teresa Morán-López, Tomás A. Carlo & Juan Manuel Morales
Frugivores may play a key role in plant species coexistence by equalizing the species’ representation in the seed rain. Rare species may benefit from enhanced dispersal if frugivores prefer locally scarce fruits, or if rare plants are found in neighborhoods of high fruit density. Using a simulation model of frugivorous birds foraging on landscapes we tested if increased diversity in the seed rain could emerge from rare-biased fruit selection, from the spatial configuration of plants,...

Data from: Give the machine a hand: a Boolean time-based decision-tree template for rapidly finding animal behaviours in multi-sensor data

Rory P. Wilson, Mark D. Holton, Agustina Di Virgilio, Hannah Williams, Emily L. C. Shepard, Sergio Lambertucci, Flavio Quintana, Juan E Sala, Bharathan Balaji, Eun Sun Lee, Mani Srivastava, D. Michael Scantlebury & Carlos M. Duarte
1. The development of multi-sensor animal-attached tags, recording data at high frequencies, has enormous potential in allowing us to define animal behaviour. 2. The high volumes of data, are pushing us towards machine-learning as a powerful option for distilling out behaviours. However, with increasing parallel lines of data, systems become more likely to become processor limited and thereby take appreciable amounts of time to resolve behaviours. 3. We suggest a Boolean approach whereby critical changes...

Data from: Improving inferences and predictions of species environmental responses with occupancy data

Teresa Morán-López, Sofia Ruiz-Suarez, Joaquín Aldabe & Juan Manuel Morales
Occupancy models represent a useful tool to estimate species distribution throughout the landscape. Among them, MacKenzie et al.’s model (2002, MC), is frequently used to infer species environmental responses. However, the assumption that detection probability is homogeneous or fully explained by covariates may limit its performance. Species should be more easily observed at sites with a higher number of individuals. We simulated data following Royle and Nichols (2003) occupancy model (RN) that accounts for abundance-driven...

Data from: Hotspots of mutualistic networks

Luis Gilarranz, Malena Sabatino, Marcelo Aizen & Jordi Bascompte
Incorporating interactions into a biogeographical framework may serve to understand how such interactions and the services they provide are distributed in space. We begin by simulating the spatiotemporal dynamics of realistic mutualistic networks inhabiting spatial networks of habitat patches. We proceed by comparing these predictions with the empirical results of a set of pollination networks in isolated hills of the Argentinian Pampas. We first find that one needs to sample up to five times as...

Data from: Population genetic structure of the giant cactus Echinopsis terscheckii in northwestern Argentina is shaped by patterns of vegetation cover

Vilma B. Quipildor, Paula Mathiasen & Andrea C. Premoli
Species inhabiting drylands commonly depend on the surrounding vegetation for recruitment under stress, while competition may affect populations in moister environments. Our objective was to analyze how different climates and vegetation affect the fine-scale spatial genetic structure (SGS) of the columnar cactus Echinopsis terscheckii. At four sites we estimated vegetation cover by digitized patches and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). We mapped 30 individuals per population and collected tissue for isozyme electrophoresis using 15...

Data from: Severity of impacts of an introduced species corresponds with regional eco-evolutionary experience

Kimberley T. Davis, Ragan M. Callaway, Alex Fajardo, Anibal Pauchard, Martin A Nunez, Rob W Brooker, Bruce D. Maxwell, Romina D Dimarco, Duane A Peltzer, Bill Mason, Seppo Ruotsalainen, Anne C S McIntosh, Robin J Pakeman, Alyssa Laney Smith & Michael Gundale
Invasive plant impacts vary widely across introduced ranges. We tested the hypothesis that differences in the eco-evolutionary experience of native communities with the invader correspond with the impacts of invasive species on native vegetation, with impacts increasing with ecological novelty. We compared plant species richness and composition beneath Pinus contorta to that in adjacent vegetation and other P. contorta stands across a network of sites in its native (Canada and USA) and non-native (Argentina, Chile,...

Data from: Diet complementation as a frequency‐dependent mechanism conferring advantages to rare plants via dispersal

Teresa Morán López, Tomas A. Carlo, Guillermo Amico & Juan Manuel Morales
1. We used an agent-based model to test the hypothesis that diet complementation by frugivores can promote the persistence of rare plant species in communities (DCH). 2. Models simulated bird movement, frugivory, seed-dispersal, and plant recruitment on landscapes that differed in their degree of fragmentation and in their degree of fruiting species mixing at the scale of frugivores’ foraging decisions. 3. Diet complementation promoted the dispersal of rare-species without the need of a priori preference...

Globally, plant-soil feedbacks are weak predictors of plant abundance

Kurt Reinhart, Jonathan Bauer, Sarah McCarthy-Neumann, Andrew MacDougall, José Hierro, Mariana Chiuffo, Scott Mangan, Johannes Heinze, Joana Bergmann, Jasmin Joshi, Richard Duncan, Jeff Diaz, Paul Kardol, Gemma Rutten, Markus Fischer, Wim Van Der Putten, T. Bezemer & John Klironomos
Plant-soil feedbacks (PSFs) have been shown to strongly affect plant performance under controlled conditions, and PSFs are thought to have far reaching consequences for plant population dynamics and the structuring of plant communities. However, thus far the relationship between PSF and plant species abundance in the field is not consistent. Here, we synthesize PSF experiments from tropical forests to semiarid grasslands, and test for a positive relationship between plant abundance in the field and PSFs...

Data from: Multiple plant traits shape the genetic basis of herbivore community assembly

Matthew A. Barbour, Mariano A. Rodriguez-Cabal, Elizabeth T. Wu, Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto, Carol E. Ritland, Allyson E. Miscampbell, Erik S. Jules & Gregory M. Crutsinger
1. Community genetics research has posited a genetic basis to the assembly of ecological communities. For arthropod herbivores in particular, there is strong support that genetic variation in host plants is a key factor shaping their diversity and composition. However, the specific plant phenotypes underlying herbivore responses remain poorly explored for most systems. 2. We address this knowledge gap by examining the influence of both genetic and phenotypic variation in a dominant host-plant species, Salix...

Data from: Coordinated species importation policies are needed to reduce serious invasions globally: the case of alien bumblebees in South America

Marcelo A. Aizen, Cecilia Smith-Ramirez, Carolina L. Morales, Lorena Vieli, Agustín Sáez, Rodrigo M. Barahona-Segovia, Marina P. Arbetman, José Montalva, Lucas A. Garibaldi, David W. Inouye & Lawrence D. Harder
The global trade of species promotes diverse human activities but also facilitates the introduction of potentially invasive species into new environments. As species ignore national boundaries, unilateral national decisions concerning species trade set the stage for transnational species invasion with significant conservation, economic and political consequences. The need for a coordinated approach to species importation policies is demonstrated by the introduction of two bumblebee species into Chile for crop pollination, despite Argentina banning commercial importation...

Data from: Comprehensive phylogeny of ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) based on transcriptomic and genomic data

Lily C. Hughes, Guillermo Ortí, Yu Huang, Ying Sun, Carole C. Baldwin, Andrew W. Thompson, Dahiana Arcila, Ricardo Betancur-R, Chenhong Li, Leandro Becker, Nicolás Bellora, Xiaomeng Zhao, Xiaofeng Li, Min Wang, Chao Fang, Bing Xie, Zhuocheng Zhou, Hai Huang, Songlin Chen, Byrappa Venkatesh & Qiong Shi
Our understanding of phylogenetic relationships among bony fishes has been transformed by analysis of a small number of genes, but uncertainty remains around critical nodes. Genome-scale inferences so far have sampled a limited number of taxa and genes. Here we leveraged 144 genomes and 159 transcriptomes to investigate fish evolution with an unparalleled scale of data: >0.5 Mb from 1,105 orthologous exon sequences from 303 species, representing 66 out of 72 ray-finned fish orders. We...

Data from: Extra-pair paternity in two populations of the socially monogamous Thorn-tailed Rayadito Aphrastura spinicauda (Passeriformes: Furnariidae)

Esteban Botero-Delgadillo, Verónica Quirici, Yanina Poblete, Silvina Ippi, Bart Kempenaers & Rodrigo Vasquez
Studies on extra-pair paternity (EPP) are key to understanding the ecological and evolutionary drivers of variation in avian mating strategies, but information is currently lacking for most tropical and sub-tropical taxa. We describe the occurrence of EPP in two populations of a South American socially monogamous bird, the Thorn-tailed Rayadito, based on data from 266 broods and 895 offspring that were sampled during six breeding seasons in north-central and southern Chile. In the northern population,...

Patterns of plant naturalization show that facultative mycorrhizal plants are more likely to succeed outside their native Eurasian ranges

Jaime Moyano, Ian Dickie, Mariano Rodriguez Cabal & Martin Nuñez
The naturalization of an introduced species is a key stage during the invasion process. Therefore, identifying the traits that favor the naturalization of non-native species can help understand why some species are more successful when introduced to new regions. The ability and the requirement of a plant species to form a mutualism with mycorrhizal fungi, together with the types of associations formed may play a central role in the naturalization success of different plant species....

Increasing pollen production at high latitudes across animal-pollinated flowering plants

Nicolay Leme Da Cunha, Gabriela Gleiser, Agustin Saez, Vanina Chalcoff, Cristina Tur & Marcelo Aizen
Aim: Plant reliance on animal mutualists is expected to decrease with latitude owing to increasing environmental instability. As a consequence, more erratic animal pollination in the temperate zones than in the tropics could translate into lower efficiency in pollen transfer, and thus increasing pollen wastage. Despite the relevance of this hypothesis for plant reproductive evolution, the implications of a proposed latitudinal gradient in pollinator reliability for pollen and ovule production, traits directly affecting seed siring...

Database from: Managed honey bees decrease pollination limitation in self-compatible but not in self-incompatible crops

Agustin Saez, Ramiro Aguilar, Lorena Ashworth & Carolina Morales
Modern agriculture is becoming increasingly pollinator-dependent. However, the global stock of domesticated honey bees is growing at a slower rate than its demand while wild bees are declining worldwide. This uneven scenario of high pollinator demand and low pollinator availability can translate into increasing pollination limitation, reducing the yield of pollinator-dependent crops. However, overall assessments of crop pollination limitation and the factors determining its magnitude are missing. We assembled the first global database of pollination...

Data from: Predicting forest management effects on oak–rodent mutualisms

Teresa Morán-López, Thorsten Wiegand, Juan Manuel Morales, Fernando Valladares & Mario Díaz
Wood mice Apodemus sylvaticus are the main dispersers of acorns in highly managed Mediterranean holm-oak woodlands. Mice mobilize and cache acorns to store them for winter consumption. They carry acorns away from potential competitors, face predation risks during mobilization, and cache acorns in areas where pilfering risks are low. However, mice can act either as net predators or as moderately efficient dispersers, depending on the way landscape management affects intraspecific competition for acorns and shelter...

Data from: Phylogeography of the catfish Hatcheria macraei reveals a negligible role of drainage divides in structuring populations

Peter J. Unmack, Juan P. Barriga, Miguel A. Battini, Evelyn M. Habit & Jerald B. Johnson
Southern South America provides a set of unusual geographic features that make it particularly interesting for studying phylogeography. The Andes Mountains run along a north-to-south axis and act as a barrier to gene flow for much of the biota of this region, with southern portions experiencing extensive historic glaciation. Geological data reveal a series of drainage reversals, shifting from Pacific Ocean outlets to Atlantic Ocean outlets due to glacier formation that dammed and reversed rivers....

Data from: Linking biological soil crust attributes to the multifunctionality of vegetated patches and interspaces in a semiarid shrubland

Irene A. Garibotti, Marina Gonzalez Polo & Solana Tabeni
1.Understanding the importance of biotic community structure on ecosystem functioning, and whether communities inhabiting different microhabitats in highly heterogeneous areas provide different ecological functions is a challenge in ecological research in the face of biodiversity and habitat loss. Biological soil crusts (BSCs) have been largely treated as unique entities, and have been mostly examined in interspaces between perennial plants, limiting current understanding of their role as drivers of ecosystem functioning and their relative contribution in...

Data from: An overlooked plant-parakeet mutualism counteracts human overharvesting on an endangered tree

Karina L. Speziale, Sergio A. Lambertucci, Gabriela Gleiser, José L. Tella, Fernando Hiraldo & Marcelo A. Aizen
The exponential growth of the human population often causes the overexploitation of resources and disruption of ecological interactions. Here we propose that the antagonist effect of humans on exploited species might be alleviated with the advent of a second predator species. We focused on the complex interactions between an endangered conifer (Araucaria araucana) and two seed exploiters: the Austral parakeet (Enicognathus ferrugineus) and human seed collectors. We tested the importance of partial seed consumption by...

Data from: Tracking data and retrospective analyses of diet reveal the consequences of loss of marine subsidies for an obligate scavenger, the Andean condor

Sergio A. Lambertucci, Joan Navarro, Jose Antonio Sánchez-Zapata, Keith A. Hobson, Pablo A.E. Alarcón, Guillermo Wiemeyer, Guillermo Blanco, Fernando Hiraldo & Jose Antonio Donazar
Over the last century, marine mammals have been dramatically reduced in the world’s oceans. We examined evidence that this change caused dietary and foraging pattern shifts of the Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) in Patagonia. We hypothesized that, after the decrease in marine mammals and the increase in human use of coastlines, condor diet changed to a more terrestrial diet which, in turn, influenced their foraging patterns. We evaluated the diet by means of stable isotope...

The influences of progenitor filtering, domestication selection and the boundaries of nature on the domestication of grain crops

Lucas Alejandro Garibaldi, Marcelo Aizen, Agustin Saez, Gabriela Gleiser, Marina Strelin & Lawrence Harder
1. Domestication generally involves two sequential processes: initial identification of wild species with desirable characteristics (“progenitor filtering”); and subsequent artificial and natural selection that respectively improve features preferred by humans and adapt species to cultivation/captivity (“domestication selection”). Consequently, domesticated species can differ from wild species and may share characteristics owing to convergent evolution (“domestication syndrome”). Baring evolutionary constraints, domestication selection may generate extreme phenotypes that transcend the “boundaries of nature” evident for wild species. Despite...

Data from: Evidence of low within-pair genetic relatedness in a relict population of Thorn-tailed Rayadito despite long-term isolation

Esteban Botero-Delgadillo, Verónica Quirici, Silvina Ippi, Rodrigo Vásquez & Bart Kempenaers
Investigating whether mating patterns are biased in relation to kinship in isolated populations can provide a better understanding of the occurrence of inbreeding avoidance mechanisms in wild populations. Here we report on the genetic relatedness (r) among breeding pairs in a relict population of Thorn-tailed Rayadito (Aphrastura spinicauda) in north-central Chile that has experienced a long-term history of isolation. We used simulations based on eight years of data to assess whether mating is random with...

Data from: Episodic bamboo die-off, neighbourhood interactions, and tree seedling performance in a Patagonian mixed forest

Fernando D. Caccia, Thomas Kitzberger & Enrique J. Chaneton
1. Episodic mass flowering and subsequent die-off of bamboo understories may generate rare opportunities for tree regeneration by altering consumer-seedling interactions as much as by increasing light availability to seedlings. We hypothesized that bamboo dieback interacts with canopy neighbourhood composition in creating recruitment microsites for tree seedling species with varied shade tolerance and susceptibility to herbivory. 2. We conducted a 2-year experiment in a Patagonian mixed forest altered by extensive, but patchy dieback of the...

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